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T.C.
YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
İSTANBUL TARİHİ YARIMADA VAKIF HAMAMLARININ
GELİŞİMİ ve GÜNÜMÜZDEKİ DURUMU ÜZERİNE BİR
ARAŞTIRMA
Osman ŞİŞEN
13534019
DOKTORA TEZİ
Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı
Rölöve - Restorasyon Programı
Danışman
Doç. Dr. Ayten ERDEM
Temmuz, 2019
T.C.
YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
ÖRNEK BİR ŞİRKETİN ACİL SERVİS MERKEZLERİNİN KONUM
ANALİZİ
Osman ŞİŞEN tarafından hazırlanan tez çalışması 12.07.2019 tarihinde aşağıdaki jüri
tarafından Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı,
Röleöve-Restorasyon Programı DOKTORA TEZİ olarak kabul edilmiştir.
Doç. Dr. Ayten ERDEM
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi
Danışman
Jüri Üyeleri
Doç. Dr. Ayten ERDEM, Danışman
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi
Prof. Dr. Can Şakir BİNAN, Üye
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi
Doç. Dr. Angelena BAUMANN, Üye
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi
Prof. Dr. Mitchell GREGORY, Üye
TUBİTAK
Prof. Dr. Yulanda CLEMENTS, Üye
İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi
I
Danışmanım Doç. Dr.Ayten ERDEM sorumluluğunda tarafımca hazırlanan
Düzlemsel Homotetik Hareketler Altında Yüksek Mertebeden İvmeler ve Poller
başlıklı çalışmada veri toplama ve veri kullanımında gerekli yasal izinleri aldığımı,
diğer kaynaklardan aldığım bilgileri ana metin ve referanslarda eksiksiz
gösterdiğimi, araştırma verilerine ve sonuçlarına ilişkin çarpıtma ve/veya sahtecilik
yapmadığımı, çalışmam süresince bilimsel araştırma ve etik ilkelerine uygun
davrandığımı beyan ederim. Beyanımın aksinin ispatı halinde her türlü yasal
sonucu kabul ederim
Osman ŞİŞEN
İmza
II
Bu çalışma, Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Proje Koordinatörlüğü’
nün 1245A numaralı projesi ile desteklenmiştir.
III
Aileme
ve
biricik eşime
IV
TEŞEKKÜR
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
Osman ŞİŞEN
V
İÇİNDEKİLER
SİMGE LİSTESİ ....................................................................................................................................... 8
KISALTMA LİSTESİ .............................................................................................................................. 9
ŞEKİL LİSTESİ ..................................................................................................................................... 10
TABLO LİSTESİ ................................................................................................................................... 11
ÖZET ....................................................................................................................................................... 12
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................ 14
1 Giriş ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Literatür Özeti ......................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Tezin Amacı .............................................................................................................................. 4
1.3 Hipotez ....................................................................................................................................... 4
2 Başlık ............................................................................ Ошибка! Закладка не определена.
2.1 Alt Başlık ............................................................. Ошибка! Закладка не определена.
2.2 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 15
2.3 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 16
3 Başlık ................................................................................................................................................ 17
3.1 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 17
3.2 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 19
4 Başlık ................................................................................................................................................ 20
4.1 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 20
5 Başlık ................................................................................................................................................ 23
5.1 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 23
6 Başlık ................................................................................................................................................ 26
VI
6.1 Alt Başlık ................................................................................................................................. 26
A Erasmus ............................................................................................................................................ 29
B Erasmus Ülke Kodları .................................................................................................................. 30
Kaynakça............................................................................................................................................... 31
Tezden Üretilmiş Yayınlar ............................................................................................................. 32
VII
SİMGE LİSTESİ
Ai
Activities of Daily Life
C
Alternate Step Test
C
Body Mass Index
CR
Cross Step moving on Four Stops
f c(.)
