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Questions with “do / does /did” in present and past simple
Question word
What food
live with your parents?
like Chinese food?
sleep well last night?
Buy yesterday?
In the present simple the auxiliary verb do / does is used to make questions.
In the past simple the auxiliary verb did is used to make questions.
The subject goes after the auxiliary verb.
Remember [ASI (auxilary, subject, infinitive) or QUASI (question word, auxilary,
Subject, infinitive)] to help you with word order in questions.
Questions with “be”, “present continuous”, and “going to”
Question word
Adjective, noun, verb + ing, etc.
a student?
talking about?
going to move?
NOTE: If a verb is followed by a preposition (listen to, look after, talk about…) the
preposition goes at the end of the question.
Examples: What are you talking about?
What is Jenny looking looking for?
A. Make questions with the words below.
1. sister / your / read / a lot / does / ?
Does your sister read a lot?
2. she / come / did / when / back / ?
When did she come back?
3. is / old / Jane / sitting / on / chair / an / ?
Is Jane sitting on an old chair?
4. time / you / what / up / do / get / ?
What time do you get up?
5. they / what / for / are / looking / ?
What are they looking for?
6. you / a / do / have / car / ?
Do you have a car?
7. are / talk / they / to / their / teacher / going to / ?
Are they going to talk to their teacher?
8. this / time /start /does / what / class / ?
What time does this class start?
9. languages / how / you / many / do / speak / ?
How many languages do you speak?
10. he / going to / is / Adana / when / ?
When is he going to Adana?
B. Put the word in the right place in the question.
Example: Who are you waiting? (for)
Who are you waiting for?
1. Is she listening you carefully? (to)
Is she listening to you?
2. Why you tell me the truth? (didn’t)
Why didn’t you tell me the truth?
3. Whose are we going to buy first? (present)
Whose present are we going to buy first?
4. How often Jack and Emily go to the theatre? (do)
How often do Jack and Emily go to the theatre?
5. What did you get up yesterday? (time)
What time did you get up yesterday?
6. Where does your work? (sister)
Where does your sister work?
7. Does finish at 8.00? (the class)
Does the class finish at 8.00?
8. Do you often to the cinema? (go)
Do you often go to the cinema?
9. What this word mean? (does)
What does this word mean?
10. Do you usually your hands and face? (wash)
Do you usually wash your hands and face?
C. Make questions about the sentences below.
1. Tony’s secretary was in the office at five o’clock yesterday.
a) Whose secretary was in the office at five o’clock yesterday?
b) Where was Tony’s secretary at five o’clock yesterday?
c) When was Tony’s secretary in the office?
d) What time Tony’s secretary in the office?
2. Roy was in Tokyo on August 8th.
a) When was in Tokyo on August 8th?
b) Where was Roy on August 8th?
3. Jamie is going to the doctor on Friday afternoon.
a) Who is going to the doctor on Friday afternoon?
b) Where is Jamie going on Friday afternoon?
c) When is Jamie going to the doctor?
4. My mother is looking for her purse.
a) What is my mother looking for?
b) Who is looking for her purse?
5. The students are talking about their exams in the canteen.
a) Who are talking about their exams in the canteen?
b) What are the students talking about in the canteen?
c) Where are the students talking about their exams?
I / you / we / they
+ usually work at home.
- They don’t live near hear.
? Do you smoke?
Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
he /she /it
Danny knows me very well.
It doesn’t often rain here.
Does Nina like music?
Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
The present simple is used for:
• Permanent states
• Repeated actions or daily routines (often with adverbs of frequency such as always,
never, usually, etc.)
Examples: Mr. Gerard is a businessman. He lives in Washington. (permanent state)
He usually starts work at 9 a.m. (daily routine)
He often stays at the office until late in the evening. (daily routine)
Adverbs of frequency
• Adverbs of frequency go before the main verb, but after “be”.
Sally usually gets up very early because she works at a factory.
My father is always late for dinner.
• Adverbs of frequency go between the auxiliary and the main verb in negatives.
My brother doesn’t usually go to the gym.
• Expressions of frequency usually go at the end of a sentence.
I have English classes twice a week.
100 %
Rarely / Seldom
Time Expressions
every day / week / month / year etc.
on Monday / Tuesday etc.
in the morning / afternoon evening etc.
at night / the weekend etc.
Spelling Rules
Subjects Most verbs
Verbs ending in
–ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o
Verbs ending in
a consonant + y
tries, flies
kisses, brushes, teaches,
fixes, goes
A. Write the third person singular of the verbs.
1. dance
2. finish
3. study
4. open
5. mix
6. pray
7. put
8. miss
9. like
10. dry
11. do
12. catch
13. wash
14. say
15. cry
16. copy
17. watch
18. play
19. pass
20. begin
B. Fill in the gaps with the Present Simple.
Example: A: Where _ is__ (be) John?
B: At school.
1. A: Do you (you / come ) here very often?
B: Yes, every evening.
2. A: I play (play) tennis in the summer.
B: Really? So do I.
3. A: We leave (leave) the house at 6.30 every morning.
B: That’s very early.
4. A: Sam doesn’t know (not / know) anything about the party.
B: I know. It’s a surprise.
Verbs ending
in a vowel +y
5. A: She always wakes (wake) up late.
B: I know. She is late for school everyday.
6. A: They spend (spend) time in the library in the afternoon.
B: Yes, they do.
7. A: Tom don’t understand (not / understand) the question.
B: Really?
8. A: What does your sister do (do)?
B: She is a doctor.
9. A: Anna goes (go) on holiday every summer.
B: She is so lucky!
10. A: Does he smoke (smoke)?
B: I don’t know.
11. A: Are (be) they late?
B: No, they are (be) just on time?
12. A: I am (be) nine years old.
B: Really! My sister is (be) nine years old, too.
+ I’m working
I’m not
listening to
We’re working.
You aren’t
We aren’t
They aren’t
He isn’t
She isn’t listening to you.
It isn’t
listening to you.
A: Are you reading the book?
B: Yes, I am.
A: Is he sleeping?
B: Yes, he is.
A: Are we waiting for Jack?
B: No, you aren’t.
A: Is she studying?
B: No, she isn’t.
A: Are they talking about the match?
B: Yes, they are.
A: Is it raining?
B: Yes, it is.
Spelling Rules
Most verbs
Verbs ending
in –e:
go → going
dance → dancing
play → playing but
see → seeing
Verbs ending in one
stressed vowel
between two consonants
run → running
get → getting
open → opening
Verbs ending
in –l:
Verbs ending
in –ie:
travel →
lie → lying
die → dying
The Present Continuous is used:
• For actions happening now, at the moment of speaking.
Time Expressions
at the moment
right now
at present
The baby is crying.
She wants her mother.
Her mother needs to change her diaper.
NOTE: Non-continuous verbs are like, want,
have=possess, and need.
These verbs can not be used in the present continuous and
in any other continuous tense.
Anita is working in the radio station. She is
very busy.
Christopher is having lunch. He is hungry.
People are getting on the bus. They are going to
They are playing football. They are a famous
David is speaking on the phone. It is a cell
Jack is sleeping in his office. He is very tired.
A. Fill in the gaps with the Present Continuous.
1. The boys are tidying (tidy) the garden.
2. I am not doing (not / do) my homework.
3. A: Is mum painting (Mum / paint) the living-room? B: No, she is cooking.
4. A: What’s that noise? B: Somebody is crying (cry).
5. The boys are playing (play) with their toys.
6. Helen and Susan are having (have) an important meeting now.
7. John is preparing (prepare) dinner for his friends at the moment.
8. A: Are you listening (you / listen) to the radio? B: No, you can turn it off.
9. The children are playing (play) hide and seek in the garden.
10. A: Are the students studying (the students / study) in the classroom? B: No, I think they
are in the canteen.
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous.
Four people 1) are sitting (sit) at the table. They are in a restaurant. They 2) are having (have)
dinner. They 3) are wearing (wear) smart clothes. The man 4) is wearing (wear) a suit. The
parents 5) are smiling (smile) at each other and they 6) are talking (talk).The children 7) are
listening (listen). The girl 8) is drinking (drink) some Coke. The boy 9) is eating (eat) some
bread. They 10) are enjoying (enjoy) their meal.
C. Look at the paragraph above. Ask and answer questions according to the paragraph,
as in the example.
Example: The parents / wear / sports clothes?
A: Are the parents wearing sports clothes?
B: No, they aren’t. They’re wearing smart clothes.
1. The four people / have / dinner?
A: Are the four people having dinner?
B: Yes, they are.
2. The children / talk?
A: Are the children talking?
B: No, they aren’t. They are listening.
3. The girl / drink / some juice?
A: Is the girl drinking some juice?
B: No, she isn’t. She is drinking some coke.
4. The boy / eat / some ice-cream?
A: Is the boy eating some ice-cream?
B: No, he isn’t. He is eating some bread.
D. Fill in the blanks with Present Simple or Present Continuous.
1. A: Oh no! It is raining (rain) outside.
B: Why are you so surprised? It usually rains (rain) here a lot in January, but it never
2. Right now John is in class. He is sitting (sit) at a desk by the door. He always sits (sit) at
the same desk.
3. It’s 7.00 pm. Jack is at home. He is having (have) his dinner now. He always has (have)
dinner with his family at around 7.00 o’clock.
4. Tom and Juliet are (be) on holiday in Paris. They are staying (stay) at a small hotel near
Eiffel Tower at the moment. I think they are having (have) a lot of fun.
5. A: Can you help me?
B: I’m afraid I have no time to help you. I am working (work) on an important project.
6. A: Do your parents work (work) until late hours on weekdays?
B: No, they don’t.
A: What time does your father arrive (arrive) home from work?
B: My father usually comes (come) at 7 p.m. and my mother arrives (arrive) home at
midnight. She works (work) as a half-time nurse in a local hospital.
7. A: Is Tim listening (listen) to the music in his room at the moment?
B: No, he isn’t (be / not). He is at the garage. He is repairing (repair) his car.
8. Richard can’t come to the phone because he is washing (wash) his car. Can you call him
back later?
9. A: What does your father do (do)?
B: He is (be) an engineer. He works (work) for Bosch.
10. A: Do you do (do) sports in your free time?
B: Well, I don’t do (not / do) much sports, but I play (play) tennis once a month.
11. A: How does your husband usually go (go) to work?
B: He usually travels (travel) by his car. Today his car is at the mechanics, so he is taking
(take) a taxi to go to the company.
12. A: What does Jennie do (do) in her free time?
B: She’s usually at home. She sometimes goes (go) out with her friends.
A: Ok. What is she doing (do) now?
B: She is watering (water) the flowers.
13. A: Look! That’s Martin. Why is he walking (walk) so fast?
The class starts (start) at 9:00 every morning.
B: He always walks (walk) fast. People from Switzerland always look in a hurry.
14. A: What do you do (do)?
B: I’m a lawyer. What about you?
A: I am (be) a musician.
15. A: What kind of TV programmes do your brother and sisters like (like)?
B: They usually watch (watch) cartoons, but they are watching (watch) a talk show now.
16. A: Marc, look! This is Miguel. He is talking (talk) to Luisa.
B: Yes. They are taking (take) a class together today. Normally, they study (study) at
different classes.
E. Rewrite the sentences putting the adverb in brackets in the correct place.
1. My son brushes his teeth twice a day. (always)
My son always brushes his teeth twice a day.
2. Is he on time for work? (always)
Is he always on time for work?
3. Karen has cereal for breakfast. (sometimes)
Karen sometimes has cereal for breakfast.
4. Jennifer doesn’t listen to music in the evening. (usually)
Jennifer doesn’t usually listen to music in the evening.
5. The kids help with the housework. (rarely)
The kids rarely help with the housework.
6. Do you play your music so loud? (always)
Do you always play your music so loud?
7. Shirley parks her car properly. (never)
Shirley never parks her car properly.
F. Complete the e-mail with Present Simple or Present Continuous.
From: James
To: Jenifer
Subject: Hi there!
Hi Jennifer,
How are you? I hope you are fine. I 1) am writing (write) this e-mail on Michael’s
computer. He 2) is cooking (cook) spaghetti for us at the moment. As you know, it 3) (be)
hard to be a student at the engineering faculty, so I 4) am studying (study) long hours every
night, and my marks 5) are (be) usually quite high.
Life in Britain is great. We generally 6) spend (spend) good time in London. In our free
time, my classmates and I often 7) walk (walk) around the city and 8) see (see) historical
places. We also 9) take (take) a lot of photographs.
I 10) am leaving (leave) for now. My favorite TV show 11) is starting (start). Hope to
hear from you soon.
PS: I 12) am sending (send) you some photos with the e-mail. Don’t forget to look at
• A defining relative clause gives essential information about the noun or noun phrase it
The purpose of a defining relative clause is to clearly define who or what we are
talking about. Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t bad. (“where we stayed ” shows us something about the
hotel we are talking about; it defines the hotel.)
The woman who is old lives next door. (“who is old” shows us something about the woman;
it defines the woman.)
• The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:
who / that
which / that
You can use “that” instead of “who” and “which”.
A cook is a person. A cook works in a restaurant.
A cook is a person who/that works in a restaurant.
A clock is a thing. It tells the time.
A clock is a thing which/that tells the time.
• The relative clause comes after the noun which is defined.
I congratulated the student. She got the highest mark. (the student: object of the sentence)
I congratulated the student who/that got the highest mark.
• If the defined noun is the subject of the main clause, relative clause comes after the
The student is happy. She got the highest mark on the test. (the student: subject of the
The student who got the highest mark on the test is happy.
The difference between the use of “which” and “where”
• If the noun of a place is the subject or object of the defining clause, you can’t use
In order to use “where”, the defined noun should indicate places like, “at the cinema,
to the theatre, in the country, there, here etc. Otherwise, use “which” or “that”.
I like the house. It has a large garden. = I like the house which / that has a large garden.
I like the house. We saw it yesterday. = I like the house which / that we saw yesterday.
This is the place. I was born there. = This is the place where I was born.
This is the house. We spent a lot of good times with my family in that house. = This is the
house where we spent a lot of good times with my family.
A. Fill in the blanks with “where” or “which”.
1. Do you know a restaurant which they opened in our neighborhood last month?
2. The dormitory where I stayed when I was at university was a huge building.
3. The town which he is talking about is my hometown.
4. The school which the major has opened is a modern one.
5. This is the house which was built in the 20th century.
6. The building which has been sold is a complete ruin.
7. Is this the place where we’re supposed to meet them?
8. Do you know the cafe where I saw them?
9. This is the place where the accident happened.
10. It’s the city where the worst housing problems in the country exist.
B. Fill in the blanks with “who” or “which”.
1. I’ve lost the paper which has important information.
2. Who has moved the papers which I left on my desk?
3. You should complain to the people who supplied it.
4. They arrested the man who was over the alcohol limit.
5. The man who interviewed you is the boss.
6. You’ll have to speak to the person who is in charge.
7. Is there a shop which sells stamps?
8. A lot of people were offended by the jokes which he told.
9. The car which was stolen belonged to my partner.
10. The house which they have rented is in the centre of town.
C. The sentences in this exercise are not complete. Choose the most appropriate ending
from the list and change it into a relative clause by using “who” or “which”.
he invented the telephone
it makes typewriters
she runs away from home
it gives you the meanings of words
they are never on time
it won the race
he stole my car
it can support life
they used to hang on that wall
it was found last week
Example: Jerry works for a company which makes typewriters.
1. The book is about a girl who runs away from home.
2. What was the name of the horse which won the race.
3. The police have caught the man who stole my car.
4. Alexander Bell was the man who invented the telephone.
5. Where are the pictures which used to hang on the wall.
6. The police are still trying to identify the body which was found last week.
7. A dictionary is a book which gives you the meanings of words.
8. I don’t like people who are never on time.
9. It seems that Earth is the only planet which can support life.
The past simple describes a completed past action when the time of the action is
stayed in a hotel.
went on holiday.
didn’t stay in a hotel
didn’t go on holiday
A: Did you stay in a
B: Yes, I did. (+)
A: Did you go on
B: No, I didn’t. (-)
Example: I went to the cinema yesterday.
