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67th edition
Contents
For 66 years,
the BP
Natural
gasStatistical Review of World
Electricity
Energy
has
provided
high-quality
objective
and
46 Generation
1Group chief executive’s introduction 26 Reserves
Production data
and consumption
Generation by fuel
2 2017 at a glance
globally28consistent
on world energy48markets.
33 Prices
3Group chief economist’s analysis
The review
is one of the most widely respected
Carbon
34 Trade movements
and
authoritative
publications
in
the
field
of
energy
Primary energy
49 Carbon dioxide emissions
economics,
used
for
reference
by
the
media,
Coal
8 Consumption
36 Reserves
and prices
academia,
world governments
and energy Key materials
9 Consumption by fuel
38
Production
and
consumption
50 Production
companies. A new edition is published every
June.
Introduction
CO2
Oil
12
14
20
22
24
Nuclear energy
Reserves
41 online
Consumption
Production and consumption Discover more
Prices
All the tables and charts found in the latest printed
edition are available at bp.com/statisticalreview
Hydroelectricity
Refining
plus a number of extras, including:
• The energy charting
tool – view
Trade movements
42 Consumption
predetermined reports or chart specific data
according to energy type, region, country
and year.
Renewable energy
51 Reserves
51 Prices
Appendices
52 Approximate conversion factors
52 Definitions
53 More information
• Historical data from 1965 for many sections.
44Other renewables consumption
45 Biofuels production
• Additional data for refined oil production
demand, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity,
nuclear energy and renewables.
• PDF versions and PowerPoint slide packs of
the charts, maps and graphs, plus an Excel
workbook of the data.
• Regional and country factsheets.
• Videos and speeches.
Energy Outlook
Discover more online
Watch the BP Energy Outlook 2017 video,
containing
ourare
projections
of long-term energy
All the tables and charts found in the printed
edition
available
trends to 2035. Download the booklet and
at bp.com/statisticalreview plus a number of
extras,
including:
presentation materials at bp.com/energyoutlook
• T
he energy charting tool – view predetermined
reports or chart
Join the conversation
specific data according to energy type,#BPstats
region, country and year.
Download the BP World Energy app
Explore the world of energy from your tablet or smartphone.
Customize charts and perform the calculations. Review
the data online and offline. Download the app for free from
the Apple App Store and Google play store.
• Historical data from 1965 for many sections.
Additional
Download
the BP World Energy app
country and regional coverage for all consumption tables.
Explore the world of energy from your tablet or
• Additional data for refined oil production
demand,
natural
gas,andcoal,
smartphone.
Customize
charts
perform the
calculations. Review the data online and offline.
hydroelectricity, nuclear energy and renewables.
Download the app for free from the Apple
• PDF versions and PowerPoint slide packs
of the
maps
App Store
andcharts,
Google play
store.
and graphs, plus an Excel workbook and database format of the data.
• Regional and country factsheets.
• Videos and speeches.
Disclaimer
The data series for proved oil and gas reserves in BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2017 does not necessarily
meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance, as
This year’s Statistical Review introduces two changes
in how
oilUS
and
gas are
reported
energy units.
First,
primaryrepresent
consumption
ofofenergy
published
by the
Securities
and
Exchange in
Commission,
nor does
it necessarily
BP’s view
proved from oil is now reported in tonnes of oil
by country. Rather,
the data GJ
series
has been compiled
using the
a combination
of primary
official
sources
equivalent where one tonne of oil is defined as 10 reserves
Gcal (gigacalories)
or 41.868
(gigajoules).
Second,
tables now
report
natural
gasandvolumes in terms of a standardized gas at
third-party data.
Methodological changes
a temperature of 15˚C and a pressure of 1013 mbar with a gross calorific value of 40 MJ (megajoules) per cubic metre.