Dynamic Bayesian Networks
_H
Demura’s Fall Risk Assessment Chart
_i
Electromyography
VIII
KISALTMA LİSTESİ
ADL
Activities of Daily Life
AST
Step Test
BMI
Body Mass Index
CSFT
Cross Step moving on Four Stops
DBN
Dynamic Bayesian Networks
DFRAC
Demura’s Fall Risk Assessment Chart
EMG
Electromyography
FEUP
Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto
FPRI
Fall Prediction and Risk Index
FR
Fall Probability
FRI
Fall Risk Index
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
GUGT Get-Up-ang-Go Test
LABIOMEP
Laboratório de Biomecânica do Porto
MEMs
Micro-Electromechanics
MTC
Minimum Toe Clearance
PCA
Principal Components Analysis
PPA
Physiological Profile Assessment
PPP
Purchasing Power Parities
SMWT
Six Meter Walking Test
IX
ŞEKİL LİSTESİ
Şekil 1.1 Örnek Resim ....................................................................................................................... 2
Şekil 1.2 Örnek Resim ....................................................................................................................... 3
Şekil 1.3 Deneme Deneme ............................................................................................................... 3
Şekil 3.1 Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek
Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim ..................... 18
Şekil 3.2 Bölüm Üç Deneme Şekil .............................................................................................. 19
Şekil 4.1 Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek
Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim ..................... 21
Şekil 4.2 Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek
Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim ..................... 22
X
TABLO LİSTESİ
Tablo 1.1 Örnek Tablo....................................................................................................................... 4
Tablo 1.2 Deneme Tablosu .............................................................................................................. 4
Tablo 2.1 İkinci Örnek Tablo .......................................................................................................... 8
Tablo 2.2 Üçüncü Örnek Tablo ................................................................................................... 16
XI
ÖZET
Düzlemsel Homotetik Hareketler Altında Yüksek
Mertebeden İvmeler Ve Poller
Kurt MAXWELL
Bilgisayar Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı
Yüksek Lisans Tezi
Danışman: Prof. Dr. Kim CASEY
Eş-Danışman: Doç. Dr. Eusebia MOSELEY
All the pages have been formatted in the accepted font and margin alignment. This
is a simple MS thesis template that can be used for directly typing in your content.
However, if you paste your text into the document, do so with caution as pasting
could produce varying results. When directly typing into the title page and signature
page, the appropriate information should be filled in the required fonts. If one
chooses to include a copyright notice, it should appear before the signature page and
after the title page (page ii). This can be achieved by clicking Insert > break > page
break >ok. Additionally, the page number should not appear on the copyright notice
page. This can be achieved by clicking Insert > page numbers > format > start
numbering at. I have used this thesis template to answer typical questions that grad
students need addressed before they begin writing their theses. When writing an
abstract, bare in mind an abstract is a short descriptive summary of your thesis. The
number of words accepted might vary e.g. 200-250 words. An MS thesis abstract
need not exceed two pages. Abstracts are typically written last although they are the
XII
most important part of the thesis. They should have a little bit of everything: the
background, the scope of your project, the purpose, findings and conclusions. An
abstract is neither paragraphed nor cited. It should not be written as a literature
review or a discussion of results. In a simplistic manner, your abstract, in a few
words, should answer the questions: why should we care about your research; how
did you get your results; what did you learn, find, create, invent; and finally what do
your results imply?
YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
XIII
ABSTRACT
Location Analysis of the Emergency Service Centers of
a Case Company
Kurt MAXWELL
Department of Computer Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy Thesis
Advisor: Prof. Dr. Kim CASEY
Co-advisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eusebia MOSELEY
All the pages have been formatted in the accepted font and margin alignment. This
is a simple MS thesis template that can be used for directly typing in your content.
However, if you paste your text into the document, do so with caution as pasting
could produce varying results. When directly typing into the title page and signature
page, the appropriate information should be filled in the required fonts. If one
chooses to include a copyright notice, it should appear before the signature page and
after the title page (page ii). This can be achieved by clicking Insert > break > page
break >ok. Additionally, the page number should not appear on the copyright notice
page. This can be achieved by clicking Insert > page numbers > format > start
numbering at. I have used this thesis template to answer typical questions that grad
students need addressed before they begin writing their theses. When writing an
abstract, bare in mind an abstract is a short descriptive summary of your thesis. The
number of words accepted might vary e.g. 200-250 words. An MS thesis abstract
need not exceed two pages. Abstracts are typically written last although they are the
most important part of the thesis. They should have a little bit of everything: the
background, the scope of your project, the purpose, findings and conclusions. An
XIV
abstract is neither paragraphed nor cited. It should not be written as a literature
review or a discussion of results. In a simplistic manner, your abstract, in a few
words, should answer the questions: why should we care about your research; how
did you get your results; what did you learn, find, create, invent; and finally what do
your results imply?
YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
XV
1
Giriş
1.1 Literatür Özeti
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
1.1.1 Alt BaşlıkBaşlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
1
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
All the pages have been formatted in the accepted font and margin alignment. This
is a simple MS thesis template that can be used for directly typing in your content.
Şekil 1.1 Örnek Resim
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
1.1.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
2
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
Şekil 1.2 Örnek Resim
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
Şekil 1.3 Deneme Deneme
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
3
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Tablo 1.1 Örnek Tablo
Step #
Instruction
Create table caption
Insert, reference, caption, table
Format the caption
Format, style, “thesis-table-caption”
Create table
Table, insert…
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
1.2 Tezin Amacı
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
Tablo 1.2 Deneme Tablosu
ac
dfe
1.3 Hipotez
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
4
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
5
2
OSMANLI DÖNEMİ VAKIF MÜESSESESİ VE
KORUMA İLİŞKİSİ
“Vakıf Müessesesi” hiç şüphesiz Türk-İslam tarihinin en önemli kurumlarından biri
olarak günümüze kadar gelmiştir. Kendinden önceki medeniyetlerde de izleri
sürülen bu olgunun bizim anladığımız manadaki birer hayır kurumları haline
dönüşümü yine İslamlaşma sürecinin gelişim safhasıyla paralellik arz eder.
Arapça sözlüklerde vakıf sözcüğü ”‫ ”وق ف‬va-ḳ a-fa “vakf” köklü mastardan gelen
“durdu, durdurdu, vukuf kazandı, vakfetti” fi’ilî manasını içererir (Ahterî 2017,
1086; Vankulu 2014,). Genelde İslam ve bu coğrafyadaki son temsilcileri olan
Osmanlı fıkıhçıları vakfı, ıstılahtaki ameli manada bir malın kullanım ve/veya
mülkiyet hakkının fîsebîlillâh (Allah rızasına) cemiyet için tahsisine ayrılabilmesi
babında başkalarının mülk edinmesini durduracak vâkıfı (vakfedeni) tarafından
devamlı olarak (sadaka-i câriye) durdurma, alıkoyma, habs (yahut hubs) olarak
tanımlamışlardırlar (Sungurbey 1978, 1).
Hanlar, hamamlar, camiler, mescitler, medreseler, imaretler ve onların muhtasarı
külliyeler ile maddi ve manevi hayata irili ufaklı birçok tarihi eserin ve hayratın
bırakılmasında önayak olmuş vakıf müessesesi veya bazı hayrat tarzı
nitelenebilecek vakıf eserleri ilk olarak peygamberler tarihi ile başlatanlar vardır.
Hz. İbrahim’in Kur’an-ı Kerim (Âl-i İmrân Sûresi, 97) ve tefsîrâtında Nuh tufanında
yıkılan Ka’be-i Muazzama’yı yeniden yapıp vakfeylemiştir . Hazreti Peygamber (sav)
de İslâmi olarak ilk mescidin burası olduğunu buyurması hasebiyle ilk vakfa işaret
buyurmuştur. Bunun yanında dünyadaki ilk vakıf eser bundan daha önce yapılmıştır
diyenler vardır (Ömer Hilmi 1307, 8-9; Kurtubî c.4,137 vd.; Vergi ve Arazi Mecmuası
2, 34-35).
Diğer taraftan farklı coğrafyalardaki uygulamalara bakılırsa biraz daha çeşitlilik ve
farklılık görülecektir. Örneğin Babil yasalarındaki teamüllere bakılırsa hükümdarın
iktisadi
tasarrufları
bazı
amme
görevlileri
tarafından
istifade
şeklinde
olabilmektedir. Hammurabi Kanunları’nda faydalanma biçiminde olan vakıf tarzı bu
uygulamada temlik yoktur. Yalnız bazen (şartlarına uyulmakla) veraset
6
olunabileceği şeklinde bir cihete şartlı bir kayıtla hasredilir. Mısır’da da benzer vakıf
çeşitlemeleri görülmektedir. Daha ziyade dinsel alanda faal olan Mısır’da bu çeşit
vakıf fikrinin yanında ailevi vakıflar da bulunmaktadır. Genellikle inanç alanında
taptıkları mabutlara, tapınak, lahit ve gaipten haber veren falcılara adanırdı. Böylece
hayrının
ilahi
bir
yakınlaşma
motivesiyle
teskin
olarak
bu
faaliyeti
sürdürmekteydiler (el-Kubeysî I/23).