The past simple shows for a past action that was completely done in the past.
Example: My mother made a cake and we all ate it.
• The past simple is the same for all persons.
• In positive sentences the verb is in V2 (stayed, went, etc.)
• In negative sentences and questions “did / didn’t” are used and the verb is in V1.
Spelling rules for regular verbs
liked (just add -d if the verb finishes in e)
studied (y ⟩ i after a consonant)
stopped (if the verb finishes in consonant + vowel + consonant,
double the final consonant)
To make the past simple of regular verbs add –ed. Remember the spelling rules.
NOTE: Many common verbs are irregular in past simple, for example go⟩ went. See the
irregular verb list on p.155 in your Students’ Book.
A. Use the past simple form of the verbs in brackets.
1. She _cut____ (cut) her finger last night.
2. We __went___ (go) for a ride and __came___ (come) home late.
3. Her former husband always __drank___ (drink) heavily.
4. He _lent____ (lend) me some money last week.
5. There _were____ (be) lots of people at the party.
6. My father __lost___ (lose) his car keys this morning.
7. She often___quarrelled__ (quarrel) with her neighbour.
8. The homeless woman __laid___ (lay) a mat on the pavement and _slept__ (sleep) on it.
9. I __met___ (meet) my uncle on Sunday afternoon.
10. Can you help (can / help) me carry this, please?
B. Change each sentence into a negative sentence.
Example: John had a warm coat.
John didn't have a warm coat.
1. In the past some people lived in tents.
In the past some people didn’t live in tents.
2. We were on the beach.
We weren’t on the beach.
3. Kyoko bought a new car.
Kyoko didn’t buy a new car.
4. She drank all the wine.
She didn’t drink all the wine.
5. The pot was expensive.
The pot wasn’t expensive.
C. Change each sentence into a “yes/no question” in the past simple tense.
Example: John had red hair.
Did John have red hair?
1. They talked about their homework.
Did they talk about their homework?
2. A raccoon ate Sally's lunch.
Did a raccoon eat Sally’s lunch?
3. He played hockey every day.
Did he play hockey every day?
4. The soup was hot.
Was the soup hot?
5. They were happy together.
Were they happy together?
D. Change each sentence into a “wh- question” in the past simple tense, using the
question word in brackets.
Example: John lived in Victoria. (where)
Where did John live?
1. She bought an old car. (what)
What did she buy?
2. Jan studied for three hours. (how long)
How long did Jan study?
3. They travelled across Canada by bike. (how)
How did they travel across Canada?
4. The fox was in the garden. (where)
Where was the fox?
5. Beavers were common on Vancouver Island. (where)
Where were beavers common?
E. Put the verb in brackets in the correct past simple form.
My grandfather had a very exciting life. When he was young, he 1) lived (live) on a
farm in the country. His parents 2) raised (raise) cattle, and he 3) looked (look) after the
cows. When he was eighteen, he 4) went (go) to university, where he 5) studied (study)
Philosophy. He also 6) played (play) the trumpet in a jazz band. When the war started, he 7)
tried (try) to join the Air Force, but he 8) ended (end) up in the Navy. In the Atlantic, a
German torpedo 9) hit (hit) his ship, and the ship 10) sank (sink). Only five men 11) escaped
(escape). They 12) sailed (sail) in a lifeboat back to England. Then he 13) met (meet) my
grandmother, and they 14) married (marry) after only three weeks. He says now that he 15)
wanted (want) to marry her very quickly in case he 16) died (die) in the war.
F. First, put the verbs in brackets in the past simple. Then, match the beginnings of the
sentences to their endings.
1. The children broke (break)
their mother’s watch, so
2. Sandy had (have) toothache, so
3. Somebody stole (steal) Mrs. Brown’s car, so
4. They needed (need) some money, so
5.Sue and Anna missed (miss) the bus, so
6. I didn’t feel (not / feel) well, so
7. Joe and Dan didn’t like (not / like) the film, so
a) she went (go) to the dentist.
b) she called (call) the police.
c) she shouted (shout) at them.
d) they took (take) a taxi.
e) I took (take) an aspirin.
f) they went (go) to the bank.
g) they left (leave) the cinema.
was working.
wasn’t working.
Was he working?
weren’t working.
were working.
Yes, he was. (+)
Were they working? Yes, they were. (+)
No, he wasn’t.(-)
No, they weren’t.(-)
• The past continuous is used to describe an action in progress at a specific time in the past.
Example: At six o’clock last night I was driving home.
On April 1st I was staying with some friends in the country.
I was eating my dinner at 7 o’clock last night.
The past continuous is also used for an action that was going on in the past when
something else happened.
Example: While they were watching television, the light went out.
The past continuous is also used for two actions that were going on at the same time in
the past.
Example: While his father was reading the newspaper, his mother was cooking.
Past simple or past continuous?
When I took the photo, they were writing a song.
I was sitting when I saw the news on TV.
Use the past simple for a completed action.
I took the photo.
I saw the news on TV.
Use the past continuous for an action in progress.
I was sitting.
They were writing a song.
A. Complete the sentences based on the diagrams.
1. At five o'clock it ___was snowing_____.
2. When John __called___ I __was sleeping___.
3. While Kyoko _was eating/having____ lunch, Mari and Junko _were studying____.
4. The mail ___came__ while I _was cleaning___ the car.
5. While they __were waiting___ for the train, they __saw___ Sarah.
6. While Michel __was cooking___ the supper, his parents _were watching__TV.
B. Use the Past Continuous form of the words in brackets.
1. While I _was waiting____ (wait) for you, I fell asleep.
2. He ___was swimming__ (swim) at 4 o'clock yesterday.
3. Some students _weren’t listening____ (not listen) while the teacher __was speaking___
4. We __were playing___ (play) football when it started to rain.
5. When I ___was walking__ (walk) home, I saw a dog barking at the postman.
6. She and her friends __were shopping___ (shop) yesterday evening.
7. When they arrived, I __was bathing___ (bathe).
8. While one worker __was painting___ (paint), another __was mixing___ (mix) some paint.
9. What _were____ you ___doing__ (do) when I was at home?
10. They __were jogging___ (jog) early this morning.
C. Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past or Past Continuous.
1. Andy: I didn't see you at school last Monday.
Barış: Hello, Andy. I didn't come on Monday. I wasn’t feeling well, so I decided to go to
the doctor.
Andy: Oh! Was it serious?
Barış: No, the doctor examined me and told me I had the flu. He prescribed some medicine.
Andy: Did you stay home all day last Monday?
Barış: No, only in the morning. I had to work in the afternoon, and guess what?
Andy: What?
Barış: When a friend was driving (or) drove me home, he crashed his car. He didn't see the
red light.
Andy: Did anyone get hurt?
Barış: Thank God, nobody did.
Andy: I'm happy to hear that. Well, Barış, I have to rush now. My wife asked me to go to the
mechanic to get our car. See you later. Take care.
Barış: You too. Bye.
2. Robert: Hi Alice, what did you do last weekend?
Alice: I did a lot of things. On Saturday, I went shopping.
Robert: What did you buy?
Alice: I bought some new clothes.
Robert: What did you do after shopping?
Alice: Well, I went home and took a shower and then went out with Jacky.
Robert: Did you eat in a restaurant?
Alice: Yes, my friend Jacky and I ate at 'The Good Fork'.
Robert: Did you enjoy your dinner?
Alice: Yes, we enjoyed our dinner very much thank you. What about you? Did you do
anything interesting at the weekend?
Robert: Unfortunately, I didn't go out this weekend. I did not buy anything. I didn't eat in a
Alice: What did you do?
Robert: I stayed home and studied for my test!
Alice: Poor you!
D. Fill in the blanks with Simple Past or Past Continuous.
1. He went to Chicago with his brother four days ago.
2. I was doing my homework last night. Suddenly there was a knock on the door.
3. He lost his money while he was hiking in the woods.
4. They arrived early while I was still sleeping.
5. Paul cooked diner while we were having a cup of tea on the terrace.
6. The doorbell rang while I was watching TV.
7. He wrote six novels when he was living in Spain.
8. She had a car accident because she was driving too fast.
9. She was talking to Jim on the phone when I walked in.
10. We were walking down by the river when it started raining.
11. They met when they were working in Paris.
12. The plane left an hour late.
13. She was looking for a new coat but she bought some boots and a dress instead!
14. I looked for it but I couldn’t find it.
Questions with an Auxiliary
To make questions in the past and present simple, we normally use the auxiliary verbs do /
does / did + V1.
Which CD did he buy?
Who did Gina meet?
What did Frank see?
Where do your parents live?
What time does your class start?
He bought the latest one.
Gina met Mary.
Frank saw an accident.
They live in Tokyo.
It starts at 8:45.
Subject Questions
When the question word (who, what, which, how many) is the subject of the verb in the
question, we do not use an auxiliary (do, does, did) and the verb is in the third person.
Who writes their songs?
What happened after the concert?
Their lead singer writes them.
An accident happened after the concert.
A. Write a question for the underlined section of each answer below.
Example: The doctor works with the nurse.
Who works with the nurse?
1. The man wrote a long letter.
What did the man write?
2. The man wrote a long letter.
Who wrote a long letter?
3. The doctor gave the patient some advice.
Who gave the patient some advice?
4. The doctor gave the patient some advice.
What did the doctor give the patient?
5. The burglar demanded all the money in the cash register.
What did the burglar demand?
6. A lorry crashed into a supermarket in our neighborhood this morning.
What crashed into the supermarket?
7. Jack and Linda are in charge of files in the office.
Who is in charge of files in the office?
8. He heard something.
What did he hear?
9. I saw Tom yesterday.
Who did you see yesterday?
10. The students study for their exams during the midterm week.
Who studies for their exams during the midterm week?
B. Correct the mistakes in the questions.
Example: Why ^ the teacher lose his temper in the lesson last week?
1. Who fail their exam last week?
Who failed their exams last week?
2. What you learn on that course last week?
What did you learn on that course last week?
3. Who did get good marks in the exam?
Who got good marks in the exam?
4. What did happen when he made a mistake?
What happened when he made a mistake?
5. Who did finish the marathon in only an hour and twenty minutes?
Who finished the marathon in only an hour and twenty minutes?
6. Where you saw her before she had the accident?
Where did you see her before she had the accident?
C. Write questions. Use the Past Simple.
Who / see / the robbery?
Who saw the robbery?
What / the man / do next?
What did the man do next?
1. What / you / have / for dinner yesterday?
What did you have for dinner yesterday?
2. Who / Jack / invite / to his wedding?
Who did Jack invite to his wedding?
3. Who / tell / the police / about the robbery?
Who told the police about the robbery?
4. Who / Sally / talk to / at the party last night?
Who did Sally talk to at the party last night?
5. What / make / you / change your mind?
What made you change your mind?
6. What / happen / after the ceremony?
What happened after the ceremony?
7. Why / Paul / want / to go home early?
Why did Paul want to go home early?
D. Write questions for the underlined words.
The film was set in New Zealand.
Where was the film set?
1. Kim and Tina are playing ball in the garden.
What are Kim and Tina playing in the garden?
2. They are running home.
Where are they running?
3. Anne works at a state school in Manchester.
Where does Anne work?
4. The shops close at nine o’clock in the evening.
When do the shops close in the evening?
5. Beverly usually gets up at 6.30 am.
When does Beverly usually get up?
6. He can't meet Sharon because she is very ill.
Why can’t he meet Sharon?
7. Every evening Steven listens to his new CDs.
Who listens to his new CDs every evening?
E. Write questions for the given answers. (Answers may vary.)
Example: What does “huge” mean? It means “big”.
1. When did you buy this shirt? Three days ago.
2. _How often do you play tennis? Once a week.
3. _How do you go to school? By bus.
4. _Whose is this pen? Mine.
5. _How do you spell “beautiful”? B-E-A-U-T-I-F-U-L
6. _Why didn’t you buy the dress? Because I didn’t like the dress.
7. _What color is your jumper? Blue.
8. _Which jumper is yours? The one on the red chair.
9. _What’s the weather like in Ankara today? Cold and raining.
“because” and “so”
Use because to express a reason.
Use so to express a result.
She was driving fast because she was in a hurry. (reason)
She was in a hurry, so she was driving fast. (result)
Hanna spoke to the DJ because they didn’t like the music. (reason)
They didn’t like the music, so Hanna spoke to the DJ. (result)
“but” and “although”
Use but and although to show a contrast.
Although can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
She tried to stop, but she hit the man.
Although she tried to stop, she hit the man.
It was late, but she couldn’t sleep.
She couldn’t sleep although it was late.
A. Rewrite the sentences with “because” or “so”.
I stayed at home because I was tired.
I was tired, so I stayed at home.
1. He had a stomachache because he had eaten too much ice cream.
He had eaten too much ice cream so he had a stomachache.
2. We’ve lost the tickets so we can’t go to the concert.
We can’t go to the concert because we’ve lost the tickets.
3. I didn’t buy that book because I didn’t have enough money.
I didn’t have enough money so I didn’t buy that book.
4. She took a taxi because she was late.
She was late so he took a taxi.
5. I went to bed late last night, so I couldn’t get up in the morning.
I couldn’t get up in the morning because I went to bed late last night.
6. I didn’t hear the bell because the music was too loud.
The music was too loud so I couldn’t hear the bell.
7. She didn’t have breakfast, so she’s hungry.
She’s hungry because she didn’t have breakfast.
B. Join the sentences with “although”.
1. He worked hard. He didn’t pass the exam.
Although he worked hard, he didn’t pass the exam.
2. I hate horror films. I like this one.
Although I hate horror films, I like this one.
3. She was ill. She didn’t want to go to the doctor.
Although she was ill, she didn’t want to go to the doctor.
4. It was hot. She was wearing a jacket.
Although it was hot, she was wearing a jacket.
5. I was tired. I couldn’t sleep.
Although I was tired, I couldn’t sleep.
6. I got up late. I arrived on time.
Although I got up late, I arrived on time.
7. It was raining. We went out.
Although it was raining, we went out.
C. Circle the correct answer.
1. The hurricane destroyed the beach area, _____ the town had to reconstruct the boardwalk.
a) although b) but
c) so
2. ____ it was after midnight, we didn’t feel tired.
a) Because
b) Although c) But
3.Linda likes Tom, _____ he is in love with Mary.
a) so
b) but
c) and
4.She needed some help with maths,_____ she took some private lessons.
a) although b) because
c) so
5.I like him, ____ I won’t go to the graduation party with him.
a) but
b) so
c) although
6.Geraldine Chapline is a great actress ______ she is less well known than her father Charlie
a) so
b) although c) because
7. She doesn’t like him _____ he isn’t honest.
a) so
b) but
c) because
8. She quit her job,_____ she’s looking for a new one now.
a) because
b) although c) so
9. The water was cold, _____ I went swimming anyway.
a) so
b) but
c) and
10. My brother came to my wedding ceremony _____ he was very ill.
a) so
b) although c) because
11. Sally studied very hard, _____ she couldn’t pass the final exam.
a) so
b) although c) but
12. The baby-sitter read the children a bed time story, _____ they would fall asleep easily.
a) although b) but
c) so
13. _____ Jane had a satisfying salary, she didn’t like her job.
a) Because
b) But
c) Although
Using “going to” for future plans / intentions and predictions
I’m going to work in a restaurant.
She’s going to meet me at the airport.
We aren’t going to stay very long.
He isn’t going to like the weather there.
Are you going to find a job?
When is your brother going to visit you?
Use (be) going to + infinitive to talk about future plans or intentions.
I’m just going to make a quick phone call. (I’ve decided / intend to make a short
phone call – this is my plan but it might not be possible to do this or the phone call
may last longer).
A: I hear Sarah has won some money. What is she going to do with it?
B: She is going to buy a new car.
A: Are you going to watch the late film on TV tonight?
B: No, I’m going to have an early night.
When you use going to go, you can omit to go. So the following two forms are
I’m going to go to university next year.
I’m going to university next year.
Use (be) going to + infinitive to make predictions about the future.
Fortuneteller to client, “You are going to fall in love soon”.
I feel terrible. I think I’m going to be sick.
The economic situation is bad now and things are going to get worse.