Group chief executive’s introduction
As well as highlighting these longer-term trends, this year’s Statistical
Review also shines a light on the shorter-term developments affecting
our industry. In the oil market, yet another year of robust demand growth,
combined with the production cuts of OPEC and other participating
countries, allowed oil inventories to fall back towards more normal levels.
But the rapid growth of US tight oil over the same period should caution
us that the recent firming in oil prices is unlikely to persist. In BP, we remain
firmly focused on efficiency, reliability and capital discipline.
In natural gas markets, another year of strong expansion of global LNG
supplies helped to improve the accessibility of gas around the globe, with
clear signs that the major regional gas markets are becoming increasingly
integrated. This greater accessibility and integration should help to underpin
the long-term use of natural gas.
Welcome to BP’s Statistical Review of
World Energy which records the events of
2017, a year in which global energy markets
took a partial step back from the exceptional
momentum of recent years towards a lower
carbon energy system.
Prior to 2017, there had been three successive years of little or no growth
in carbon emissions from energy consumption. This came about through
accelerating gains in energy efficiency muting growth in energy demand,
and rapid growth in renewable energy combined with successive falls in
global coal consumption leading to improvements in the fuel mix.
That progress partially reversed last year. Growth in energy demand picked
up as gains in energy efficiency slowed, coal consumption increased for the
first time in four years, and carbon emissions from energy consumption grew.
This reversal should not come as a complete surprise. As we highlighted at
the time, in addition to benefitting from longer-term structural forces, some
of the exceptional performance seen in recent years had been boosted by
temporary, cyclical developments, particularly in China, and so some reversal
was always likely.
Our industry operates and makes decisions at many different frequencies.
Day-to-day, year-to-year, we need to understand how the markets in which
we operate are changing and developing as new sources of supply emerge
and demand evolves. Over the longer-term, we need to gauge the forces
shaping the energy transition and ensure that we play our part in meeting the
dual challenge of supplying the energy the world needs to grow and prosper,
while also reducing carbon emissions.
These judgements and decisions require timely and reliable data. This is the
role that the Statistical Review has been playing for the past 67 years. I know
that in BP we find the data and analysis invaluable for our own decision
making. I hope you find it a useful resource for your own work.
Let me conclude by thanking BP’s economics team and all those who
helped us prepare this review – in particular those in the governments
around the world who contributed their official data again this year.
Thank you for your continuing cooperation and transparency.
Bob Dudley
Group chief executive
June 2018
Those longer-term forces shaping the transition continued last year.
Renewable energy grew strongly again, with particularly striking gains in
solar capacity and generation. Natural gas was the largest source of energy
growth, boosted by a massive programme of coal-to-gas switching in
industrial and residential sectors in China.
But much more progress is needed. In particular, data included in this year’s
Review for the first time highlight the need for greater advances in the power
sector. The power sector really matters. It absorbs more primary energy
than any other sector. It accounts for over a third of carbon emissions from
energy consumption. However, despite the huge policy push encouraging
a switch away from coal and the rapid expansion of renewable energy in
recent years, there has been no improvement in the mix of fuels feeding
the global power sector over the past 20 years. Astonishingly, the share of
coal in 2017 was exactly the same as in 1998. The share of non-fossil fuels
was actually lower, as growth in renewables has failed to compensate for
the decline in nuclear energy. The failure to make any inroads into the power
sector since the turn of the century should be both a cause for concern and
a focus for future action.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
1
2017 at a glance
Global primary energy consumption grew
strongly in 2017, led by natural gas and
renewables, with coal’s share of the energy
mix continuing to decline.
Energy developments
• Primary energy consumption growth averaged 2.2% in 2017, up
from 1.2% last year and the fastest since 2013. This compares with
the 10-year average of 1.7% per year.
• By fuel, natural gas accounted for the largest increment in energy
consumption, followed by renewables and then oil.
+2.2%
Growth of global primary energy consumption,
the fastest growth since 2013
• Gas trade expanded by 63 bcm, or 6.2%, with growth in LNG
outpacing growth in pipeline trade.