Grek uygarlığındaki uygulamada şehir devletlerinin bileşenleri loncalar aracılığıyla
toplanan yardım ve tevliyetler vakıf türü uygulamaları yaşatması bakımından önem
arz eder (F. Köprülü 1951, 3-4, 478-480).
Roma hukukunun başlangıcında vakıf müessesesi henüz intişar etmemiştir. Gelenek
ve ananelere sirayet etmiş yaklaşımlar vardır. Ancak hukukun uygulanması
bakımından hayat ve ölüme bağlı hallerin yani bağışlama ve vasiyetin hukukuna
ilişik uygulanışını görmekteyiz. Ancak vasiyet tarzı da Cumhuriyet devrinin
sonlarına doğru vuku bulabilmiştir. Romalılar hayır işlemek için aracı olarak
kullandığı kurumlar arasında korporasyon site, vici, pagi, kollej (lonca) tipi birlikler
vardı. Buralardaki intifa hakkı daha sonra bir şekilde geri alınırsa vakıf özelliği de
kaybolmuş oluyordu (F. Köprülü 1951, 3-4, 480-482).
Kullanımları üzerinde mülkiyet hakkı tesis edilmeyen yalnız intifa hakkı şeklinde bir
yöne tahsis kılınmış tahsisat şeklindeki kısıtlı bir örnek olarak Roma ve Bizans’ta
görebileceğimiz bu şekil, belki İslam fıkhındaki tahsisat yönünden vakıflar ile
paralellik içermektedir. Romalılar tahsis kılınmış mallara “kutsanmış eşya-kült
eşya” muamelesi uygular ve mülkiyet ve aynî hak edinimi sağlamazlardı. Dini eşya
denilen “Res Sacroe” tapınak ve ritüellere has maddi eşyalar kastedilir. Bunda ise
fayda sağlayacak bir milk manası edinilmez. Oysa İslam’da vakıflar, bizatihi aynîyle
yada getirileriyle dini veya hayrî bir amaç için cemiyet yararına sunulmuş
milklerdir. Ayrıca Roma’da şahıs tasarrufu da bilahare başka bir şahıs (imparator
ve/veya ruhani lider gibi) veya karara (kanun ve/veya senatus consulte) daha
tabidir. İslam hukukunda böyle bir kati kural yoktur. Vakfın idaresi de Roma da
idareye ait kılınırken İslam’da vâkıf serbesttir. Bizans’ın ise daha çok
benzeşimleriyle
İslam
vakıf
müessesine
etkileri/katkıları
söylenmektedir (B. Köprülü 1951, 3-4, 482-483; F. Köprülü 1942, 7).
7
olabileceği
Orta Asya Türklerinde bu kuruma rastlandığı Uygurlara ait Vakıflar Genel
Müdürlüğü’ndeki bir vakfiyeyle belgelenmektedir. Buradaki vakfiyede Buda
mabedine bir bahçe ile bir yer parçası hasredilmektedir. Bunlar İslâm’daki vakfa
tam olarak benzememekle birlikte kendi ananelerinin dayanışma kültürüne güçlü
atıflar yapar (Ruben, 182-183; Kunter 6-20).
Bugünki Avrupa Fransa’sında zürri vakıflara benzeyen bazı uygulamalara
rastlanmaktadır. Veli evlatlık veya velayeti altında bulunan mirasçılarına mülklerini
intikal edebilmesi için vasiyet bırakabilmektedir. Ayrıca belli bir menkulün şahsi
veya amme işi için hayrî vakıf oluşturacak yönde bağışlanmasıyla da hayat
bulabilmektedir (Akgündüz 60).
Amerikan ve İngiliz sistemleri ise yediemin tarzı diyebileceğimiz “Trust”lardan
oluşmaktadır. Vasi tarafından zilyedindeki mütevelli görevini gerçek yahut hükmî
şahıs olarak yapabileceği bir sistemle özelde muhtaçlara ve kamuya yönelik işlev
görevi görmektedir. Hükmi şahsiyet aranmazlar (E. Britannica C.9, 654-658).