A. Write what is going to happen in these situations.
Example: The teacher sees a student who is cheating in the quiz.
He is going to warn the student. / He is going to take away the
student’s paper.
1. It is 8.30. Tom is leaving his house. He has to be at the meeting at 8.45, but the
journey takes 30 minutes.
He is going to be late for the meeting.
2. There is a hole in the bottom of the boat. A lot of water is coming in through the
The boat is going to sink.
3. Susan and Ben are on their way home. There is very little petrol left in the tank.
The nearest petrol station is a long way away.
They are going to run out of petrol.
Using the present continuous for future arrangements
+ I’m seeing some friends tonight.
We’re having dinner at their house tomorrow.
She isn’t leaving until Friday.
They aren’t coming to the party.
? What are you doing this evening?
Is she meeting us at the cinema?
You can use the present continuous for future arrangements which we have
planned for a fixed time or place.
We are having a housewarming party this weekend. (= We’re going to have a
housewarming party this weekend.)
I’m leaving tomorrow. I’ve got my plane ticket. (= Future arrangement. The speaker
has a plane ticket.)
(A tour guide is talking to his tourist group about the arranged activities that they are
going to do together.) On Monday morning we are going sailing. Then in the
afternoon, I’m taking you on a bicycle tour of the surrounding area ….
(= The activities are planned and programmed.)
DON’T use the present simple to talk about future arrangements and predictions.
The present continuous for future arrangements is especially common with the
expressions tonight, tomorrow, this weekend, etc. and with these verbs: go, come,
meet, see, leave, and arrive.
A. Look at the pairs of sentences. Write “S” if they have the same meaning. Write
“D” if their meanings are different.
1. different What are you doing?
What are you going to do?
2. same
We’re getting married next month.
We’re going to get married next month.
3. different She’s losing weight.
She’s going to lose weight.
4. same
We’re not going on vacation this year.
We’re not going to go on vacation this year.
5. same
Are you working this evening?
Are you going to work this evening?
6. different My boss is getting mad at me.
My boss is going to get mad at me.
B. Is it possible to use ‘going to’ instead of the present continuous or vice versa?
1. Jonathan is going to get married sometime in the future. (No, we can only use the
present continuous tense to talk about arranged events in the near future)
2. I’m having a party on Friday evening. All the preparations have been made (the
present continuous tense should be preferred because there is emphasis on the
preparations that have been made)
3. Where are you going to fly for your summer holiday? (the present continuous
tense can be used instead)
4. According to the weather forecast, there is going to be a heat wave in Europe. (for
predictions the present continuous tense cannot be used)
5. Shhh. The broadcaster is giving the latest news about the crisis in England. (going
to cannot be used because the present continuous tense has present meaning
’ll be late.
won’t be late.
A: Will I / you / he / she / it /
we / they be late?
B: Yes, I / you / he / she / it /
we / they will.
No, I / you / he / she / it / we
/ they won’t.
Contractions: ’ll = will; won’t = will not
• Use will / won’t + infinitive to make predictions about the future.
I’ll probably be home late tonight.
Tom won’t pass the exam. He hasn’t studied hard enough.
That place is hot. If you touch it, you’ll burn yourself.
• In the examples above ‘will / won’t’ can be replaced with a suitable form of ‘going to’
with no change in meaning.
• Words and phrases like probably, definitely, (I) expect, (I’m) sure, (I) think, (I)
don’t think, I wonder are frequently used when making predictions.
• The future of there is / are = there will be; the future of I can = I’ll be able to
NOT I’ll can.
There will be a festival tomorrow.
She will be able to come to the wedding.
• We often use I think / I don’t think … + will …
I think he’ll fail the exam.
I don’t think he’ll pass the exam.
NOT I think he won’t pass the exam.
• Sometimes in positive sentences with I and we, people use shall (not will), but this is
very formal (for example, in a business letter).
Example: I shall write to you when I have studied your case.
A. Complete the sentences with “will (’ll)”and “a suitable verb”.
1. Why don’t you try on this jumper? It will look nice on you.
2. You must meet George sometime. I think you will like him.
3. Do you think people will live longer in the future?
4. When the new road is finished, my journey to work will be much shorter.
5. Goodbye. I expect we will meet again very soon.
B. Read the situations and write sentences with “I think I’ll” or “I don’t think I’ll”.
1. It’s a bit cold. The window is open and you decide to close it. You say:
I think I’ll close the window.
2. You are feeling tired and it’s getting late. You decide to go to bed. You say:
I think I’ll go to bed.
3. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car, but you decide to walk. You say:
Thank you but I think I’ll walk.
4. You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don’t want to play. You say:
I don’t think I’ll play.
5. You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don’t want to go. You say:
I don’t think I’ll go swimming.
Decisions I’ll get you an aspirin to relieve your pain.
Let me decide. I’ll have fish and not beef.
I’ll help you with your homework.
Shall I open the window?
I’ll always love you.
I won’t tell anyone.
• Use will / won’t + V1 for making on the spot (instant) decisions, offers, and
• Use Shall I …? Or Shall we …? when an offer is a question.
A: I have just realized. I haven’t got any money.
B: Haven’t you? Well, don’t worry. I’ll lend you some. (The speaker hasn’t planned to give
this person money before – he decides to do it at the moment of speaking) (instant decision)
Shall I take out the garbage? (offer)
I won’t tell anyone what happened. You can count on me. (promise)
A. Match each statement to a place or situation.
1. I won’t tell Mom.
a. on the phone
2. This will hurt a little
b. on TV or the radio
3. I’ll have the steak.
c. in a store
4. I’ll buy that one.
d. at home
5. I’ll give her the message.
e. at the doctor’s office
6. Rain showers will begin this evening. f. in a restaurant
B. How is each statement in part A used? Write the number of the statement next to the
appropriate use below.
a. a promise:
___1___ ___5___
b. a prediction:
___2___ ___6___
c. a decision:
___3___ ___4___
C. Complete the sentences with “will” or “going to”.
1. A: Why are you turning on the television?
B: I’m going to watch the news.
2. A: Has George decided what to do when he leaves school?
B: Yes, everything is planned. He is going to have a holiday for a few weeks. Then he is
going to do a computer programming course.
3. A: I don’t know how to use this MP3 player.
B: It’s easy. I’ll show you.
4. A: Did you pick up that parcel for me?
B: Oh, I’m sorry. I completely forgot. I’ll do it now.
5. A: Have you decided what to do about that job you were interested in?
B: Yes, I’m not going to apply for it. The working hours aren’t suitable.
6. A: Lucas is in hospital.
B: Oh really? I didn’t know. I’ll go and visit him.
7. A: Lucas is in hospital.
B: Yes, I know. I’m going to visit him this afternoon.
8. A: I have to phone an Adana number. Do you know the code?
B: No, but I’ll look it up in the directory.
9. A: You are reading a lot on ‘hip hop’ music. What for?
B: I am going to give a presentation on it.
10. A: What are your plans for the semester break?
B: Nothing special. I’m going to hang out with friends.
D. Rewrite each sentence with “will”, “shall” or “going to”.
1. I’ve decided to take up Origami as a hobby.
I’m going to take up Origami as a hobby. / plan
2. From now on I promise to keep my room clean.
I’ll be at home by midnight. / promise
3. I can take the dog for a walk.
I’ll take the dog for a walk. / offer
4. Would you like me to help you with your term project?
Shall I help you with your term project? / offer
5. My plan is to have brunch together with friends at the weekend.
I’m going to have brunch with friends at the weekend. / plan
6. I predict a victory for our team.
Our team will win or is going to win. / prediction
7. Do you want me to reserve a table for four people?
Shall I reserve a table for four people? / offer
E. Fill in the blanks with “will”, “going to”, “shall” or the Present Continuous. More
than one answer is possible.
1. Have you heard the news? Peter and Sally are going to adopt a baby from India. That’s
what they intend to do.
2. I think our team will probably win / is probably going to win this time.
3. Be careful! You will knock / are going to knock that jug off the table.
4. Sorry, I can meet you in the afternoon. I am seeing my dentist at 4 o’clock. I can’t cancel
my appointment.
5. According to the weather forecast, it will snow / it’s going to snow tomorrow.
6. A: I’m really thirsty.
B: I’ll get you a glass of water.
7. A: Can I speak to Mr. Smith, please?
B: Hold on. I’ll get him for you.
8. A: Remember to get a newspaper when you go out. B: OK. I promise I won’t forget.
9. I’ve arranged an interview with the headmaster. I am meeting him at three o’clock.
10. Jonathan won’t be able to get the job because he is hopeless at interviews.
11. Shall I put the baby to sleep, now? He looks really tired.
12. A: Shall we ask Mr. Perkins for help with the project?
B: That’s a good idea. Let’s ask him now.
13. A: My cat is stuck in the tree again! I’ll never get him down.
B: Don’t worry. I will get him down for you.
Present Simple + Present Continuous / Past simple + Past Simple Continuous / Will / Be
going to
Review of Tenses: Present, Past, and Future
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Past Simple
Past Continuous
going to + infinitive
will / won’t + infinitive
I live in the city centre.
She doesn’t smoke.
He’s looking for a new job.
I’m leaving tomorrow.
We saw a good film last night.
We didn’t do anything yesterday.
He was working in Paris.
What were you doing at 7.00?
I’m going to see Tom tonight.
It’s going to rain.
You’ll love New York.
I’ll phone her later.
I’ll help you.
I’ll pay you back tomorrow.
Things that happen always
or usually.
Things that are happening
now or in the near future.
Finished actions in the past.
Actions that were in
progress at a past time.
Future plans and predictions.
Predictions, instant
decisions, offers, and
A. Choose the correct answer.
1. Mark never is going / goes on holiday in the summer.
2. I promise I'm giving / I'll give you the book.
3. Is she listening to / Does she listen to the radio at the moment?
4. I am going to learn / learn Japanese next year.
5. I wasn't going / didn't go to work yesterday.
6. There will be / There's heavy snow tomorrow.
7. A: What are you looking / do you look at?
B: A strange bird.
8. Look out! My husband comes / is coming.
9. At six o’clock this morning I had / was having a dream, but then the alarm went off.
10. She met / was meeting her husband while she travelled / was travelling in Egypt.
11. The exams will be / are going to be on the 6th of June.
12. I think it will cost / is going to cost about $ 3000 to rebuild the garage.
13. I’m sure she is going to pass / will pass her proficiency exam.
14. Look at those clouds. It will rain / is going to rain.
B. Fill the blanks with Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, Past
Continuous, Future Simple or “be going to”.
1. Usually we visit (visit) my parents at this time of the year, but now we are going (go) to
2. Look! The secretary is talking (talk) to the receptionist and the assistant is drinking
(drink) coffee.
3. While I was tidying (tidy) my desk, I found the fax from Germany.
4. He folded (fold) his newspaper and put it in his briefcase and looked out of the window.
5. I won’t forget (not forget) to pay the bill, I promise.
6. Our boss bought our plane tickets a month ago. We are going to fly / are flying (fly) to
Italy tomorrow at 5.00.
7. A: Dad, the kitchen tap doesn’t work properly.
B: Yes, I noticed that this morning, and bought a few tools with me from work. I am going
to repair (repair) it after dinner.
8. I don’t understand (not / understand) the instructions of our new oven. Can you help me?
9. During August it normally rains (normally / rain) heavily here, so we’re lucky that it isn’t
raining (not / rain) now.
10. While I was looking (look) at the window, I noticed (notice) that the window frames need
11. He wasn’t wearing (not / wear) his raincoat when it started (start) to rain yesterday. Now
he has a cold.
12. A: Can you see if you have this blouse in size 40, please?
B: Yes, I will look (look) in our stock room for you. I will be (be) back in just a minute.
13. A: Where are Jack and Jill?
B: They are out of town. They are travelling (travel).
A: What about Kate and Peter? I invited then to my birthday party, but they didn’t come
(not / come).
B: They were out of town, too. They were visiting (visit) their parents in Nevada while I
was having my birthday party.
14. A: What was I talking (talk) about when the phone rang? I forgot it.
B: You were describing (describe) the website you found on the Internet yesterday.
15. A: Where are the children?
B: In the living room.
A: What are they doing (do)? Are they watching (watch) TV?
B: No, they aren’t (not / be). They are playing (play) a game.
16. A: Does Sam usually have lunch in the canteen?
B: Yes, he always eats there.
17. I am writing a report at the moment.
18. Alice and Mark didn’t come to the dinner party last Sunday.
19. What were you doing at 7.00 yesterday?
20. It wasn’t very cold last week.
21. A: Please take a seat, I will give you a glass of tea.
B: That would be lovely, thanks.
Form of the Present Perfect
a) I have begun the project.
b) The students have finished Chapter 3.
c) Kate has eaten lunch.
I / We / You / They + have + V3
He / She / It + has + V3
d) We've posted the letters.
e) He's called the police.
have = 've
has = 's*
f) They have not (haven't) done the shopping.
g) My mother has not (hasn't) woken up yet.
h) It has not (hasn't) rained a lot.
i) Have you met the new manager?
j) Has the teacher announced the results?
k) How long have you lived here?
have + not (haven't) + V3
has + not (hasn't) + V3
Have / Has + subject + V3
have / has OR haven't/hasn't
l) A: Have you seen that movie?
B: Yes, I have. OR No, I haven't.
m) A: Has your sister left school?
B: Yes, she has. OR No, she hasn't.
Note: The auxiliary verb in the short
answer is not contracted with the
INCORRECT: Yes, I've. Yes, he's.
It's cold today. (It is cold today.)
It's begun to rain. (It has begun to rain.)
Use of the Present Perfect
When we use the present perfect,
there's always a connection
between past and present.
before now
It expresses the idea that something happened before now, at an unspecified time in
the past. The exact time it happened is not mentioned.
A: Where's your key?
B: I don't know. I've lost it.
He told me his name but I've forgotten it.
I can't find my bag. Have you seen it?
It is often used to give new information or to announce a recent happening without
telling when exactly it happened.
A: Where are the Smiths? Their house is empty.
B: They have moved into a new flat.
(from the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.
before now
It also expresses our life time experiences without mentioning the time.
A: Have you read Hamlet?
B: No. I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.
Susan really loves that film. She has seen it eight times.
While we are talking about our lifetime experiences with present perfect, we often use the
adverbs ever and never.
EVER is used in question and means in your life until now. NEVER is used in positive
sentences, but it has a negative meaning.
Have you ever visited Mexico?
I have never seen snow.
A: Have you ever eaten at that restaurant?
B: I have eaten there many times.
C: No. I have never been there.
Jim's away on holiday. He has gone to Spain.
Jane's back home from holiday. She has
been to Italy.
(He's in Spain now or on his way there. He's not
(She's now back from Italy. She's not in Italy
a) A: Where are Tom and Lucy?
B: They have gone to the theatre.
a) Anita has just come home. She has been
to the theatre.
b) I don't live in London. I have only been
there once.
c) Have you ever been abroad?
b) Tom has gone out. He'll be back in about an
NOTE: "to" is not used with some expressions such as home, abroad, here, there, on holiday, out.
expresses an activity that happened at an
unspecified time (or times) in the past.
expresses an activity that happened at a specific
time (or times) in the past.
a) I've already finished my work.
b) I’ve seen him once / twice / many times.
(no mention of time)
a) I finished my work two hours ago.
b) I had a serious accident last year / three
years ago / in 1995 and 1999 / when I was
ten years old / while I was studying law at
Conversations often begin in the PRESENT PERFECT (with a general question) and then change to
the SIMPLE PAST (with questions asking for specific details).
A: Have you ever been to the USA?
B: Yes, I have.
A: When did you go?
B: I went in 2001 with my cousin. We spent 3 months there.
A: Really? Did you have a good time?
B: Yeah. It was great.
A. Put the verbs in brackets into the “Present Perfect”.
1. A: Have you ever cooked (you, cook, ever) for your friends?
B: No, I haven’t. I have never cooked (cook, never) for anyone.
2. A: Have you ever stayed (you, stay, ever) at a big hotel?
B: Yes, I __have__. I have stayed (stay) at a big hotel lots of times.
3. A: Have you ever met (you, meet, ever) a movie star?
B: No, I __haven’t. I ___have never met_(meet, never) a movie star.