• The increase in gas exports was driven largely by Australian and
US LNG (up by 17 and 13 bcm respectively), and Russian pipeline
exports (15 bcm).
Coal
• Energy consumption rose by 3.1% in China. China was the largest
growth market for energy for the 17th consecutive year.
• Coal consumption increased by 25 million tonnes of oil equivalent
(mtoe), or 1%, the first growth since 2013.
Carbon emissions
• Carbon emissions from energy consumption increased by 1.6%,
after little or no growth for the three years from 2014 to 2016.
• Consumption growth was driven largely by India (18 mtoe), with
China consumption also up slightly (4 Mtoe) following three
successive annual declines during 2014-2016. OECD demand fell
for the fourth year in a row (-4 mtoe).
Oil
• Coal’s share in primary energy fell to 27.6%, the lowest since 2004.
• The oil price (Dated Brent) averaged $54.19 per barrel, up from
$43.73/barrel in 2016. This was the first annual increase since 2012.
• Global oil consumption growth averaged 1.8%, or 1.7 million barrels
per day (b/d), above its 10-year average of 1.2% for the third
consecutive year. China (500,000 b/d) and the US (190,000 b/d)
were the single largest contributors to growth.
• Global oil production rose by 0.6 million b/d, below average for
the second consecutive year. US (690,000 b/d) and Libya
(440,000 b/d) posted the largest increases in output, while Saudi
Arabia (-450,000 b/d) and Venezuela (-280,000 b/d) saw the
largest declines.
• Refinery throughput rose by an above-average 1.6 million b/d, while
refining capacity growth was only 0.6 million b/d, below average for
the third consecutive year. As a result, refinery utilization climbed
to its highest level in nine years.
Natural gas
• Natural gas consumption rose by 96 billion cubic metres (bcm),
or 3%, the fastest since 2010.
• World coal production grew by 105 mtoe or 3.2%, the fastest rate
of growth since 2011. Production rose by 56 mtoe in China and
23 mtoe in the US.
Renewables, hydro and nuclear
• Renewable power grew by 17%, higher than the 10-year average
and the largest increment on record (69 mtoe).
• Wind provided more than half of renewables growth, while solar
contributed more than a third despite accounting for just 21% of
the total.
• In China, renewable power generation rose by 25 mtoe – a country
record, and the second largest contribution to global primary
energy growth from any single fuel and country, behind natural gas
in China.
• Hydroelectric power rose by just 0.9%, compared with the 10-year
average of 2.9%. China’s growth was the slowest since 2011, while
European output declined by 10.5% (-16 mtoe).
• Global nuclear generation grew by 1.1%. Growth in China (8 mtoe)
and Japan (3 mtoe) was partially offset by declines in South Korea
(-3 mtoe) and Taiwan (-2 mtoe).
• Consumption growth was driven by China (31 bcm), the Middle
East (28 bcm) and Europe (26 bcm). Consumption in the US fell by
1.2%, or 11 bcm.
Power generation
• Global natural gas production increased by 131 bcm, or 4%, almost
double the 10-year average growth rate. Russian growth was the
largest at 46 bcm, followed by Iran (21 bcm).
• Power generation rose by 2.8%, close to the 10-year average.
Practically all growth came from emerging economies (94%).
Generation in the OECD has remained relatively flat since 2010.
• Renewables accounted for almost half of the growth in power
generation (49%), with most of the remainder provided for by
coal (44%).
• The share of renewables in global power generation increased from
7.4% to 8.4%.
Key materials
• Cobalt production has grown by only 0.9% per annum since 2010,
while lithium production has increased by 6.8% p.a. over the
same period.
• Cobalt prices more than doubled in 2017, while lithium carbonate
prices increased by 37%.
Left: China Hong Kong SAR at night.