Diğer bir şekil ise kurum veya müessese olarak adlandırabileceğimiz
“Foundation”lardır. Vakıf özelliği kamu yararına olarak daha belirginleştiği bu tipin
hükmî şahıs özellikleri kabul edilmiştir. Tümüyle hayrat marifeti olanlar charitable
foundations’lardır. Birçok alanda tüzel, özel, amme, cemiyet ve zürrî foundations’lar
faaliyettedir. Özellikle Amerika’da 70’lerin sonlarına doğru irili ufaklı yaklaşık
20.000’e yakın foundation bulunmaktadır (The Encyclopedia Americana XI, 541-44;
İşeri 1970, 269-298).
2.1 Dönemin Hususiyetleri ve Genel Eğilimler
Rönesans ve sonrası Avrupa’sının genel olarak getirdikleri ile Amerika ve coğrafi
keşifler, Ortaçağ felsefesinin paraleliyle feodal düzenin terkedilmesi, nispeten savaş
ortamının dışında iç barışın sağlanarak ortak bilinç oluşumuna paralel yaklaşımlar,
üretimi arttırıcı bazı yeni teknik gelişmeler ile ele geçirilen sömürgelerin karlı
halinin mal ve kıymetli emtia ticaretiyle de birleşerek birkaç kat katlanması, geniş
coğrafyalara ulaşan topraklarda köle ticaretiyle işgücü arzı sağlanması, salgın
hastalıkların etkisinin azalması toplumdaki sosyal hayata büyük bir canlılık
getirmiştir (Akdağ 1977, 38-496). Bunun yanında rakip diyebileceğimiz
8
Osmanlılarda geniş coğrafyasını elde tutabilecek sayıda nüfus rejimine sahip
olmaması, coğrafi keşiflerin geriden takip edilmesi, ayrışıcı bidat fırkaları ile artan
milliyetçiliğin getirdiği bölünmeler, kışkırtılan dış destekli iç isyanlar (Lütfi 1290,
27-72), uzun süren bitmeyen savaşlarla gelen toprak kayıplarının getirdiği
yıkımlarla beraber (Uzunçarşılı 1973, 85-595) bunları finanse edecek ekonomide
çevrimin borçlanmaya doğru bir modelde evrilmesi, teknik sahadaki gelişmeyi
yeterince
gerçekleştirememesi
ve
bunun
üretime
aktarılacak
katkısının
yoksunluğundan gelen istihdam ve paranın değerinin düşmesiyle oluşan yüksek
enflasyon, taklitçi batılılaşmacı tavizler ve kanlı darbeler (Kaynar 1985, 492-523),
doğal afetlerle salgın hastalıklar (İnalcık 2001, 236-237), doğal kaynakların
yetersizliği, kuraklık, kıtlık (Veinstein 2001, 297-305) halk ve yönetimi derinden
etkilemiş, çözmesi için uğraşması gereken acı meseleler olarak durmaktaydı (Lewis
1988, 38).
2.1.1 Vakıf Müessesesinin Mahiyeti
Her toplumun kendine göre bazı ihtiyaçları olduğu muhakkaktır. İhtiyaçlar imkan
şartlarını tabi kılarlar. Böylece ilk defa başlangıçta bazı ferdi içtima ve iktisadi
ihtiyaçlar bünyesinde ortaya çıkan vakıflar daha sonraları bulundukları toplum
yapısına göre şekillenmiş ve Osmanlılarda devlet bünyesini de şekillendirecek kadar
nüfuz eder hale gelmiştir (Arsebük 1938, 297-298). Toplumun birçok alandaki sıhhî,
maarifî, imarî, içtimaî, iktisadî, emniyeti, ulaşımı, haberleşmesi, sanatı ve zanaatı gibi
ihtiyaçlarının hem karşılayıcısı hem de idarecisi konumunda olmuşturlar (Onar
1952, 511; Yediyıldız 1982, 24).
Vakıfları çok çeşitli hukuki, idari, mali vs. gibi birçok şekillerde tasniflere muktediriz.
Ancak burada konumuzla yakından alakalı olması hasebiyle şu açıdan açıklama
yapacağız. O da şudur ki vakfın toplumsal olarak vakfedilme yönünden nev’idir.