4. A: Has Tom ever visited_(Tom, visit, ever) you at your house?
B: Yes, he _has . He _has visited (visit) me several times.
5. A: ___Has Ann ever been__ (Ann, be, ever) to Mexico?
B: No, she ___hasn’t_. She __has never been_ (be, never) to Mexico. She hasn’t been_(be,
not) to any Spanish-speaking countries.
B. Fill in the gaps with “have / has been (to)” or “have / has gone (to)”.
1. I am alone in the house. My parents __have gone_ on holiday.
2. A: Is Philip at home?
B: No, he ___has gone to_ work.
3. Hello! I ____have ____ just __been to___ the shops. I've bought lots of things.
4. My friend wants us to go on holiday to Madrid this summer. But I ___have_____ already
___been_____ there.
5. A: Hi Roger! Where is everybody? The house is very quiet.
B: Well, Mum ___has gone to______ the cinema with Mavis.
A: How about your sister?
B: She's having a shower right now because she ___has been to______ the gym.
A: I __have been to_____ the gym twice this week. It's really exhausting.
B: As for Dad, he ____has gone to___ the library to get some books.
A: So, how about going to that new cafe that's just opened near the park?
B: Oh, I ___have been______ there. It isn't that great. Why don't we call Steve and go to the
basketball court?
A: Okay, let's do that instead.
C. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect.
1. The science of medicine __advanced_______ (advance) a great deal in the 19th century.
2. Last night my friend and I _____had______ (have) some free time, so we ___went____ (go) to
a show.
3. A: Where's John?
B: He __has gone______ (go) fishing for the day with his father.
4. I like to travel. I __have been ___ (be) to more than thirty foreign countries.
5. Mary _______wasn’t _______ (not / be) in Morocco when I went there in 2001.
6. Margaret can't walk and her leg is in plaster. She ___has broken_____(break) her leg.
7. A: Is Brussels an interesting place?
B: I have no idea. I ____have never been_______ (never / be) there.
8. A: Hi, Judy. Welcome to the party. Have you ever met_(you / meet / ever) my cousin?
B. No, I ___haven’t_____.
D. Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past or Present Perfect forms of the verbs in
A: Have you ever been (you / be / ever) to London?
B: Yes, I have been (be) there three times.
A: When was (be) the last time you were (be) there?
B: Last summer. I spent (spend) two weeks in Brighton with my parents and we went (go) to
London one weekend.
A: Did you like (you / like) it?
B: Oh yes. We really had (have) a great time in London.
A: Lucky you! I have never been (be / never) to London.
E. Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past or Present Perfect forms of the verbs in parenthesis.
1. Yesterday, my brother came (come) home from school, switched (switch) on the TV and
watched (watch) TV until dinner was (be) ready.
2. Oh no, it’s raining and I have left (leave) my umbrella at home.
3. Look! There is so much food left. Nobody has eaten (eat) anything.
4. A: Where were you (you / be) yesterday?
B: I went (go) to the shopping centre and bought (buy) some shoes.
5. A: Why don’t you want to play football with us this weekend?
B: I have hurt (hurt) my leg.
6. The road is closed. There has been (be) an accident.
7. I had (have) an accident when I was (be) in Manchester last year.
8. Come on, let’s celebrate! Our team has won (win) the match.
Just / Already / Yet
a) A: Would you like a coffee?
B: No, thanks. I've just had one.
b) My sister's just started a new job.
JUST means “a very short time ago”.
It is used in positive sentences.
Put it before the main verb.
c) A: Do you want to see this film?
B: No, I've already seen it three times.
d) A: Shall I buy a newspaper?
B: No, I've already bought one.
ALREADY gives the idea that
something happened sooner than
It is used in positive sentences.
Put it before the main verb.
e) A: Have you finished your homework yet?
B: No, not yet. I haven't finished yet.
YET means “until now” and shows
that the speaker is expecting
something to happen.
It is used in questions and negative
Put it at the end of the sentence.
A. Make sentences using the Present Perfect.
1. never / hot Vietnamese food / the teacher / eat
__ The teacher has never eaten hot Vietnamese food .__________
2. already / I / the shopping / do
_ I have already done the shopping.__________________________
3. yet / my e-mail / reply / they
___Have they replied my e-mail, yet?_______________________
4. ever / your brother / your car / borrow
___Has your brother ever borrowed your car?_______________
5. just / have / they / a baby boy
___They have just had a baby boy.__________________________
6. yet / Linda / reading the book / not / finish
___Linda hasn’t finished reading the book, yet._______________
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect.
1. A: Are you taking Chemistry 101 this semester?
B: No, I ___have already taken______ (already / take) it. I __took_____ (take) it last
2. A: ____Have you typed____________ (you / type) the report yet?
B: Yes, I _finished_________________ (finish) it half an hour ago.
3. A: This is a good book. Would you like to read it when I'm finished?
B: Thanks, but I ___have already read_______(already / read) it. I ___read___ (read) it a
couple of months ago.
4. In the 1800s libraries _were___ (be) simply collections of books. However, today most libraries
are multimedia centres that contain tapes, computers, disks, films, magazines, music, and
5. We ____sent___ (send) them the e-mail last Monday, but they haven’t written____(not / write)
a reply yet.
Comparative Adjectives
We use comparative adjectives to compare people and things. There are some rules to
make a comparative form.
1. One-syllable adjectives
Form the comparative form of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er to the end of the
Comparative Form
Mary is taller than Max.
Max is older than John.
My hair is longer than your hair.
If the one-syllable adjective ends with an “e”, just add –r to the adjective.
One-Syllable Adjective with final -e
Comparative Form
Mary's car is larger than Max's car.
Max is wiser than his brother.
If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the
consonant and add –er to the adjective form
One-Syllable Adjective Ending
with a Single Consonant with a
Single Vowel Before it
Comparative Form
My dog is bigger than your dog.
Max is thinner than John.
My mother is fatter than your mother.
2. Two or more syllable adjectives
With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with “more”.
Two-Syllable Adjective
Comparative Form
more peaceful
more pleasant
more thoughtful
more careful
This morning is more peaceful than yesterday morning.
Max is more careful than Mike.
Jill is more thoughtful than your sister.
• If the two-syllable adjectives end with a consonant + y change the –y to –i and add
–er to the adjective.
Two-Syllable Adjective Ending
Comparative Form
with –y
John is happier today than he was yesterday.
Max is angrier than Mary.
Mary is busier than Max.
3. Irregular Forms
Irregular Adjectives
Comparative Form
farther / further
many / much
Italian food is better than American food.
My mother's cooking is worse than your mother's cooking.
and with
more. le adjectives have two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er
• Some
Two-syllable adjectives
Comparative Form
cleverer / more clever
gentler / more gentle
friendlier / more friendly
quieter / more quiet
simpler / more simple
Big dogs are gentler than small dogs.
Big dogs are more gentle than small dogs.
Comparative Adverbs
● We use comparative adverbs to compare actions. There are some rules to make
comparative forms.
1. With -ly adverbs (adverbs formed from adjectives by adding -ly to the end) we form the
comparative adverb with more or less.
Comparative Form
more / less quickly
more / less slowly
more / less carefully
more / less quietly
more / less happily
Jeff works more quietly than Steve does. (than Steve works)
Mary drives more carefully than John does. (than John drives)
Steve works less happily than he used to.
2. Other Adverbs
● For adverbs which have the same form as the adjective form, we add -er to form the
Comparative Form
Please work harder.
Mary runs faster than John does. (than John runs)
Steve gets to work earlier than I do. (than I get to work)
3. Irregular Forms
Comparative Form
further / farther
much / more
little / less
John plays tennis better than Jack does. (than Jack plays)
I did worse on the test than Bart did.
My paper airplane flew farther than yours did. (than your airplane flew)
As + Adjective / Adverb + As
You can also use (not) as + adjective / adverb + as to express the similarity or the balance
between two people, things or objects.
Examples: Jim jumps as high as his sister. = Jim and his sister jump the same.
I’m not as tall as my brother. = My brother is taller than me.
He doesn’t drive as fast as me. = I drive faster than him.
A. Complete the sentences by using the opposite and the comparative forms of the adjectives
or adverbs that are underlined.
1. It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ___quieter________________________?
2. This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit ____stronger__________________________.
3. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be ____more expensive________.
4. My job is a bit boring sometimes. I’d like to do something __more interesting_____.
5. Your work is bad. I’m sure you can do it ____better____________________.
6. You’re talking very loudly. Can you speak a bit _____more quietly______________?
7. You’re standing too near the camera. Can you move a bit ___further________ away?
B. Complete the sentences. Use the comparative form of one of the
words in the list. Use “than” where necessary.
1. I was feeling tired last night, so I went to bed ____earlier than______ usual.
2. Unfortunately her illness was ___more serious than___ we thought at first.
3. You look ___thinner_____. Have you lost weight?
4. Health and happiness are _____more important than____ money.
5. I like living in the countryside. It’s __more peaceful than______ living in a town.
6. You’ll find your way around the town __more easily____ if you have a good map.
C. Read the situations and complete the sentences. Use a comparative form (-er or more...)
1. The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.
It takes ___longer by train than by car_________________.
2. Dave and I went for a run. I ran ten kilometres. Dave stopped after eight kilometres.
I ran _____further than Dave________________________.
3. Chris and Joe both did badly in the exam. Chris got 60 but Joe only got 40.
Joe did ____worse than Chris________________________.
4. I expected my friends to arrive at about 4 o’clock. In fact they arrived at 2.30.
My friends ____arrived earlier than I expected__________.
D. Complete the sentences using as + adjective + as.
1. I’m quite tall but you are taller.
I’m not _as tall as you_.
2. My salary is high but yours is higher.
My salary isn’t ___as high as yours_________.
3. It’s still cold but it was colder yesterday.
It isn’t _____as cold today as it was yesterday__.
4. I still feel a bit tired but I felt a lot more tired yesterday.
I don’t __feel as tired as I felt yesterday________.
5. They’ve lived here for quite a long time but we’ve lived here longer.
They haven’t ___lived here as long as us ______.
E. Rewrite these sentences so that they have the same meaning.
1. Jack is younger than he looks. (as…as)
Jack isn’t __as old as he looks____________________.
2. I didn’t spend as much money as you. (more…than)
You _spent more money than me__________.
3. The station was nearer than I thought. (as…as)
The station wasn’t __as far as I thought___.
4. The meal didn’t cost as much as I thought. (less…than)
The meal __cost less than I expected_/ The meal cost cheaper than I expected___.
5. I go out less than I used to. (as…as)
I don’t _go out as much as I used to___.
6. I know them better than you do. (as…as)
You don’t __know them as well as me_____.
F. Complete the sentences using as + adjective / adverb + as. Choose one of the following:
bad comfortable fast long often quietly soon well well-qualified
1. I’m sorry I’m a bit late. I got here __as fast as__________ I could.
2. It was a difficult question. I answered it __as well as______ I could.
3. ‘How long can I stay with you?’ ‘You can stay ___as long as____ you like.’
4. I need the information quickly, so please let me know as soon as possible.
5. I like to keep fit, so I go swimming __as often as___________ I can.
6. I didn’t want to wake anybody, so I came in __as quietly as___ I could.
7. I’m going to sleep on the floor. It’s _as comfortable as _sleeping in that hard bed.
8. Why did he get the job rather than me? I’m _as well-qualified as__ him.
9. At first I thought you were nice but really you’re _as bad as__ everybody else.
• We use superlative adjectives to show the best, the biggest... when we have more than
two people/things/objects etc. To form the superlative add –est to one syllable adjectives
and with two or more syllable adjectives use most before the adjective.
• To make superlative form, add “the” in front of the adjective.
Comparative Form
more peaceful
more important
further / farther
simpler / more simple
Superlative Form
the coldest
the hottest
the largest
the prettiest
the most peaceful
the most important
the least
the most
the best
the furthest / the farthest
the simplest / the most simple
It’s the highest mountain in Europe.
She’s the best in the class.
• We often use the superlative form with the present prefect tense with “ever”.
Examples: Russia is the coldest place we’ve ever been to.
It’s the most beautiful church I’ve ever seen.
A. Complete the sentences. Use a superlative adjective.
1. It’s a very nice room. It’s the nicest room in the hotel.
2. It’s a very cheap restaurant. It’s __the cheapest restaurant in the town.
3. It was a very happy day. It was __the happiest day of my life.
4. She’s a very intelligent student. She’s_the most intelligent student in the class.
5. It’s a very valuable painting. It’s _the most valuable painting in the gallery.
6. Spring is a very busy time for me. It is the busiest time of the year.
B. Complete the sentences using comparative or superlative form of adjectives.
1. We stayed at __the cheapest_____________(cheap) hotel in the town.
2. Our hotel was ___cheaper than____________ (cheap) all the others in the town.
3. The U.S.A. is very large but Canada is __larger_____________ (large).
4. What’s _the longest_____________ (long) river in the world?
5. He was a bit depressed yesterday but he looks __happier_____________ (happy) today.
6. It was an awful day. It was __the worst_____________(bad) day of my life.
7. What is _the most popular______________ (popular) sport in your country?
8. Everest is __the highest_____________ (high) mountain in the world. It is __higher_ (high)
than any other mountain.
9. We had a great holiday. It was one of the _most enjoyable__ (enjoyable) holidays
we’ve ever had.
10. I prefer this chair to the other one. It’s __more comfortable_________ (comfortable).
C. What do you say in these situations? Use superlative +ever.
1. You’ve just been to the cinema. The film was extremely boring.
(boring / film / see) That’s__the most boring film I’ve ever seen______.
2. Your friend has just told you a joke, which you think is very funny.
(funny / joke / hear) That’s__the funniest joke I’ve ever heard_________.
3. You’re drinking coffee with a friend. It’s really good coffee.
(good / coffee / taste) This _is the best coffee I’ve ever tasted_________.
4. You decided to give up your job. Now you think this was a bad mistake.
(bad / mistake / make) It _was the worst mistake I’ve ever met__________.
5. Your friend meets a lot of people, some of them famous.
(famous / person / meet?) Who _is the most famous person you’ve ever met?_.
Infinitive + to
I want to go
to the party!
Use to + infinitive:
• after some verbs (want, need, would like, etc.)
I want to go to the cinema.
She needs to buy some new clothes.
I would like to stay there.
Nice to meet
• after be + adjectives (glad, happy,
nice, sorry, etc. )
It isn’t easy to find a job.
It is important to be punctual.
Tim will be glad to see you.
The negative infinitive is not to + verb.
Try not to be late.
It’s important not to be selfish.
Infinitive of purpose
Use to + the infinitive to say why you do something or to express purpose.
I came to this school to learn English. (NOT for learn English.)
He went to the florist’s to buy some flowers.
A: Why did you go to the party?
B: To meet new people.
NOTE: You can also use for + gerund to describe the exact purpose of a thing.
This knife is for cutting bread.
This liquid is for cleaning metal.
Verbs + infinitive with TO
would like
We decided to go to France.
He helped her to start the car.
We hope to see you again soon.
I’m learning to drive.
I need to go to the bank. I don’t have any money.
He offered to take me to the airport.
They are planning to get married soon.
He pretended to be ill, but he wasn’t really.
He promised to pay me back.
She started to cry.
I want to go home.
I’d like to buy a new car.
Remember to bring your dictionaries tomorrow.
Don’t forget to turn off all the lights.
I’m trying to find a job, but it’s very hard.
A. Fill in the blanks with an infinitive using the following verbs.
1. Would you like to see my stamp collection?
2. It is difficult to motivate teenagers when they come back from long holidays.
3. He promised to send me a postcard.
4. I’ve decided to get a part-time job.
5. It’s dangerous to drive fast.
6. Have you ever pretended to sleep?
7. What’s the most interesting food to eat in your country?
8. I started to laugh when I saw his face.
9. I think it isn’t possible to pass exams without studying.
10. Jane is trying to open the window, but it is stuck.
B. Match the sentence halves.
1. I went to the supermarket __g___
2. I phoned Tim ___f__
3. Why are you going out? ___e___
4. She bought some new clothes _d____
5. We had a nurse ___b__
6. I pay the house keeper 50 Liras __c___
7. Why do you always wake up early? _a___
a) Not to become late to work.
b) to look after our sick father.
c) to clean the windows.
d) to wear at her interview.
e) To get some fresh air.
f) to ask him about his new puppy.
g) to buy some milk.
