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03 Audio-Lingüal Method

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The Audiolingual Method (1930-60)
Pre-task
• What does the name of the method imply
about it?
• Is first language allowed ?
• What skills are emphasized?
• What is the role of the teacher and the
student?
• In what place did it first get popular ?
• Is grammar learned deductively or
inductively?
• What does “drill” mean?
• Does the method have other names?
Origin
• In the late 1930s to early 1940s: the
Reading Approach was adopted based
on the Coleman Report (1929) where
reading some of the great works of
literature and philosophy was introduced.
Also it was used for the decline of DM
due to lack of native-speaking teachers,
no opportunities for L2 use, and
usefulness of the Reading Approach.
This also called the Michigan Method
or the Army Method)
Origin
• During the World War II: the
Audiolingual Method was
developed due to military needs of
foreign language learners. At the
same time, the Oral or Situational
Approach gave rise in Britain
(1940-60s). It advocated
organizing structures around
situations that would provide the
learner with maximum opportunity
to practice the target language,
usually choral repetition
Origin • Based on Behavioral
Psychology, Structuralism and
the Contrastive Analysis (the
morpheme studies), this
method aims at using the
target language
communicatively by intensive
oral drilling of basic sentence
patterns but it was challenged
by Noam Chomsky in the
early 60s.
理
論
基
礎
行為心理學的主張 (Behaviorism):
1. All things which organisms do —
including acting, thinking and
feeling—can and should be regarded as
behaviors.
所有有機體做的事包含思考、行為
與感覺都是一種行為。
2. All behaviors are acquired through
conditioning- reinforcement or
punishment
所以的行為可以藉由制約中的增強
與懲罰而學習得來
• 3. Conditioning occurs through interaction
with the environment.
•認為學習會在外在環境的刺激下引發行為上可
以觀察到的改變
• 4. Behaviors can be studied in a systematic
and observable manner with no consideration
of internal mental states
• 依據行為主義的看法,人類心理在學習過程中
產生的內在變化可以完全不管,只需要觀察與
測量外在的行為改變,作為學習的指標。
行為心理學解說 (Behaviorism):
•人與其他動物的學習歷程是類似的
•研究 S-R學習歷程
•
Stimulus-Response
•排除任何 (內在) 認知過程的研究
•Ex: 無法直接觀察的 (thoughts, motives, and
emotions)
•學習 = “外顯行為”的改變
•“None” or “All”
•有機體 (organism) 生來是一張白紙 (blank
slates)
•Experience write on this slate.
•學習的產生是受外在環境的影響
行為心理學在教育上的應用
•
•
•
•
Emphasis on behavior
Drill and practice
Breaking Habit
Reward (Reinforcement) for desirable
behavior
• Many critics argue that behaviorism is a onedimensional approach to behavior and that
behavioral theories do not account for free will and
internal influences such as moods, thoughts, and
feelings.
• 強調可觀察的與外顯的行為,忽視學習者本身的認知
能力
缺
點
• Behaviorism does not account for other types of
learning, especially learning that occurs without the
use of reinforcements or punishments.
• 複雜的人類行為分析不完整 ,只能適用於簡單的行為
• People and animals are able to adapt their behavior
when new information is introduced, even if a
previous behavior pattern has been established
through reinforcement.
• 人類以及動物在接收新資訊時,即使之前行為模式已
經經過增強建立,他們也一樣可以改變他們的行為。
優
點
• Behaviorism is based upon observable behaviors,
so it is easier to quantify and collect data and
information when conducting research.
行為主義以可觀察的行為為基礎,所以做研究時
比較容易收集以及量化資料與訊息。
• Effective therapeutic techniques such as
intensive behavioral intervention, token
economies, and discrete trial training are all
rooted in behaviorism. These approaches are
often very useful in changing maladaptive or
harmful behaviors in both children and adults.
有效的治療技巧像是密集的行為干預、代幣酬賞
制 還有嘗試錯誤訓練都深植行為主義。在改變小
孩還有成人的偏差行為上都很有成效。
• Charles Fries, trained in structural
linguistics, established the first English
Language Institute in the University of
Michigan in 1939. For him, unlike Direct
Method, the language was taught by
systematic attention to pronunciation
and by intensive oral drilling of its basic
sentence patterns. Expertise in
linguistics was regarded as a necessary
foundation for expertise in language
teaching.