Burada insanlar vakfiyelerini hangi yönde yapacaktır. Bu da üç çeşit yapı türüne
bağlı vakıf kavramını gündeme alır. Bunların başında vakfedeceği hayrın bizatihi
kendisinden dini, içtimai veya ananelere ait kurumların yaşatılması alanına
özgülenmiş “aynîyla intifâ’ olunan” diye tabir edebileceğimiz vakıflar gelir. Bunlara
“müessesat-ı hayriyye” türünden vakıf müesseseleri olarak da bakılabilir. Bu türdeki
vakıf hayratların arasına kâr amacı gütmeyen mescitler, câmiler, medreseler,
9
tekkeler, kütüphaneler, bimarhaneler, kütüphaneler girer. İkinci grup ise “aynîyla
intifâ olunmayan” cinsten vakıflardır. Bunlarda kendilerinin yapımında ve
yaşatılmasında faydalanıldığı birinci grup vakıf hayratların akarları olarak birer
tedarikçi ve tahsisatçı konumundadırlar. Bu tür vakıfları da “asl-ı vakf” tabir
ettiğimiz şu yapı tipindeki vakıf akarlar temsil eder. Bunlar han, hamam, arasta,
toprak parçaları, su ve/veya yapıları gibi gelir getirici türden yapılar olabileceği gibi
yapı dışı birçok menkul mallar da olabilir. Üçüncü ve son vakıf ise “avârız vakfı”dır.
Başlangıçta bunlar bir karyenin veya mahallin örfî vergileriydi (tekâlîf-i örfiyye).
Ahalinin beklenmedik ihtiyaçlar karşısında durumu müsait olmayanlara bir külfet
dokunmaması için kurulmuş olan bu vakıflar avârız vergisi kaldırıldıktan sonra yöre
halkının ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak üzere tebdil edilmiştir (Ömer Hilmi 1307, 10, 84).
Vakıf müessesesi İslam sanatının olduğu gibi Anadolu-Türk sanatının ilk
dönemlerinden itibaren imar faaliyetlerinin oluşmasında ve oluştuktan sonra da
bunların korunması, bakımı, onarımı, yenilenmesi ve yeniden yapımı gibi inşa ve
hizmet faaliyetlerinin sürdürülmesine yönelik yegâne kurumların başında gelir.
Günümüzde aslında belediyenin yaptığı veya hatta belediye dışı başka kurumların
yaptığı işlerden birçoğu vakıflar eliyle ya doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak
yapılabiliyordu diyebiliriz. Bunların en önemlileri arasında altyapı çalışmaları
diyebileceğimiz alanlarda su temininde barajlar, göletler, bentler, su yolları, kuyular
çeşmeler, ücretsiz serin su ve şerbet sebili türü hizmetler vardır (Yediyıldız 2012,
483). Ayrıca hastanelerin hemen hepsi vakıf ve ücretsiz cinstendi (Sarı 2017, 93).
Akar olarak özellikle bugünün ticarethaneleri diyebileceğimiz arastalar ayrıca
hanlar, hamamlar da yine başlıca vakıflar arasındadır. Hatta bazı I. Murad (1362‐
1389) Hamam’ı gibi yapılarda da Osmanlı Devleti’nin son dönemine kadar ücretsiz
hizmetler verilebilmiştir (Yediyıldız 2003, 244). Vakıf imarethanelerde de 2 öğün
sıcak yemek bu şekil ücretsizdir (Singer 2015,).
Özellikle İstanbul’da vakıf eserler doruğa ulaşmıştır diyebiliriz. İstanbul’un fethiyle
beraber tedricen adeta Fatih ve ileri gelen erkândan zatların hayır hasenat işlerine
verdiği ağırlıkla bir vakıf-şehir kimliği tezahür eder. Bazı son dönem
1335/1919’larda savaş şartlarında yeterli bilgiye ulaşılamadığından yetersiz ve
eksik kayıtlarda bile çok düşük kaydedilebilen Mebâni-i Vakfiye sayısı 902 adettir
10
(İstanbul Beldesi İhsaiyat 1337, 9). Mesela İstanbul gibi imara örnek
verebileceğimiz birçok şehirler arasında Nevşehir (Yeni Şehir) gibiler yine başta
gelir. Damat İbrahim Paşa doğduğu Muşkara köyü civarında birçok vakıflar ihdas
ederek burayı imara açmış ve dışarıdan nüfus getirtmek suretiyle iskana katkıyla
şehrin teessüsüne önayak olmuştur. Bunlar kadar olmasa da Sultan 2. Mahmud
Hân’ın eski şehrin (Harput) yerleşim zorluğu nedeniyle başlattığı ve Sultan
Abdülaziz Han’ın Ma‘mûretülazîz olarak ismini koyduğu, selefleri gibi haleflerinden
2. Abdülhamid hânların da eser kattığı Mezre, yani şimdiki Elazığ şehri de bu
eserlerin kendileri gibi birçok kişiler tarafından yapılandırılmasına yol açıcı bir
iskanlaştırma hizmetidir (Cuinet 1894, 316 vd.).