Smoking is not allowed in here.
Use verb + ing:
● as the subject of a sentence
Smoking is bad for you.
Eating outside in the summer makes me feel good.
I hate getting
up early.
● after some verbs (like, love, hate, enjoy, etc.)
I love reading in bed.
She enjoys cycling at weekends.
I’m thinking of
earning money!
● after prepositions
He left without saying goodbye.
I’ve often dreamed of travelling the world.
● The negative gerund form is not + gerund
Examples: Not being at work is nice.
He enjoys not working.
Verbs + -ing
go on (=continue)
(don’t) mind
spend (time)
I enjoy reading in bed.
Have you finished getting dressed?
I have to go on working until 9 o’clock.
I hate getting up early.
I like having lunch in the garden.
I love waking up on a sunny morning.
I don’t mind cooking. It’s OK.
She spends hours talking on the phone.
I started reading this book last week.
Please stop talking.
start can be used with both the infinitive and verb + -ing with no real difference in
Examples: It started raining.
It started to rain.
start + ing is more common when we talk about a habit or a longer activity.
Examples: I started working here in 1998.
When did you start playing the piano?
try, remember, and forget can also be used + ing but the meaning is different.
Examples: Why don’t you try doing yoga?= experiment with something.
Please try not to make so much noise when you come home. = make an effort
to do.
Do you remember meeting him last year? = remember something after it
Please, remember to pay the bill. =don’t forget to do something.
Don’t forget to lock the door! = remember to do it.
I’ll never forget meeting my wife. = not to forget something after it happened.
After make and let use the infinitive without to.
(make / let + somebody + do something)
Example: Singing makes me feel good.
My parents don’t let me go out during the week.
A. Fill in the blanks with a gerund using the following verbs.
get up
live close
1. I am thinking of buying a new car.
2. When I am on holiday, I enjoy not getting up early.
3. I will do the shopping when I have finished cleaning the flat.
4. Living in a city can be very expensive.
5. Would you mind closing the door?
6. She is very happy about completing her project.
7. I am going to finish reading that book tonight.
8. Walking to work is better for you than taking the bus.
9. She is good at playing the cello.
10. Were you interested in becoming a pilot when you were younger?
B. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence.
1. Could you turn the TV off, please?
Would you mind turning the TV off, please?
2. Please don’t disturb me all the time!
Would you mind not disturbing me all the time?
3. It is not a good idea to go out in that cold weather.
It is better to avoid going out in that cold weather.
4. Jill said that we could go for a picnic.
Jill suggested going on a picnic.
5. Sometimes it is very difficult to learn English.
Learning English is sometimes very difficult.
C. Choose the correct alternative.
1. Sam doesn’t mind to work / working at night.
2. Would you like to come / coming to dinner on Sunday?
3. They haven’t started to clean / cleaning yet.
4. She offered to help / helping me but I said no.
5. You can’t go on to live / living like this. You should do something.
walk play
6. When I was a child, I hated to drink / drinking milk.
7. To bomb / Bombing of civilians horrified everyone.
8. I came here to tell / telling you the good news.
9. To read / Reading a book at nights always helps me go to sleep.
10. I am tired of to listen / listening your lies.
11. Do you spend hours to cook / cooking?
12. He insisted on to pay / paying for the meal.
D. Use the verbs given below and complete the sentences.
1. I remember being afraid of spiders as a young child.
2. Please remember to lock the door.
3. I was exhausted. I tried to keep my eyes open but I couldn’t.
4. A: This machine doesn’t seem to be working.
B: Try pressing the green button.
5. He started shouting / to shout when he burned his hand.
“have to”, “don’t have to”, “must”, and “mustn’t” are modal auxiliaries. They are
followed by the infinitive without to.
Have to / Don’t have to
She has to get up at 7.00 every day.
You have to drive on the left in the UK.
NOTE: “have to” changes into
“has to” when it is used with
third person singular pronouns.
I / you / we / they ► have to
she / he / it / ► has to
We don’t have to wear a uniform at this school.
He doesn’t have to work on Saturdays.
Do I have to buy a grammar book?
Does she have to study tonight?
I have to go. NOT I’ve to go.
Don’t contract have or has.
Use have to + infinitive to talk about rules and obligations, or to say something is
My brother has to travel a lot for his job. (It is required by his employer.)
We have to pay the rent every month. (It is required by the landlord.)
Use don’t have to + infinitive to say there is no obligation, or something is not
We don’t have to hurry. We’re early.
(It’s not necessary to hurry. We have plenty of time.)
I don’t have to get up early on Sunday. I can stay in bed if I want.
(It’s not necessary to get up early on Sunday.)
Use do / does to make questions and negatives.
Do I have to go? (NOT Have I to go?)
Do you have to work next weekend?
Maggie doesn’t have to study tonight because she has studied all day.
A. Look at this table about different jobs and use the information to complete the sentences,
using “have to” or “don’t have to.”
Shop assistants
Bank clerks
deal with the public
be polite to people
work with money
wear uniforms
Example: Shop assistants have to deal with the public.
1. Teachers don’t have to deal with the public.
2. Teachers don’t have to be polite to people.
3. Bank clerks have to be polite to people.
4. Shop assistants have to work with money.
5. Bank clerks have to work with money.
6. Doctors don’t have to work with money.
7. Shop assistants often have to wear uniforms.
8. Teachers don’t have to wear uniforms.
B. Complete the sentences using the correct forms of “have to” and the words in brackets.
Example: I have to leave (I / leave) now. I’ve got an appointment at the dentist’s.
You don’t have to come (You / not / come) with me now if you don’t want to.
1. Do I have to do_ (I / do) this work now, or can I do it tomorrow?
2. Do I have to pay_ (I / pay) in cash next week or can I give you a cheque?
3. I want to be an airline pilot. What qualifications do you have to have (you / have) to be a pilot?
4. You don’t have to decide (You / not / decide) today. You can tell me tomorrow.
5. A: Do you have to work (you / work) every weekend?
B: No, I don’t.
6. Turkish people have to pay_ (Turkish people / pay) taxes every year.
7. A: Does Joseph have to study?_ (Joseph / study) very much tonight?
B: No, he doesn’t. He reviewed a lot last night and he understood everything very well.
C. Complete the conversation using the correct forms of “have to.”
Example: (Good morning, I’d like to buy a travel card. What/ I / do)
A: (Good morning, I’d like to buy a travel card. What/ I / do)
Example: Good morning. I’d like to buy a travel card. What do I have to do?
B: (You / fill / in an application form.)
1. You have to fill in an application form.
A: (I / give / you / a photograph)
2. Do I have to give you a photograph?_
B: (No, you / not / give / me anything, except the money for the card)
3. No, you don’t have to give me anything, except the money for the card!
Must / Mustn’t
You must do your homework tonight.
She must tidy her room before she goes out.
No change for personal
You mustn’t smoke in class.
They mustn’t leave their bags here.
mustn’t = must not
Use must + infinitive to talk about rules and obligations.
You must turn off your mobile phones before coming into class.
All visitors must go to reception when they arrive.
must /mustn’t are the same for all persons. It is not often used in questions (have to is
more common).
I / you / he / she / it / we / they must leave soon.
Use mustn’t + infinitive to say something is prohibited.
You mustn’t smoke here.
Students must not copy their work from the Internet. It’s illegal!
You can use mustn’t or can’t to talk about rules.
You mustn’t park here. You can’t park here.
You mustn’t smoke in here. You can’t smoke in here.
● Must and have to are very similar, but there is a small difference. We normally use have to
for a general obligation (a rule at work or a law). We normally use must when the speaker
imposes the obligation (for example, a teacher to students or a parent to children). But often
you can use either.
● Mustn’t and don’t have to have completely different meanings.
You mustn’t go = You can’t go. It’s prohibited.
You don’t have to go = You can go if you want, but it’s not obligatory / necessary.
A. The ‘Hotel Strict’ is not a very nice hotel. It has a lot of rules. Read the list of rules, and
change each one into a sentence using “must” or “must not.”
Notice to guests
Leave your key at reception when you go out.
Do not take food into your room.
Pay for your room when you arrive.
Vacate your room by 9 a.m. on the day you leave.
Do not smoke in the restaurant.
Return to the hotel before 10 o’clock every night.
Example: You must leave your key at reception when you go out.
1. You mustn’t / must not take food into your room.
2. You must pay for your room when you arrive.
3. You must vacate your room by 9 a.m. on the day you leave.
4. You mustn’t/ must not smoke in the restaurant.
5. You must return to the hotel before 10 o’clock every night.
B. Complete the sentences with “must” or “mustn’t” and the verb in brackets.
Example: You must pay (pay) the bill before you leave the restaurant.
1. We mustn’t forget_ (forget) to buy some petrol. There isn’t much left.
2. I must go_ (go) to the shops this afternoon. I’ve got no food in the house.
3. You mustn’t worry (worry) so much; it’s bad for you.
4. We must book_ (book) the tickets before it’s too late.
5. You must lock_ (lock) the door with this key every time you go out.
6. I must phone (phone) Jane tonight. She asked me to call her.
C. Rewrite the sentences in brackets using “must” or “mustn’t / must not.”
Example: (Don’t tell lies. It’s bad.) You mustn’t tell lies. It’s bad.
1. (Do not open the door while the train is moving.)
Passengers must not / mustn’t open the door_ while the train is moving.
2. (Show identity cards when you enter the building.)
All staff must show identity cards when they enter the building.
3. (It’s bad for you to eat so much unhealthy food.)
You mustn’t / must not eat so much unhealthy food.
4. (Follow the instructions when using this machine.)
You must follow the instructions when using this machine.
5. (It’s important that I write this letter today.)
I must write this letter today.
D. Fill in the blanks with “don’t / doesn’t have to” or “mustn’t”.
Making an Omelette
Example: Making an omelette is easy. You don’t have to be a great chef to do it. Here are some
basic instructions.
1. First, break some eggs into a bowl. Break them carefully. You mustn’t let any of the shell get into
the omelette!
2. Next, mix up the eggs. You don’t have to use a special food processor – mixing them with a fork is
3. Then, heat some oil in a pan. Olive oil is best, but you don’t have to use olive oil. You can use
ordinary corn oil if you want. You mustn’t_ let the oil get too hot, or it will start to burn.
4. Pour the egg mixture into the pan, and mix it a little.
5. When the egg mixture gets a little hard, fold it in half. It doesn’t have to be very hard- just enough
so that you can fold it.
6. After a couple of minutes, turn the omelette over. Be careful! You mustn’t_ break it.
7. When the omelette is cooked, serve it immediately. You mustn’t let it go cold, or it will taste
horrible, be very hard just enough so that you can fold it.
He carried the rubbish to
the bin.
The train came through
the tunnel.
He swam across the
He walked along the road.
He skied down the
They walked over the
The man ran off the cliff.
The arrow is moving
round the ball.
The man poured the sand
into the timer.
We drove past the post
office and into Stacy
Climbers like to climb up
high mountains.
To express movement use a verb of movement. For example; go, come, run, walk, etc.
and a preposition of movement (up, down, etc.)
• Use into / out of + noun, but in / out (without a noun).
Examples: Come into the living room. Come in.
He went out of the house. He went out.
A. Complete the sentences with a correct preposition.
1. As soon as they reached the restaurant, they parked and got out of the car.
2. The child rode his bike around/ round the small pond.
3. Ask the bus driver to tell you where to get off.
4. Planes fly over our house twice a day and they make a terrible noise.
5. Rob jumped into the swimming pool with all his clothes on- he must have been drunk.
6. A car hit the girl while she was walking across the road.
7. I don’t know what her problem is; she walked past me and did not say “hi”.
8. Nancy did very well in her driving test but had difficulty driving up/down the hill.
9. Go over the bridge and turn left after the mosque.
10. We didn’t get to work on time so our boss was furious.
11. We moved to Germany in 1996.
12. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg.
13. Jack was climbing up the ladder when he slipped and fell down.
B. Choose the correct answer.
1. He escaped by jumping ______ a window and jumping ______ a waiting car.
a) over / into
b) between / off
c) out of / between
d) out of / into
2. To get to the teacher’s room, you have to go ______ those stairs and then go
______ the corridor to the end.
a) over / into
b) between / into
c) up / along
d) out of / between
3. She took the key ______ her bag and put it ________ the lock.
a) out of / in
b) up to / out of
c) over / into
d) between / into
4. He drove ______ me without stopping and drove ______ the department store.
a) from / into
b) towards / over
c) past / towards
d) in / next to
5. I took the old card ______ the computer and put the new one _______ it.
a) through / in
b) out of / in
c) out / between
d) out of / into
A condition is something that has to be done before something else can happen.
A condition is a situation or circumstance.
Conditional sentences are used to talk about possible or imaginary situations.
There are two possible structures in conditional sentences:
The if clause + the main clause
The main clause + the if clause
NOTE: If ‘the if clause’ is the first part of the sentence, PUT A COMMA before ‘the main
clause’. If ‘the main clause’ is the first part of the sentence, DON’T PUT A COMMA before
‘the if clause’.
If I go to the campus, I will draw some money from the bank.
the if-clause
the main clause
I will draw some money from the bank if I go to the campus.
the main clause
the if-clause
The First Type Conditional Sentences
The first type conditional sentences tell us about possible situations.
Use this type of conditional to talk about a possible future situation and its consequence.
This type of a conditional sentence is called the first type conditional.
In the first type conditional you can also use the imperative or can / may / must / should.
I’ll come if you like.
Will you help me if I make the dinner?
If I miss the bus, I’ll get a taxi.
If you miss the bus, get a taxi. (the main clause is an imperative)
If you miss the bus, you can get a taxi. (can is used in the main clause)
It may rain if it gets cooler. (may is used in the main clause)
A. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
If you and Melissa come (come) with me, we will do (do) the shopping together.
We won’t be able to catch (not be able to catch) the bus if we don’t hurry (not hurry).
Will you make (you / make) the dinner if I do (do) the washing-up?
If you drive (drive) on the motorway tonight, you will have to use (have to use) your
bright lights.
5. What will you cook (you/cook) if your parents come (come) tonight?
6. How will you get (get) to work if your husband doesn’t pick you up (not pick you up)?
7. You may/ will get (get) cold if you don’t put on (not put on) your coat.
8. How many students will attend (attend) if we open (open) a summer course? May I see the
hands, please?
9. Will you go (you / go) to Erin’s party if he invites (invite) you?
10. Don’t give (not / give) your bank account number if they ask (ask) you on the Internet!
B. Match the sentence halves.
1. Clean your room
2. If you eat too much fast food, __e___
3. If you don’t sort out your files
regularly, ___b____
4. You can ask your father about
your maths homework _a__
5. Eat olives __d___
a) if he doesn’t fall asleep in front of the TV.
b) you’ll get into trouble.
c) if your mother asks you to do it.
d) if you want smoother skin.
e) you won’t be able to lose weight.
C. Choose the correct alternative.
1. If you wear sandals in the mountains, you ____________ on the rocks.
a) may slip
b) slip
c) are slipping
2. Will you phone my boyfriend if I _____________ early?
a) won’t come
c) am not coming
b) don’t come
3. Take the bus home if your father ___________________.
a) doesn’t turn up
b) isn’t turn up
c) won’t turn up
4. If you wait for a moment, I _______________ my parents.
a) ask
b) will ask
c) am asking
5. If you forget to bring your dictionary to the class, your teacher _______ angry with you.
a) gets
b) is getting
c) will get
D. Look at the given example and rewrite the following sentences.
You should study hard because you want to pass your exam.
If you want to pass your exam, study hard.
1. Maybe I’ll have time this evening. Then I may help you.
If I have time this evening, I will help you.
2. Do not walk barefoot on the grass. You may get bitten by an insect.
If you walk on barefoot on the grass, you may get bitten by an insect.
3. You go to the disco tonight. Then you may have to listen to loud music.
If you go to the disco tonight, you may/will have to listen to loud music.
