The Audiolingual Method (1930-60) Pre-task • What does the name of the method imply about it? • Is first language allowed ? • What skills are emphasized? • What is the role of the teacher and the student? • In what place did it first get popular ? • Is grammar learned deductively or inductively? • What does “drill” mean? • Does the method have other names? Origin • In the late 1930s to early 1940s: the Reading Approach was adopted based on the Coleman Report (1929) where reading some of the great works of literature and philosophy was introduced. Also it was used for the decline of DM due to lack of native-speaking teachers, no opportunities for L2 use, and usefulness of the Reading Approach. This also called the Michigan Method or the Army Method) Origin • During the World War II: the Audiolingual Method was developed due to military needs of foreign language learners. At the same time, the Oral or Situational Approach gave rise in Britain (1940-60s). It advocated organizing structures around situations that would provide the learner with maximum opportunity to practice the target language, usually choral repetition Origin • Based on Behavioral Psychology, Structuralism and the Contrastive Analysis (the morpheme studies), this method aims at using the target language communicatively by intensive oral drilling of basic sentence patterns but it was challenged by Noam Chomsky in the early 60s. 理 論 基 礎 行為心理學的主張 (Behaviorism): 1. All things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. 所有有機體做的事包含思考、行為 與感覺都是一種行為。 2. All behaviors are acquired through conditioning- reinforcement or punishment 所以的行為可以藉由制約中的增強 與懲罰而學習得來 • 3. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. •認為學習會在外在環境的刺激下引發行為上可 以觀察到的改變 • 4. Behaviors can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states • 依據行為主義的看法，人類心理在學習過程中 產生的內在變化可以完全不管，只需要觀察與 測量外在的行為改變，作為學習的指標。 行為心理學解說 (Behaviorism): •人與其他動物的學習歷程是類似的 •研究 S-R學習歷程 • Stimulus-Response •排除任何 (內在) 認知過程的研究 •Ex: 無法直接觀察的 (thoughts, motives, and emotions) •學習 = “外顯行為”的改變 •“None” or “All” •有機體 (organism) 生來是一張白紙 (blank slates) •Experience write on this slate. •學習的產生是受外在環境的影響 行為心理學在教育上的應用 • • • • Emphasis on behavior Drill and practice Breaking Habit Reward (Reinforcement) for desirable behavior • Many critics argue that behaviorism is a onedimensional approach to behavior and that behavioral theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts, and feelings. • 強調可觀察的與外顯的行為，忽視學習者本身的認知 能力 缺 點 • Behaviorism does not account for other types of learning, especially learning that occurs without the use of reinforcements or punishments. • 複雜的人類行為分析不完整 ，只能適用於簡單的行為 • People and animals are able to adapt their behavior when new information is introduced, even if a previous behavior pattern has been established through reinforcement. • 人類以及動物在接收新資訊時，即使之前行為模式已 經經過增強建立，他們也一樣可以改變他們的行為。 優 點 • Behaviorism is based upon observable behaviors, so it is easier to quantify and collect data and information when conducting research. 行為主義以可觀察的行為為基礎，所以做研究時 比較容易收集以及量化資料與訊息。 • Effective therapeutic techniques such as intensive behavioral intervention, token economies, and discrete trial training are all rooted in behaviorism. These approaches are often very useful in changing maladaptive or harmful behaviors in both children and adults. 有效的治療技巧像是密集的行為干預、代幣酬賞 制 還有嘗試錯誤訓練都深植行為主義。在改變小 孩還有成人的偏差行為上都很有成效。 • Charles Fries, trained in structural linguistics, established the first English Language Institute in the University of Michigan in 1939. For him, unlike Direct Method, the language was taught by systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensive oral drilling of its basic sentence patterns. Expertise in linguistics was regarded as a necessary foundation for expertise in language teaching. • Particularly, the Contrastive Analysis in applied linguistics was strongly applied to predict language interference. Influenced by the launching of the first Russian satellite in 1957, the U.S. government acknowledged the need for a more intensive effort to teach foreign languages in order to prevent Americans from being isolated from scientific advanced made in other countries. Funds for the study and analysis of modern languages were provided. • Language teaching specialists combined structural linguistic theory, contrastive analysis, behaviorist psychology and aural-oral procedures to propose Audiolingualism. (coined by Nelson Brooks in 1964) It even provided methodological foundation for English teaching materials at college and university level to prosper such as the Lado English Series (1977) and English 900 (1964). Principles • Learning Theory: Learning is based on the principles of Behaviorism. Habit Formation is essential. (1) Habit Formation (2) Reinforcement (Behavior is likely to occur again) (3) Stimulus----organism (4) No reinforcement or negative reinforcement (Behavior is not likely to occur again) (5)Rules are induced from examples. Explicit grammar rules are not given. Learning is inductive. (6)Habit formation is actualized by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills. Language Theory: • Every language is seen as its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels. (i.e. phonological, morphological, and syntactic). • There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening, 2. Speaking, 3. Reading, 4. Writing. Everyday speech and oral skills are important. Perfect pronunciation is required. • Language is primarily for Oral Communication. • Culture: Culture consists of everyday behavior, and lifestyle of the target language community. Culture is presented in dialogues. • Teacher’s Role: T is like an orchestra leader. S/he directs and controls the language behavior of the students. T is a good model of the target language, especially for pronunciation and other oral skills. The differences between Sts’ L1 and L2 should be known by the teacher. • Students’ Role: Sts are imitators of the teacher as perfect model of the target language or the native speakers in the audio recordings. • Interactions: T-St, ST- ST. Interactions are mostly initiated by the teacher. • Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is taught directly. L1 is prohibited because it may cause bad habit formations. Vocabulary is introduced through dialogues. • Grammar Teaching: Explicit rules are not provided. Students induce the rules through examples and drills. Students acquire grammar by being exposed to patterns through mechanical drills. • Materials: Dialogues • Syllabus: Grammar points and sentence patterns in structural syllabus. • Role of L1: L1 is not allowed in the classroom. It may cause interference and bad habit formation in L2. • Evaluation: Discrete-point tests are used. Each item (question) should focus on only one point of the language at a time. E.g. distinguishing between words in a minimal pair. Appropriate verb form in a sentence. • Error Correction: Errors are corrected by the teacher since errors may cause bad habit formation. • Sts’ Feelings: There are no principles related to Sts’ feelings. • Skills: Listening and speaking are emphasized. There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading 4. Writing Goals • To enable students to speak and write in the target language. • To make students able to use the target language automatically without stopping to think. • To form new habits in the target language. Techniques • • • • • Dialogue Memorization Minimal pairs: (for teaching pronunciation) Complete the dialogue Grammar Games Mechanical Drills a) Repetition drill b) Chain Drill c) Single- slot Substitution Drill (T gives one cue to be substituted) d) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill (T gives more than one cue to be substituted) Influences • Language learning is a process of habit formation. • A variety of drills are introduced to language teaching. Disadvantages • Students are found to be unable to transfer skills acquired to real communication outside the classroom. • The experience of studying through audiolingual procedures may be boring and unsatisfying. • The theoretical foundation of auidolingualism was attacked as being unsound both in terms of language theory and learning theory. • Language is not a habit structure: Ordinary linguistic behavior involves innovation, formation of new sentences and patterns. (Transformation Grammar by Noam Chomsky 1966) • Human language use is not limited behavior but is created anew from • underlying knowledge of abstract rules. Sentences are not learned by imitation and repetition but generated from the learner’s underlying competence.