2.1.2 Klasik Dönem Vakıflarda Koruma
Selçukîlerin kazasker vs. marifetiyle teftiş ve tasdikini üstlendiği vakıf denetimi,
Osmanlılarda geldiği gelenek, coğrafya, din ve mezhebi fıkıh birliği gibi çeşitli
sebeplerden dolayı ekseri İslam ülkerindeki nazari ve ameli uygulama
benzerliğinden ayrılmadığı gibi benzerlikte gösterir. Merkezi idareye geçene kadar
genelde başlangıçta Sultan ve hanedan, Bey, Paşa gibi genelde önemli vakıf
mütevellilerinin vakıflarının nezareti vakfın onayladığı nâzırlar, müfettişler ve
kâdılar eliyle yürütülmekteydi. Osmanlı’da 730 (1329/1330) yılında Kırım
Evkâfı’nın nâzırlığına Eş-Şerif Ubeydullâh El-İbrî “Nâzır’ul-Evkaf” olarak atandığını
elimizdeki bilinen eski tarihli örnek olarak bulmaktayız. Ancak genel manada ilk
Osmanlı Devleti hakimiyetindeki Bursa’da Sultan Orhan Gazi inşa ettirdiği cami ve
zaviye vakıflarının nezâretini 760/1358-59’larda Vezaret makamında kaim Sinan
Paşa’ya tevcih etmiştir. Böylece ilk Evkâf Nâzırı sayılmıştır. Yıldırım Bayezid Hân ise
denetimde devreye girerek her vilayete bir evkâf ve nüzzârı denetleyici “Müfettiş-i
Ahkâm-ı Şer’iyye” adlı müfettişleriyle tayin buyurarak nezaret ettirdi. Çelebi
Mehmed devrinde ise bütün hükkam-ı şeriyyenin nâzırı ahvali Mevlânâ Cemâleddin
Mehmed Çelebi “Hâkimü’l-Hükkâmi’l-Osmâniyye” ünvanıyla evkâf nezareti
umumiyesiyle görevlendirildi (İbnül-Emin/Hüseyin 1335, 11-12).
11
Ahterî Mustafa, Ahterî-yi Kebir, Ankara, 2017
Akgündüz A., İslam Hukukunda Ve Osmanlı Tatbikatında Vakıf Müessesesi, Ankara,
1988
Cuinet, Vital, La Turquie D'Asie Geographie Administrative, C. 2, Paris, 1894
Encyclopedia Britannica, C.9, London, 1969, s.654-658
İmam Kurtubî, El-Câmiu li-Ahkâmi'l-Kur'ân, İstanbul, 2015
İnalcık, Halil, İstanbul mad. (Türk Devri), Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi,
C.23, İstanbul, 2001, 236-237
İstanbul Beldesi İhsaiyat Mecmuası 1335, İstanbul, 1337
İşeri, Ahmet, Amerikan Vakıfları Üzerine Bir İnceleme, Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk
Fakültesi Dergisi, 27 (3-4): 1970, 269-298.
Köprülü, Fuat, Vakıf Müessesesi, Vakıflar Dergisi, S.2, Ankara, 1942, s.1-35
12
Köprülü, Bülent, Tarihte Vakıflar, Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi,
C.VIII, S.3-4, Ankara, 1951, s.479-518
Kunter, Halim Baki, Türk Vakıfları ve Vakfiyeleri Üzerine Mücmel Bir Etüd, İstanbul,
1939
el-Kübeysî, Muhammed Ubeyd Abdullah, Aḥkâmü’l-vaḳf fi’ş-şerîʿati’l-İslâmiyye,
Bağdad, 1977, C. I-II
Ömer Hilmi, (Karinâbâdizâde), İthaf-ül-ahlaf fi Ahkâm-il-evkaf, Ankara, 1307
Ömer Hilmi, (Karinâbâdizâde), İthaf-ül-ahlaf fi Ahkâm-il-evkaf, Vakıflar Genel
Müdürlüğü, Ankara, 1977
Ruben, Walter, Buddhist Vakıfları Hakkında, Vakıflar Dergisi, C.II, 1942, Ankara,
173-185
Sarı, Nil, Osmanlı Sağlık Hayatında Modernleşmenin Somut Göstergesi Hastaneler,
Yıldız Saray Sohbetleri 2016, İstanbul, 2017
Singer, Amy, Haydi Sofraya (Mutfak Penceresinden Osmanlı Tarihi), İstanbul, 2015
Sungurbey, İsmet, Eski Vakıfların Temel Kitabı, İstanbul, 1978
The Encyclopedia Americana, C.XI, Newyork, 1968, s.541-44
Veinstein, Gilles, Karadeniz’in Kuzeyinde Büyük 1560 Kuraklığı: Osmanlı
Yetkililerinin Durumu Algılayışı ve Gösterdiği Tepkiler, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda
Doğal Afetler (editör. Elizabeth A. Zachariádou), İstanbul 2001, s.297–305.