4. Do not eat too much chocolate. You may get sick.
You may/will get sick if you eat too much chocolate.
5. You should eat your breakfast. Because you want to be healthier.
If you want to be healthier, eat your breakfast/you should eat your breakfast.
6. Do not be late for work. Our boss really gets angry with this.
Our boss really gets furious if you are late for work.
Use this type of conditional to talk about an improbable (impossible) or hypothetical /
imaginary situation and its consequence. This type of a conditional sentence is called the
second type conditional.
Remember that although the past tense is used in the if clause, it has a present or future
Remember that would / wouldn’t is the same for all persons.
The contraction of would is ’d (I’d, you’d, she’d, etc.) and of would not is wouldn’t.
You can also use could + infinitive in the main clause.
With the verb ‘BE’ you can use ‘WERE’ instead of ‘WAS’ after I and he / she / it in the if
If a bear attacked me, I would run away. = I am imagining this situation. It is very
improbable that I’ll meet a bear.
If he was / were here, he’d help you. = He is not here so he can’t help you.
If I were / was a doctor, I would find a cure for cancer. = I am not a doctor. Therefore I am
not able to find a cure.
I wouldn’t call a taxi if I had a car. = Unfortunately I don’t have a car.
NOTE: In the expression “If I were you…” use ‘WERE’ not ‘WAS’ because
we often use this expression for advice.
Example: If I were you, I would apologize to him.
If I were you, I would talk to that girl. (I am not YOU; it is a hypothetical situation. I am
just telling about what I would do if that situation was real.)
I would make lots of changes in the education system if I were the Minister of Education.
(However, I am not the Minister of Education.)
I would buy a jeep if I had a great amount of money.( Unfortunately, I haven’t got that
amount of money. )
If your mother knew that girl, she wouldn’t talk like that. (But your mother doesn’t know
that girl. This is an imaginary situation.)
A. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. If I had (have) a lot of money, I would buy (buy) a detached house.
2. If somebody tried (try) to grab my bag in the street, I would hit (hit) him in the face and
run away as quickly as possible.
3. Luckily, we are travelling by bus. If we were travelling (travel) by plane, I would be
scared (be scared).
4. Ray wouldn’t brag (not brag) like that if he didn’t have (not have) that amount of money.
He inherited it from his grandfather.
5. If I were (be) you, I wouldn’t make up (not make up) with my boyfriend.
6. If your sister were/ was (be) a policewoman, she would fight (fight) with all the criminals
and arrest (arrest) them. She is so brave!
7. If I saw (see) the Prime Minister in the street, I would make (make) all my complaints
about the policies of the government.
8. She wouldn’t love (not love) him so much if he didn’t have (not have) that amount of
9. If you had to choose (have to choose) a country to live in, which country would it be (it /
10. How would you feel (you / feel) if your family threw (throw) a surprise birthday party for
B. Match the sentence halves.
1. I wouldn’t wear that funny dress
to the party ___d___
2. I would eat meat and rice ___c__
3. We wouldn’t go on a picnic today __e__
4. If Mike had more pocket money __b__
5. What would you do __a__
a) if you found a wallet in the street?
b) he would ask Jane out for dinner.
c) if it were on the menu.
d) if I were you.
e) if it were raining.
C. Choose the correct alternative.
1. I would visit my aunt if I _______________ time this weekend. But I have to work.
a) have
b) had
c) was having
2. If I won a million dollars from the lottery, I _______________ the world.
a) tour
b) will tour
c) would tour
3. How would your father give the separation pays if the company __________ bankrupt?
a) went
b) would go
c) goes
4. I __________________ pizza if I lived in Italy.
a) would always eat b) ate
c) will always eat
5. I wouldn’t shop online if I ______________ you. I think it is not safe.
c) am
a) be
b) were
D. Look at the given example and rewrite the following sentences.
Lisa is not here. We would go out and enjoy ourselves.
If Lisa was / were here, we would go out and enjoy ourselves.
1. I would like to buy that dress, but I don’t have enough money.
I would buy that dress if had enough money.
2. We are lucky that our parents are really tolerant. Otherwise, we wouldn’t be happy.
We wouldn’t be happy if our parents weren’t tolerant.
3. I am not the President. I would like to supply free food for the poor.
If I were the President, I would supply free food for the poor.
4. I can’t concentrate on my studies. It is not probable that I will pass.
I would pass if I concentrated on my studies.
5. Your sister is not tall enough to enter a Beauty Contest. She would be the queen of the
If your sister were tall, she would enter a Beauty Contest and would be a queen.
The Comparison of the First and Second Conditionals
Use the first conditional for possible future situations.
Example: If I have time tomorrow, I will help you. = Maybe I’ll have time.
Use the second conditional for improbable (impossible) or hypothetical/imaginary
Example: If I had time tomorrow, I’d help you. = But it is clear that I won’t have any time.
A. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. Would you help (you / help) the poor if you were (be) rich?
2. Call (call) your brother if he is (be) late.
3. I would come (come) with you to that reception if I didn’t have to work (not have to work)
this weekend. Unfortunately I am working.
4. If I went to live in Italy, I would choose (choose) Rome to stay in.
5. Visit (visit) us if you come (come) to London next month.
6. Come on! If you ask (ask) her gently, she won’t reject (reject) your dance offer.
7. Would your brother change (your brother / change) his car if he had (have) more money?
What do you think?
8. We could go on (go) on holiday if we finished (finish) all the work. But there are a lot of
things to do.
9. If I have (have) time next week, I will take (take) a 3-day holiday. It seems possible.
10. We would/ could change (change) all the clothes in our wardrobe if we were (be) rich.
B. Correct the mistakes in the sentences.
1. If diamond rings were affordable, they would become more popular.
2. What would you do if you saw a mouse in the middle of the room?
3. If I have time, I will try to complete my thesis this evening.
4. He wouldn’t be able to continue his studies if his grandparents didn’t help him financially.
5. If I went to Broadway, I would watch a popular musical. But it’s impossible.
6. If we were on holiday, we would go to the countryside.
7. Don’t close the door if you go out of the room.
8. Will you come and help me with my homework if you have time?
9. Would you come with me if I went to the end of the world?
10. You may slip on the floor if you wear those wet slippers.
I may go to the party, but I’m not sure.
We might have a picnic tomorrow, but it depends on the
might / may (not) is the same for
all persons:
I / you / he / she / it / we / they
may / might.
might not and may not aren’t
I may not have time to do everything today.
I might not go to the party. I haven’t decided yet.
usually contracted.
Use might / may and might not / may not + V1 to talk about a future possibility.
It might / may rain. = It’s possible that it will rain.
The weather might not / may not be sunny on Tuesday. = It’s possible that the weather
won’t be sunny on Tuesday.
The letter may come tomorrow. = It’s possible that the letter will come tomorrow.
NOTE: You can also use May I…/ May we… to ask for permission.
May I use your phone? (= Can I use your phone?)
May I leave this here? (= Can I leave this here?)
A. Complete the sentences, using “might” or “might not” and the verb in brackets.
Example: Accept their offer. You might not get (get) a better opportunity.
1. Take a coat with you. It might be (be) cold this evening.
2. We might go (go) to Greece this summer, but we haven’t booked anything yet.
3. A: What are you going to do tonight?
B: I’m not sure. I might stay (stay) at home. I’m tired.
4. I know Jane is at school today. But I don’t know where she is at the moment. She might be (be)
in the gym, or she might be (be) in the science lab.
5. I’ll try to change the time of my flight, but it might not be (be) possible. The planes are often full
at this time of year.
6. You might not find (find) a good hotel if you go along this street- there are not many hotels
B. Complete the conversation using “may” or “may not” and the verbs in brackets.
Jane: Are you going to the concert tomorrow?
Chris: I may go (go), but there may not be (be) any tickets left.
Jane: What will you do if you can’t go to the concert?
Chris: I’m not sure. I may not go (go) out at all. I may stay (stay) at home. I may watch (watch) a
Jane: What kind of film will you get?
Chris: I don’t know. I may get (get) a horror film. I like them!
I think you should change your job.
should / shouldn’t + infinitive is the
The government should do more for old people.
same for all persons.
I/ you / he / she / it / we / they should go.
You shouldn’t drink too much coffee.
He shouldn’t go to bed very late.
Should he care about his grades?
Should we take a break?
Use should / shouldn’t + infinitive to give somebody advice or when you want to say
something is a good idea or a bad idea.
You should cut your hair. = I think it is a good idea to cut your hair.
You should look for a better job. = I think it is a good idea to look for a better job.
You shouldn’t drive so fast. = I think it isn’t a good idea to drive so fast.
You can also use ought to / ought not to instead of should / shouldn’t. Ought to is more
formal than should.
You ought to change your job.
A: It’s really cold outside.
B: You ought to wear a warm jacket.
A. Complete the sentences, using “should” or “shouldn’t” and the words in brackets.
Example: You shouldn’t work (work) so hard. Have a holiday.
I enjoyed that film. We should go (go) to the cinema more often.
1. You shouldn’t run (You / run ) in hot weather. .
2. What should I cook (I / cook) for dinner tonight?
3. You should wear (You / wear) a coat. It’s cold outside.
4. You shouldn’t smoke (You / smoke). It’s bad for you.
5. Should I pay (I / pay) now or later?
6. The job is well-paid. I think you should apply (you/ apply) for this job.
7. You shouldn’t make (you/ make) a lot of repetitions in your essay.
8. I shouldn’t eat (I / eat) any more cake. I’ve already eaten too much.
9. This food is terrible. We should complain (We / complain) to the manager.
10. Which shirt do you think I should buy (I / buy) ?
B. Complete the sentences using the appropriate modal words listed below.
might (x2) / must (x2) / mustn’t / should / shouldn’t / have to / don’t have to / might not
1. I don’t know what to do. I might go to the cinema or watch a DVD at home.
2. When you have a small child in the house, you mustn’t leave small objects lying around.
3. Please make sure to water my plants while I am away. If they don't get enough water, they
might die.
4. We must save up some money for the future if we don’t want to face any economic difficulties.
5. Do you have to chew with your mouth open like that? It irritates me a lot.
6. You should consume organic food to lead a healthy life.
7. You shouldn’t worry so much. It doesn't do you any good.
8. We had better call Tony to see if he's at home before we go over to his house. He might not be
at home.
9. She wants to go to conservatory. That’s why she must work hard.
10. The book is optional. My professor said we don’t have to read it if we don't want to.
a) A: Where do you live now?
B: In Manchester.
A: How long have you lived there?
B: I have lived there since 1990.
b) A: Where do you work?
B: In a primary school.
A: How long have you worked there?
B: I've worked there for five years.
● We use the Present Perfect with FOR and SINCE to
talk about actions and states which started in the past
and still true now.
● We use for and since to mention the duration of the
action or the state.
● We can ask the duration with how long.
SINCE is followed by the mention of a specific
point in time: an hour, a day, a month, a year, etc.
FOR is followed by the mention of a
length/period of time.
6 pm
6 pm
11 pm (now)
11 pm (now)
Jane has been out since 6 pm.
(She went out at 6 pm and she is still out.)
Jane has been out for five hours.
(She went out five hours ago and she is still
NOTE: “Since” may also form a time clause in
simple past tense.
a) A: How long have you known Jack?
B: I've known him for 11 years /
a long time.
a) I haven't slept well since I left home three days
b) Since he bought it, Bob's had a lot of problems
with his car.
c) A: How long have you known Jack?
B: I've known him since 1998 / I started
I have been here
since eight o'clock.
since Tuesday.
since May.
since 2003.
since yesterday.
since January 3, 2001.
since last month.
since the match started
b) Jack has been abroad for about two months.
I have been here
for almost six months
for many years.
for about three weeks.
for two hours.
for ten minutes.
for a long time.
for ages.
A. Fill in “since” or “for”.
1. Sarah has lived in London __since________ 1993.
2. I haven’t had a good meal ___since_______ last Tuesday.
3. The house is very dirty. We haven’t cleaned it __for________ ages.
4. __Since________ Christmas, the weather has been quite good.
5. Mark has been ill _____since_____ Sunday.
6. Ann and I have been friends ____for______ years.
7. Mary has worked in London ___since_______ 18 January.
8. I’ve had a pain in my stomach ___since_______ I got up this morning.
B. Read the situations and write sentences with the words in brackets.
1. John tells you that his mother is in hospital. You ask him:
(how long / be / in hospital?) ___How long has she been in hospital?______________
2. Tim always wears the same jacket. It’s a very old jacket. You ask him:
(how long / have / that jacket?) _How long have you had that jacket?_______________
3. You know that Jane is a good friend of Carol’s. You ask Jane:
(how long / have / know / Carol?) _How long have you known Carol?_______________
4. Sarah is married. She got married two years ago. You say:
(Sarah / be / married / two years.) __Sarah has been married for two years.__________
5. You have a camera. You bought it in 2005. You say:
(I / have / this camera / 2005.) __I have had this camera since 2005.__________________
6. We last saw Sarah a month ago. We say:
(We / not see / Sarah / a month.) __We haven’t seen Sarah for month._________________
C. Complete the sentences with any appropriate time expressions as in the example.
Today is ___ the 14th of June___.
I bought this book ___two weeks ___ ago.
I have had this book since ___the first of June___.
I have had this book for ___two weeks___.
1. I have a pen.
I bought it ____last Friday________________.
I have had this pen for ______a week____________.
I have had this pen since __last June_____________.
2. Today is _____the 12th of May___________.
I moved to this city __four months ago____.
I have been in this city since ____the second of September______.
I have been in this city for ____a long time________________.
3. It is the year ___2010_________________.
I started going to school in the year __2000__________________.
I have been a student for __five years__________________.
I have been a student since _1995___________________.
4. I first met our teacher ___last year________________.
I have known her/him for _ten years___________________.
I have known her/him since __I started this school_______ .
(How long, for, since)
(How long, for)
a) A: How long has Tarantino been a
B: He has been a director for about 30
years / since the 1980s.
A: How many films has he made?
B: He’s made six films.
a) A: How long was Hitchcock a director?
B: He was a director for 50 years.
A: How many films did he make?
B: He made 52 films.
We use the Present Perfect with HOW
LONG, FOR, SINCE to talk about a period
of time which started in the past and still
true now.
We use the Past Simple with HOW LONG,
FOR to talk about a finished period of time
in the past.
b) A: How long have you been married?
B: I have been married for ten years /
since 2000.
In example (a), Tarantino became a director
about 30 years ago, in the 1980s and he is
alive and still a director now.
In example (b), I got married ten years ago in
2000 and I’m still married now. The period of
ten years started in the past and still continues
b) A: How long were you married?
B: I was married for two years.
In example (a), Hitchcock was a director
between 1930 and 1980. Now he is dead.
In example (b). I got married in 2003 and
got divorced in 2005. I was married from
2003 to 2005. The period of two years
started and finished in the past.
NOTE: We do not use SINCE here. You
can use from…to… or between … and …
A. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect.
1. For the last fifty years, medical scientists ____have made____ (make) many important
2. Since I ___came____ (come) here, I ____haven’t attended_____ (not / attend) any parties.
3. Eric ___went______ (go) to a party at Sally’s apartment last Saturday night.
4. Bill ___arrived______ (arrive) here three days ago.
5. Bill ____has been______ (be) here since the 22nd.
6. Mr Clark __worked_____ (work) in a bank for 15 years before he gave it up.
7. Janet __has worn___ (wear) her new blue dress only once since she ____bought____ (buy) it.
She ___wore___ (wear) it to her brother’s wedding last month.
8. A: Where do you live?
B: In Boston.
A: How long __have you lived___ (you / live) there?
B: For five years.
A: Where ___did you live___ (you / live) before that?
B: In Chicago.
A: And how long ___did you live___ (you / live) in Chicago?
B: For two years.
9. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You __have already missed__
(miss / already) too many classes. You __missed__ (miss) two classes just last week.
10. The Pharaohs __ruled____ (rule) Egypt for thousands of years.
11. When he was 13, his parents ______moved_____ (move) to the United States and now they
live there. He is 25 now, so this means that they _have lived___ (live) there for 12 years.