• Particularly, the Contrastive Analysis in
applied linguistics was strongly applied to
predict language interference. Influenced by
the launching of the first Russian satellite in
1957, the U.S. government acknowledged the
need for a more intensive effort to teach
foreign languages in order to prevent
Americans from being isolated from scientific
advanced made in other countries. Funds for
the study and analysis of modern languages
were provided.
• Language teaching specialists
combined structural linguistic theory,
contrastive analysis, behaviorist
psychology and aural-oral procedures
to propose Audiolingualism. (coined by
Nelson Brooks in 1964) It even
provided methodological foundation for
English teaching materials at college
and university level to prosper such as
the Lado English Series (1977) and
English 900 (1964).
Principles
• Learning Theory: Learning is based on the
principles of Behaviorism. Habit Formation is
essential.
(1) Habit Formation
(2) Reinforcement (Behavior is likely to
occur again)
(3) Stimulus----organism
(4) No reinforcement or negative
reinforcement (Behavior is not likely
to occur again)
(5)Rules are induced from examples. Explicit
grammar rules are not given. Learning is
inductive.
(6)Habit formation is actualized by means of
repetitions and other mechanical drills.
Language Theory:
• Every language is seen as its own unique
system. The system is comprised of several
different levels. (i.e. phonological,
morphological, and syntactic).
• There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening,
2. Speaking, 3. Reading, 4. Writing.
Everyday speech and oral skills are important.
Perfect pronunciation is required.
• Language is primarily for Oral
Communication.
• Culture: Culture consists of everyday
behavior, and lifestyle of the target
language community. Culture is presented
in dialogues.
• Teacher’s Role: T is like an orchestra
leader. S/he directs and controls the
language behavior of the students. T is a
good model of the target language,
especially for pronunciation and other oral
skills. The differences between Sts’ L1 and
L2 should be known by the teacher.
• Students’ Role: Sts are imitators of the
teacher as perfect model of the target
language or the native speakers in the
audio recordings.
• Interactions: T-St, ST- ST. Interactions
are mostly initiated by the teacher.
• Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is taught
directly. L1 is prohibited because it may
cause bad habit formations. Vocabulary is
introduced through dialogues.
• Grammar Teaching: Explicit rules are not
provided. Students induce the rules
through examples and drills. Students
acquire grammar by being exposed to
patterns through mechanical drills.
• Materials: Dialogues
• Syllabus: Grammar points and sentence
patterns in structural syllabus.
• Role of L1: L1 is not allowed in the
classroom. It may cause interference and
bad habit formation in L2.
• Evaluation: Discrete-point tests are used.
Each item (question) should focus on only
one point of the language at a time. E.g.
distinguishing between words in a minimal
pair. Appropriate verb form in a sentence.
• Error Correction: Errors are
corrected by the teacher since
errors may cause bad habit
formation.
• Sts’ Feelings: There are no
principles related to Sts’ feelings.
• Skills: Listening and speaking are
emphasized. There is a natural
order of skills.
1. Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading
4. Writing
Goals
• To enable students to
speak and write in the
target language.
• To make students able to
use the target language
automatically without
stopping to think.
• To form new habits in the
target language.
Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
Dialogue Memorization
Minimal pairs: (for teaching pronunciation)
Complete the dialogue
Grammar Games
Mechanical Drills
a) Repetition drill
b) Chain Drill
c) Single- slot Substitution Drill (T
gives one cue to be substituted)
d) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill (T
gives more than one cue to be
substituted)
Influences
• Language learning is a process of habit
formation.
• A variety of drills are introduced to
language teaching.
Disadvantages
• Students are found to be unable to transfer
skills acquired to real communication outside
the classroom.
• The experience of studying through
audiolingual procedures may be boring and
unsatisfying.
• The theoretical foundation of auidolingualism
was attacked as being unsound both in terms
of language theory and learning theory.
• Language is not a habit structure: Ordinary
linguistic behavior involves innovation,
formation of new sentences and patterns.
(Transformation Grammar by Noam Chomsky
1966)
• Human language use is not limited behavior
but is created anew from
• underlying knowledge of abstract rules.
Sentences are not learned by imitation and
repetition but generated from the learner’s
underlying competence.
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