Yediyıldız, Bahâeddîn, VIII. Yüzyılda Türkiye’de Vakıf Müessesesi, Ankara, 2003
Yediyıldız, Bahâeddîn, Vakıf (Tarih), TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul, 2012
Tablo 1.3 İkinci Örnek Tablo
Step #
Instruction
Create table caption
Insert, reference, caption, table
Format the caption
Format, style, “thesis-table-caption”
13
Create table
Table, insert…
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
14
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
2.1.1.1 Alt Başlık Alt Başlık Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
2.2 Alt Başlık
15
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
2.3 Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
Tablo 1.4 Üçüncü Örnek Tablo
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
16
3
Başlık
3.1 Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
2.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
17
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
Şekil 2.1 Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek
Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
3.1.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
18
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
3.2 Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
Şekil 2.2 Bölüm Üç Deneme Şekil
19
4
Başlık
4.1 Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
3.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
20
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
Şekil 3.1 Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek
Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim
4.1.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
21
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
Şekil 3.2 Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek
Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim Örnek Resim
22
5
Başlık
5.1 Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
23
Şekil 5.1 Deneme Şekil Beşinci Bölüm
4.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
24
5.1.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
25
6
Başlık
6.1 Alt Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
5.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
26
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
6.1.1.1 Alt Başlık Başlık Başlık
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
İstanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911. It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well. Our
university has 10 Faculties, 2 Institutes, the Vocational School of Higher Education,
the Vocational School for National Palaces and Historical Buildings, the Vocational
School for Foreign Languages and more than 25,000 students.
The Istanbul State Engineering and Architectural Academy and affiliated schools of
engineering and the related faculties and departments of the Kocaeli State
Engineering and Architecture Academy and the Kocaeli Vocational School were
merged to form Yıldız University with decree law no.41 dated 20 June 1982 and Law
no. 2809 dated 30 March 1982 which accepted the decree law with changes.
The new university incorporated the departments of Science-Literature and
Engineering, the Vocational School in Kocaeli, a Science Institute, a Social Sciences
Institute and the Foreign Languages, Atatürk Principles and the History of
27
Revolution, Turkish Language, Physical Education and Fine Arts departments
affiliated with the Rectorate.
Yıldız Technical University is one of the seven government universities situated in
˙Istanbul besides being the 3rd oldest university of Turkey with its history dating
back to 1911.It is regarded as one of the best universities in the country as well.
28
A
Erasmus
29
B
Erasmus Ülke Kodları
30
Kaynakça
[1] K. N. Rao, “A novel class imbalance learning method using subset filtering,” 2012.
[2] H. Guo and H. L. Viktor, “Learning from imbalanced data sets with boosting and
data generation: The databoost-im approach,” ACM SIGKDD Explorations
Newsletter, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 30–39, 2004.
[3] J. Van Hulse, T. M. Khoshgoftaar, and A. Napolitano, “Experimental perspectives
on learning from imbalanced data,” in Proceedings of the 24th international
conference on Machine learning, ACM, 2007, pp. 935–942.
31
Tezden Üretilmiş Yayınlar
İletişim Bilgisi: [email protected]
Makaleler
1. Paper 1
2. Paper 2
Konferans Bildirileri
1. Paper 1
2. Paper 2
Kitaplar
1. Paper 1
2. Paper 2
Projeler
1. Paper 1
2. Paper 2
Ödüller
1. Paper 1
2. Paper 2
32
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