12. The Earth __was_____ (be) formed about 4500 million years ago.
13. He __has been______ (be) on TV and in the newspapers almost every day since he
__rescued____ (rescue) the girl from the frozen pond.
14. I __have changed___ (change) most of my furniture since I ___moved___ (move) house.
15. I ___threw___ (throw) away most of my old clothes when I __moved___ (move) house.
Used to / didn’t use to
used to wear glasses.
didn’t use to wear glasses.
• We can use the expression “used to” when we wish to refer to a past habit which
has now stopped.
I used to go to that shop but now I don’t go there anymore.
● Use “used to” / “didn’t use to” + V1 for things that happened repeatedly or over a long period
of time in the past, but are usually not true now, for example for things which happened when
you were a child.
I used to have long hair.
I used to play in the street.
I didn’t use to have a TV.
• You can also use the past simple here:
Example: I had long hair when I was a child.
I / you / he / she / it / we /
Yes, I / you / he / she / it
No, I / you / he / she / it
use to wear glasses?
/ we / they did.
/ we / they didn’t.
• Remember that “used to” only exists in the past. Don’t use “use to” for present habits. Use the
present simple + usually.
Example: I usually cook in the evenings.
A. Fill the blanks with “used to / didn’t use to” and a suitable verb form the box below.
study (x2) / smoke / be (x2) / go (x2) / play / eat / believe
1. He __used to go / study___ online to find the information he wanted.
2. My sister _didn’t used to go____ to school by bicycle but now she cycles.
3. I _used to be____ thinner than my brother but now I am not.
4. My father __used to smoke___ many cigarettes a day. He gave up smoking last year.
5. She __used to study___ night after night for her degree in Economics.
6. They __didn’t used to play___ football when they were younger, but now they do.
7. I __used to believe___ the world was flat but now I realize it’s not true.
8. That building is now a cinema. It _used to be____ a hotel.
9. When you lived near that shopping centre, _did____ you ___use to go__ there very often?
10. __Did you use to eat___ a lot of sweets when you were a child?
B. Fill the blanks with “used to” and a suitable verb to make meaningful sentences.
1. Our teachers did not use to check our homework every day, so I usually did not do it.
2. In the past our school did not use to have a canteen. We used to go to the nearby bakery to buy
3. My brother didn’t use to be so hardworking. After our little sister was born, he started to study
harder to get the attention of our parents.
4. In the past people didn’t use to watch as much TV as people do today.
5. You didn’t use to like Marion that much. What has changed?
Present Simple:
am / is / are + V3
Active Sentence: Somebody cleans this room everyday.
Passive sentence: This room is cleaned everyday.
Past Simple:
was / were + V3
Active Sentence: Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.
Passive Sentence: This room was cleaned yesterday.
Present Passive
Past Passive
(+) Many accidents are caused by careless
(+) We were woken up by a loud noise last
(-) I’m not often invited to parties.
(-) I wasn’t accepted for the job.
(?) How is this word pronounced?
(?) How much money was stolen?
We use an active verb to say what the subject does.
My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1990.
It is a big company. It employs two hundred people.
• We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject.
This house is quite old. It was built in 1990.
Two hundred people are employed by the company.
• When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant.
A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (Somebody stole it but we don’t know who)
Is this room cleaned every day? (Does anybody clean it? it’s not important who)
• If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use “by + person / thing etc.
This house was built by my grandmother.
Two hundred people are employed by the company.
A. Put the verb into correct form, Present Simple or Past Simple, active or passive.
1. Water covers most of the Earth’s surface.
2. The telephone was invented in 1876.
3. The concerts are held at the university.
4. The park gates are locked at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
5. The letter was posted a week ago and it arrived yesterday.
6. The boat sank quickly but fortunately everybody was rescued.
7. Ron’s parents died when he was very young. He and his sister are brought up by their
8. I was born in London but I grew up in the north of England.
9. While I was on holiday, my camera was stolen from my hotel room.
10. While I was on holiday, my camera disappeared from my hotel room.
11. Why was Bill sacked from his job? What did he do wrong?
12. Why did Sue resign from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?
13. The company is not independent. It is owned by a much larger company.
14. I saw an accident last night. Somebody called an ambulance but nobody was injured so the
ambulance wasn’t needed.
15. Where were these photographs taken? In London? Did you take them yourself?
B. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form.
1. Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving.
2. Cheese is made from milk.
3. The roof of the building was damaged in a storm a few days ago.
4. There’s no need to leave a tip. Service is included in the bill.
5. You were invited to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
6. A cinema is a place where films are shown.
7. In the United States, elections for President are held every four years.
8. Originally, the book was written in Spanish and a few years ago it was translated into English.
9. We were driving along quite fast but we were overtaken by lots of other cars.
10. This problem was taken at the meeting.
C. Complete the sentences with Present or Past Passive.
1. He was offered a new job last week.
2. The bridge was blown off yesterday.
3. This novel was written by Hemingway.
4. Flies are caught by spiders.
5. All the trees were cut down yesterday.
6. We are told to go home now.
7. Their purse was stolen yesterday night in the disco.
8. He was thrown out of the bar a week ago.
9. Pigs are used to find truffles.
10. The old theatre was reopened last Friday.
11. She was asked about the accident by the police yesterday.
12. Rotten eggs were thrown at him last month in Bristol.
13. Mice are caught by cats.
14. I am often asked for her address.
D. Rewrite the sentences in the active or passive.
1. Someone stole a priceless painting from the art museum yesterday.
A priceless painting was stolen from the art museum yesterday.
2. Many buildings were destroyed by the storm in the Philippines last week.
Storm destroyed many buildings in the Philippines last week.
3. The company installed a new computer system last month.
A new computer system was installed last month.
4. Higher wages are expected by the employees in the coming year.
Employees expect higher wages in the coming year.
5. The managers hold a weekly evaluation meeting every Friday afternoon.
A weekly evaluation is held by the managers every Friday afternoon.
6. The cartoon character Mickey Mouse was created by Walt Disney.
Walt Disney created the cartoon character Mickey Mouse.
7. People use compass to find directions in the open sea.
Compass is used to find directions in the open sea.
8. They didn’t invite Sarah to the party.
Sarah wasn’t invited to the party by them.
9. The teacher gives us an exam every two weeks.
We were given an exam by the teacher every two weeks/An exam is given to us by the
teacher every two weeks.
10. A bomb blast killed 70 people in Iraq yesterday.
70 people were killed by a bomb blast in Iraq yesterday.
(?) and (-)
(-) and short answers
no one
• We use indefinite pronouns when we don’t say exactly who, what or where.
Somebody broke the window.
There is someone at the door.
I want to go somewhere hot at the weekend.
Did you buy anything at the shops?
• We use somebody / someone, something, somewhere in positive sentences.
Someone called you in the morning, but didn’t leave a message.
I must buy something for Sue’s birthday.
He lives somewhere near our school.
• We use anybody / anyone, anything, anywhere in negative sentences and questions.
We never visit anybody on Sundays.
Did you meet anyone interesting at the party?
Are you doing anything tonight?
I need to do some shopping. There isn’t anything to eat in the fridge.
You can’t go anywhere until you finish your homework.
Did you go anywhere at the weekend?
• We can use nobody / no one, nothing, nowhere instead of not + anyone / anybody, anything,
anywhere. They have a negative meaning, so we don’t use NOT with them.
There is no one in the classroom. = There isn’t anyone in the classroom.
There is nothing to eat. = There isn’t anything to eat.
We went nowhere at the weekend. = We didn’t go anywhere at the weekend.
• Nobody / no one, nothing, nowhere are also used in short answers.
A: Who’s in the bathroom?
B: Nobody. It’s vacant.
A: What did you buy Jane for her birthday?
B: Nothing. I didn’t have any money.
A: Where are you going for holidays?
B: Nowhere. I have to stay home and revise for my exams.
• Indefinite pronouns are always singular and need a singular verb when they are the subject of
the sentence.
There is someone waiting for you at the door.
Is there anything in your bag?
Someone has to do something to solve this problem.
A. Fill in the blanks with “someone / anyone / no one / something / anything / nothing”.
1. He definitely hasn’t read the story. He doesn’t know anything about it.
2. I’ve got nothing in my bag. It’s empty.
3. Kevin went into the shop and bought something to eat for the evening.
4. Did anyone give you anything on your birthday?
5. Someone phoned me. When I asked her name, she said something, but I didn’t understand
6. A: Did you eat anything for lunch?
B: No, I didn’t eat anything. I looked for something to eat, but there was nothing in the fridge.
7. A: Did anything happen while I was away?
B: No, nothing happened.
8. A: Look! Someone is standing next to your car.
B: I can’t see anyone there.
B. Rewrite the following sentences without changing the meaning.
Use “anything / nothing / anyone / no one / anywhere / nowhere”.
1. She ate nothing for lunch.
She didn’t eat anything for lunch.
2. I didn’t see anyone at the bus stop.
I saw no one at the bus stop.
3. Children don’t have anywhere to play football.
Children have nowhere to play football.
4. There are a lot of interesting places in Madrid, but they went nowhere.
There are a lot of interesting places in Madrid, but they didn’t go anywhere.
5. There’s nothing clean in this cupboard.
There isn’t anything clean in this cupboard.
6. Sam won’t invite anyone to her house tonight.
Sam will invite no one to her house tonight.
7. We are tired, but there isn’t anywhere to sit.
We are tired, but there is nowhere to sit.
8. Carol didn’t buy anything when she went shopping.
Carol bought nothing when she went shopping.
C. Circle the correct answer.
1. Does __A__ know where Casey is?
a) anyone
b) someone
c) anywhere
2. It’s very dark in here. I can’t see __C__.
a) somewhere
b) nothing
c) anything
3. “Who was at the door?” “__A__.”
a) No one
b) Something
c) Anyone
4. I’m bored. There’s __C___ to do here.
a) something
b) anything
c) nothing
5. When I opened the door, __B__ was standing there holding a parcel.
a) something
b) someone
c) nothing
D. Complete the sentences with suitable indefinite pronouns.
1. Young people in this town are not happy because there’s nowhere cheap for them to go at
2. Someone/Somebody sent me these flowers, but I don’t know who because there isn’t a card on
3. You must keep your money somewhere safer than in the drawer in your bedroom.
4. I’m hungry. I didn’t eat anything for lunch because I was really busy.
5. I didn’t know anyone/anybody at the party, so I didn’t enjoy it.
6. Just leave your shirt somewhere in the bedroom and I’ll put it away later.
7. There wasn’t anywhere nice to stop and have a picnic, so we went to a restaurant instead.
8. She was very upset because no one/nobody in the office remembered her birthday.
9. I could smell something burning in the kitchen, so rushed to check.
10. The tickets for the concert cost us nothing. They are a present from my aunt.
Too, Too much, Too many
• We use too, too much, too many to say that there is “more of something” than is wanted
or needed.
• Use too + an adjective.
Is it too rainy to travel in Peru in December?
I don’t want to go out. I’m too tired.
Use too much + uncountable nouns (e.g. coffee, time).
I’m stressed. I have too much work, so I should work too much.
We spent too much money.
Use too many + countable nouns (e.g. cakes, people)
My diet is unhealthy. I eat too many cakes and sweets.
There are too many cars on the road. We won’t get to
the birthday party on time.
Use enough before a noun to mean “all that is necessary”.
Do you eat enough vegetables?
We have enough time to visit Blue Mosque.
I don’t drink enough water.
Use enough after an adjective.
This dress isn’t big enough.
Are you strong enough to lift these bags?
You aren’t old enough to vote.
A little / Very little - A few / Very few
We use “a little / very little / a few / very few” to talk about small quantities.
Use a little / little with uncountable nouns (ice, money, flour, etc.).
A little means “not much, but enough”.
She has got a little time. She can go shopping.
I have got a little flour. I can make a pancake.
Little means “hardly any, almost nothing” and can go with very for emphasis.
We’ve got (very) little tea. There’s not enough for all of us.
Liz has got (very) little money. She can’t go shopping.
Use a few / few with plural countable nouns (cars, people, problems, etc.).
A few means “not many, but enough.”
We’ve got a few apples. We can make an apple pie. (We have got enough oranges.)
I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we often meet almost every night.
Few means “hardly any, almost none” and can go with very for emphasis.
There are (very) few candies in the box. It’s almost empty. (There are only one or two candies.)
She has (very) few oranges. She can’t make orange juice.
A. Fill in the gaps with “too”, “too much”, “too many” or “enough”.
1. A: How did you spoil the meal?
B: I put too much salt in it.
2. A: Could I speak to you for a moment, please?
B: I’m sorry but I’m too busy.
3. She knows enough English to apply for the scholarship.
4. A: All the students failed the exam.
B: Yes, the reason is that too many of the questions were difficult.
5. A: I want to play basketball in the school team.
B: I think you can. You’re tall enough.
6. This bag is too heavy for me to carry.
7. I wasn’t accepted for the job. They thought I wasn’t qualified enough.
8. Jackie likes climbing, but she doesn’t have enough equipment.
9. A: You shouldn’t eat too much red meat.
B: I know but I just can’t help doing it.
10. A: Why are you worried?
B: I can’t wait for the results of the exams. I am not patient enough.
B. Underline the correct answer.
1. She is too/ too much/too many young to get married.
2. She isn’t clever much/ enough/ a little to go to university.
3. There were too many/ too much / little people at their wedding ceremony.
4. Could I have a little/ a few / very few milk in my coffee, please?
5. I drink too many/too much/ many wine.
6. She has much/ enough/ a few money to go abroad.
7. I’m bored. There is very little/ a little/ a few to do on Monday evenings.
8. The bus drivers are on strike. That’s why very few/ a few/ very little people came to work.
9. Could you lend me few/ a few/ very few dollars?
10. I’m afraid I will be very little/a little late, because we are having a few/ few problems at
11. She isn’t very popular. She has a few/ few/ little friends.
• A phrasal verb = verb + particle (preposition / adverb)
Example: get up, turn on, look for, etc.
1. Some phrasal verbs don’t have an object and can NOT be separated.
Phrasal verb with
no object
stay up
We often stay up late at the weekend.
stand up
Stand up and leave the room immediately.
hurry up
We’d better hurry up or we’ll be late.
get up
I was very tired and couldn’t get up early.
come back
Trudy is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Monday.
come in / sit down
Come in and sit down please.
go back
Go back to page 22 and answer the questions.
go away
Why don’t we go away for the weekend?
go out
The candle went out and left us in darkness.
be over
The match will be over at about 5.30.
2. Some phrasal verbs have an object and can NOT be separated. With these phrasal verbs,
the verb and the particle are never separated.
Phrasal verb with an object
look after
I looked after my sister.
I looked after her.
look for
I’m looking for the keys.
I’m looking for them.
look forward to
I’m looking forward to the holidays.
I’m looking forward to them.
get on with
I don’t get on with my father.
I don’t get on with him.
3. Some phrasal verbs have an object and can be separated. With these verbs you can put
the particle (on / off) before or after the object. When the object is a pronoun
(me, it, him etc.), it always goes between the verb and particle. You can see the list of
these phrasal verbs below.
A. Fill in the blanks with the correct phrasal verb form.
pay back
call back
turn on
look up
turn down
give up
give back
put away
find out
take off
1. I the radio on to get the weather forecast.
2. If I loan you money, will you pay me back.
3. In many cultures, it is appropriate to take off your shoes when entering a house.
4. I must call her back when we get to the office, she must be waiting my call.
5. I takes time to look up new vocabulary words in the dictionary.
6. When are you going to give that book back to your teacher?
7. Today knowing English is a “must”, so never give up learning English!
8. Vicky's parents are going to be so mad when they find out she got a tattoo.
9. I told you kids to put your toys away.
10. I'm studying! Please turn down the TV.
take back
go away
get up
fill in
look forward
come back
write down
look after
put on
try on
11. Don't forget to fill in all the blanks on the application.
12. Make sure you put on a sweater before you go outside.
13. The dress my grandmother bought for me didn't fit, so I took it back and exchanged it for a
pair of pants.
14. Write down the directions so you don't forget them.
15. Try on the pants before you buy them.
16. When my sister goes on vacation, I look after her dog.
17. What time are you coming back? Shall I wait for dinner?
18. I am looking forward to travelling to New York next month. I can’t wait to see my cousin.
19. I yelled at the dogs to make them go away.
20. What time did you get up this morning? Normally you don’t wake up so early.
A: I love football.
B: So do I.
A: I went to university.
B: So did I.
A: I’m not married.
B: Neither am I.
A: I don’t smoke.
B: Neither do I.
• To say we have something in common with somebody, we use:
So + (modal) auxiliary verb + I =
to agree with a positive statement.
A: I can skate.
B: So can I.
Neither + (modal) auxiliary verb + I =
to agree with a negative statement.
A: I don’t like this film.
B: Neither do I.
• The (modal) auxiliary verb is always positive, and depends on the tense.
A: I love fish.
A: I don’t drink coffee.
B: So do I.
B: Neither do I.
A: I am tired.
A: So am I.
A: I’m not hungry.
B: Neither am I.
A: I went abroad on holiday last year.
A: So did I.
A: I didn’t watch TV last night.
B: Neither did I.
A: I was at home all day yesterday.
B: So was I.
A: I wasn’t naughty as a child.
B: Neither was I.
A: I’ve been to Spain.
B: So have I.
A: I haven’t met the new director yet.
B: Neither have I.
A: I can smell something burning.
B: So can I.
A: I can’t decide what to study at college.
B: Neither can I.
A. Read the following statements and write in the correct auxiliary verb to agree with them.
1. A: I have to be at work early tomorrow.
B: So ___have__ I.
2. A: I don’t go out after work.
B: Neither __do___ I.
3. A: I can’t rely on my computer.
B: Neither ___can__ I.
4. A: I saw a brilliant film yesterday.
B: So ___did__ I.
5. A: I have bought a nice present for Jane.
B: So __have___ I.
6. A: I would like to study abroad.
B: So __would___ I.
7. A: I don’t want to go out.
B: Neither __do___ I.
8. A: I don’t exercise.
B: Neither __do___ I.
B. Read the following statements and agree with them.
1. A: I couldn’t attend the meeting yesterday.
2. A: I haven’t seen that film yet.
3. A: I refused the manager’s offer.
4. A: I didn’t agree with the director.
5. A: I can’t take time off during the week.
6. A: I wash my hair three times a week.
7. A: I haven’t got anything to do.
8. A: I haven’t tried skiing before.
9. A: I don’t have enough time to revise before exams.
10. A: I phoned my parents the other day.
B: Neither could I.
B: Neither have I.
B: So did I.
B: Neither did I.
B: Neither can I.
B: So do I.
B: Neither have I.
B: Neither have I.
B: Neither do I.
B: So did I.
C. Choose the correct word/phrase.
1. A: I don’t mind the noise.
2. A: I’m exhausted.
3. A: I didn’t finish it on time.
4. A: I’d like a coffee please.
5. A: I’m staying in tonight.
6. A: I have to leave early.
7. A: I have already seen that film.
8. A: I couldn’t sleep on the bus.
9. A: I won’t stay in tomorrow.
10. A: I don’t write letters.
B: Neither do / don’t I.
B: So / Neither am I.
B: Neither I did / did I.
B: So had / would I.
B: So I am / am I.
B: So have / do I.
B: So I have / have I.
B: So / Neither could I.
B: Neither won’t / will I.
B: So / Neither do I.
First, we ate dinner.
Then, he arrived.
We had eaten dinner when he arrived.
• We form the Past perfect with had + V3 form of the main verb.
I’d / had eaten.
I hadn’t eaten
Had I eaten?
Short answer
Yes, I had.
No, I hadn’t.
You’d / had eaten.
You hadn’t eaten
Had you eaten?
Yes, you had.
No, you hadn’t.
He’d / had eaten.
He hadn’t eaten
Had he eaten?
Yes, he had.
No, he hadn’t.
She’d / had eaten.
She hadn’t eaten
Had she eaten?
Yes, she had.
No, she hadn’t.
It’d / had eaten.
It hadn’t eaten
Had it eaten?
Yes, it had.
No, it hadn’t.
We’d / had eaten.
We hadn’t eaten
Had we eaten?
Yes, we had.
No, we hadn’t.
They’d / had eaten. They hadn’t eaten
Had they eaten?
Yes, they had.
No, they hadn’t.
• We use the Past Perfect Tense when we are already talking about the past, and want to talk about
an earlier past action. That is, an action that happened before another past action.
The police arrested the man who had broken into a shop.
(First, he broke into the shop; then, the police arrested him.)
I was late for school this morning. When I arrived, the class had started.
(First, the class started; then, I arrived.)
She had finished her work before she went out.
(First, she finished her work; then, she went out.)
Jess wasn’t at home. He had gone out.
I could hardly recognize her. She had changed a lot.
• We use the past perfect and past simple in one sentence to show the order of past events. In this
case, we use time conjunctions like when, before, after, etc.
Had she studied German before she moved to Germany?
The meeting had started when the press came.
She left after she had packed her suitcase.
After she had eaten lunch, she went back to the office.
• Past Perfect Tense is also used with so and because.
I overslept this morning because I hadn’t set my alarm clock.
The teacher was angry because we hadn’t done our homework.
I hadn’t studied hard, so I did poorly in the exam.
She had lost her wallet, so she was upset.
A. Read the following sentences and then write which action happened first, and which was
1. When I had finished writing the report, I ate dinner.
First: I finished the report
Second: I ate dinner
2. When the visitors came home, she had made a cake.
First: She made a cake.
Second: The visitors arrived.
3. She looked much better because she had lost weight.
First: She lost weight.
Second: She looked better.
4. He suddenly remembered that he hadn’t unplugged the iron.
First: He didn’t unplug the iron.
Second: He remembered that.
5. He couldn’t play in yesterday’s match because he had injured his knee.
First: He injured his knee.
Second: He couldn’t play at the match.
B. Complete the sentences using “hadn’t + V3” of the given verbs. Then, match the sentence
1. There was dust everywhere in the house because __d__
2. There was nothing to eat at home because __e__
3. The cat and the dog were starving because __f__
4. There were dirty dishes all over the kitchen because __c__
5. The house smelled terrible because __b__
6. There was a lot of rubbish in the kitchen because __a__
a) she hadn’t taken it out for days.
b) she hadn’t opened the windows to let fresh air in.
c) she hadn’t put any of them in the dishwasher.
d) she hadn’t cleaned it since her parents left.
e) she hadn’t done any shopping for a week.
f) she hadn’t remembered to feed them properly.
C. Use the verbs in the Past Perfect Simple.
1. The other day, I ran into a friend who I hadn’t seen (not, see) for ages.
2. The robber was able to walk right into the house because you hadn’t locked (not, lock)
the door.
3. We lost the game because we hadn’t practiced (not, practice) hard enough.
4. At school, Jim quickly copied the homework from a friend’s notebook as he hadn’t done (not,
do) it himself.
5. We ate at a restaurant last night because I hadn’t bought (not, buy) anything for dinner.
6. When we came back, it was cold in the house because Simon hadn’t closed (not, close)
7. All day long, Terry was angry with me just because I hadn’t greeted (not, greet) him in the
8. When I met Jane at eleven o’clock, she hadn’t had (not, have) breakfast yet.
9. I couldn’t go to the cinema with my friends last night because I hadn’t finished (not, finish) my
10. Fred answered my question although I hadn’t asked (not, ask) him.
D. Use the Past Simple or Past Perfect forms of the verbs in brackets.
1. After James had spent (spend) his holiday in Spain he wanted (want) to learn Italian.
2. Sue had phoned (phone) Dad at work before she left (leave) for her trip.
3. Mel turned on (turn on) the radio after he had washed (wash) the dishes.
4. When she arrived at the stadium, the match had started (start). She missed the beginning.
5. After James had come (come) home, he fed (feed) the cat.
6. She tidied (tidy) the living room after the children had gone (go) to bed.
7. I was (be) very tired because I had studied (study) too much.
E. Join the following sentences using the words in brackets.
1. Jim was happy. He received a letter from his girlfriend. (because)
Jim was happy because he had received a letter from his girlfriend.
2. The boy saw the accident. He called the police immediately. (as soon as)
As soon as the boy had seen the accident, he called the police.
3. The driver was sorry. Somebody was injured in the accident. (because)
The driver was sorry because somebody had been injured in the accident.
4. I found my ring. I looked for it for a week. (after)
I found my ring after I had looked for it for a week.
5. He saved enough money. He bought a small flat. (before)
He had saved enough money before he bought a small flat.
F. Use the Past Simple or the Past Perfect forms of the verbs in brackets.
1. Sue had (have) a stomachache after she had eaten (eat) the whole cake.
2. Before she bought (buy) a house, she had sold (sell) her new car.
3. Chris was (be) tired because she hadn’t slept ( not, sleep) for two days.
4. Had you finished (finish) answering all the questions when the bell rang (ring)?
5. The police took (take) the man to the police station because he had robbed (rob) a bank.
6. Before I arrived (arrive), the bus had already left (leave) the station.
7. When the police arrived (arrive), the robber had run (run) away, so they couldn’t catch him.
8. Jennifer called (call) her husband as soon as she had arrived (arrive) at the hotel in Venice.
9. I didn’t want (not, want) to go to the cinema yesterday because I had seen (see) the film
10. After the guests had left (leave), I lay (lie) on the sofa to rest.
G. Read the paragraph below and do the exercises.
Max and Alice got married last June. They had met at a party only a week earlier. Alice called her
parents to give them the news. Max had already moved in her flat. They threw a small party to
celebrate the wedding. They met each other’s parents for the first time at the wedding. Some time
later, their marriage started to go wrong. Max had started to behave strangely.
I. Mark the sentences as True or False
__F__1. Max had met Alice’s parents before the wedding.
__F__2. They had known each other for a long time when they got married.
__T__3. Their marriage started to go wrong because of Max’s strange behaviors.
II. Put the events of the story into correct order.
__3__ a) Max moved in her flat.
__8__ b) Their marriage started to go wrong.
__5__ c) They threw a party.
__1__ d) They met at a party.
__6__ e) They met each other’s parents.
__4__ f) Alice gave her parents the news.
__2__ g) They got married.
__7__ h) Max started to behave strangely.
How to report statements
Direct Speech = giving speaker’s exact words in quotation marks.
Reported Speech / Indirect Speech = giving the idea of speaker’s words. Not all the exact words
are used; pronouns and verb forms may change. Quotation marks are NOT used.
I like this book a lot.
Reported / Indirect speech:
The girl said that she liked the book a lot.
● If the sentence begins in the present, we do not change the tense in Reported Speech (Indirect
Samantha: "I work in an office." (Direct Speech)
Samantha says (that) she works in an office. (Reported Speech / Indirect Speech)
● If the sentence begins in the past, we often change the tenses in Reported speech /
Indirect Speech.
Samantha: "I work in an office." (Direct Speech)
Samantha said (that) she worked in an office. (Reported Speech / Indirect Speech)
● In some cases, tense change is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true.
Example: John: "My brother is at Leipzig University." (Direct Speech)
John said (that) his brother was at Leipzig University. (Reported / Indirect Speech)
John said (that) his brother is at Leipzig University. (Reported / Indirect Speech)
Mandy: "The sun rises in the East."
Mandy said (that) the sun rose in the East.
Mandy said (that) the sun rises in the East.
The difference between “said” and “told”
● You can’t use “said” with an object or pronoun.
Example: He said he loved her. NOT He said her he loved her.
● You must use “told” with an object.
Example: He told her that he loved her. NOT He told that he loved her.
How to report questions
● When we report a question, we make changes as we do in the statements. (change of pronouns,
tenses, and time expressions).
● In Reported Speech there is no question form. In other words, the questions turn into statements.
When reporting questions, the word order becomes “subject - verb – object (SVO)” as in
● To report questions we don’t use “say” or “tell”. We use “ask”.
Reporting yes / no questions:
● We use whether or if when we report yes/no questions, and we change the question order into
statement order (SVO).
Can you solve the problem?
Reported / Indirect Speech:
The teacher asked if / whether they could solve the problem.
Reporting information questions:
We use the question word (what, when, etc.), but we change the question word order into
statement order (SVO).
What is the answer?
Reported / Indirect Speech:
The teacher asked what the answer was.
Changes in Tenses
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Simple Present
Simple Past
Simple Past
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Past Continuous
Past Continuous /Past Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Direct Speech
Reported / Indirect Speech
Tom: "I work in the garden."
Tom said (that) he worked in the garden.
Tom: "I worked in the garden."
Tom: "I have worked in the garden."
Tom said (that) he had worked in the garden.
Tom: "I had worked in the garden."
Tom: "I am working in the garden."
Tom said (that) he was working in the garden.
Tom: "I was working in the garden."
Tom said (that) he was working / had been working
in the garden.
Tom: "I have been working in the garden."
Tom said (that) he had been working in the garden.
Tom: "I had been working in the garden."
Tom said (that) he had been working in the garden.
Tom: "I will work in the garden."
Tom said (that) he would work in the garden.
Tom: "I can work in the garden."
Tom said (that) he could work in the garden.
Tom: "I may work in the garden."
Tom said (that) he might work in the garden.
Tom: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)
Tom said (that) he would work in the garden.
(could, might, should, ought to)
Changes in Time Expressions
this (evening)
that (evening)
today / this day
that day
these (days)
those (days)
the day before / the previous day
(a week) ago
(a week) before
last weekend
the weekend before / the previous weekend
next (week)
the following (week) / the week after
the next day / following day / the day after
Changes in Pronouns
In reported speech, pronouns often change (subject / object / possessive pronouns and possessive
Sarah: “I teach Physical Education at a high school.”
Sarah said (that) she teaches Physical Education at a high school.
The students: “Can we listen to the song again?”
The students asked if they could listen to the song again.
Jack: “I want to buy a present for my wife.”
Jack said (that) he wanted to buy a present for his wife.
Joe told Sarah, “I will call you.”
He told her (that) he would call her.
Ayşe: I love small houses.
Buğra: You should see mine.
Buğra told Ayşe (that) she should see his.
A. Underline the correct answer.
1. They told / told her that she was very hardworking.
2. Matthew asked the man what he did / did he do.
3. He told Kate that she / he was beautiful.
4. She said she will / would go to the conference.
5. He said / told her he loved her.
6. Sarah asked him if he had been / had he been abroad.
B. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.
1. him / wanted to / she / that / said / Sheila / marry
Sheila said that she wanted to marry him.
2. him / if / liked / they / the school / asked / he
They asked him if he liked the school.
3. said / phone / they / would / her / they
They said they would phone her.
4. to / she / Italia / never / that / been / had / said / she
She said that she had never been to Italia.
5. asked / where / him / I / was / he / from
I asked him where he was from.
6. she / liked / we / us / cake / the / if / asked
She asked us if we liked the cake.
C. Finish the sentences using Reported Speech.
1. Jessica to me: "You must clean your room now.”
Jessica told me (that) I must clean my room then.
2. Mark to Melinda: "You shouldn’t leave your books around.”
Mark told Melinda (that) she shouldn’t leave her books around.
3. Richard: "I am going to ride a horse tomorrow."
Richard said he was going to ride a horse the next day / the following day / the day after.
4. Charles: "I didn't have time to do my homework yesterday."
Charles said he hadn’t had time to do his homework the day before / the previous day.
5. Raymond to me: "Do you want to dance with me?"
Raymond asked me if I wanted to dance with him.
6. Grandma to grandpa: "Where are my glasses?"
Grandma asked grandpa where her glasses were.
7. Neighbour: “Who stole the money from your purse last week?”
My neighbour asked who had stolen the money from her / his purse the previous week / the
week before.
8. Susan to Mike: “I had been waiting for you for so long when I heard the news.”
Susan told Mike (that) she had been waiting for him for so long when she had heard the
9. Janet asked Mary: “Are you going to Brandon’s party with Bobby next Tuesday?”
Janet asked Mary if / whether she was going to Brandon’s party with Bobby the following
10. Mother to child, “I can’t tolerate your behaviours these days!”
Mother told the child that she couldn’t tolerate his / her behaviours those days.