2
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Group chief economist’s analysis
Growth in GDP and energy
Annual change, %
6%
5%
Non-OECD
World
OECD
GDP
Primary Energy
energy productivity
GDP
Primary Energy
energy productivity
4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
-1%
Energy in 2017: two steps forward, one step back
At first blush, some of last year’s data might seem a little disappointing.
Growth in overall energy demand is up; gains in energy intensity are down.
Coal consumption grew for the first time in four years. And, perhaps most
striking of all, carbon emissions are up after three consecutive years of little
or no growth.
What does this tell us about the energy transition? Is it progressing less
rapidly than we thought? Has it gone into reverse?
I would caution against being too alarmed by the recent data. We always
knew that some of the exceptional outcomes seen in recent years reflected
the impact of short-run cyclical factors, as well as longer-term structural
forces shaping the energy transition. Global GDP was growing at below
average rates, weighed down by weakness in the energy-intensive industrial
sector. Output from some of China’s most energy-intensive sectors was
falling in outright terms. Those factors were unlikely to persist. Indeed, last
year’s Statistical Review presentation had the title of “short-run adjustments
and long-run transition”.
And sure enough, some of those short-run adjustments came to an end
last year. But many of the structural forces shaping the energy transition
continued, particularly robust growth in renewables and natural gas. Last
year’s energy data is perhaps best seen as a case of “two steps forward,
one step back”.
GDP
2006-16
2017
2006-16
2017
Primary Energy
energy productivity
2006-16
2017
China alone contributed over a third of that growth, with energy
consumption growing by over 3% in 2017, almost three times the rate seen
over the past couple of years. This sharp pickup was driven by a rebound in
the output of some of China’s most energy-intensive sectors, particularly
iron, crude steel and non-ferrous metals. Despite this increase, the growth of
China’s energy demand in 2017 was still significantly slower than its 10-year
average, and its rate of decline in energy intensity was more than twice the
global average. Two steps forward, one step back.
This phrase can be equally applied to the fuel mix. The forward progression
can be seen in that around 60% of the increase in primary energy was
provided by natural gas and renewable energy. Natural gas (3.0%, 83 Mtoe)
provided the single largest contribution to the growth of primary energy,
buoyed by exceptional growth in China. This was closely followed by
renewable energy (including biofuels) (14.8%, 72 Mtoe), which again grew
rapidly driven by robust growth in both wind and solar power.
The step back was coal (1.0%, 25 Mtoe), which grew for the first time since
2013. This was largely driven by India, but it’s also notable that Chinese coal
consumption increased after three years of successive falls.
That’s a very quick summary of the big picture for 2017. I will now take you
through some of the developments and issues in last year’s energy markets
in a little more detail.
Key features of 2017
Let’s start by looking at some of the headline numbers. Global energy
demand grew by 2.2% in 2017, up from 1.2% last year and above its 10year average of 1.7%. This above-trend growth was driven by the OECD,
particularly the EU. Much of this strength can be directly related to the
pickup in economic growth. But it also reflected a slight slowing in the pace
of improvement in energy intensity (or energy productivity): the amount of
energy needed to produce a unit of output.
Despite the unusually strong growth in the OECD, the vast majority of the
increase in global energy consumption came from the developing world,
accounting for nearly 80% of the expansion.
3.1%
Growth of primary energy consumption in China,
up from 1% in 2016.
Above: The financial centre of São Paulo in Brazil.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
3
That was demand, what about supply, particularly the interaction between
the OPEC production cuts and the response of US tight oil? The impact
of the production cuts can be seen in growth of supply last year. At an
aggregate level, output growth in 2017 (0.6 Mb/d) was similar to that in 2016.
But the pattern of that growth flip-flopped quite sharply. After growing by
1.6 Mb/d in 2016, output by OPEC and other members of the Vienna group
fell 0.9 Mb/d last year as the cuts in production took effect. In contrast, after
falling in 2016, oil production by countries outside of the Vienna group grew
by 1.5 Mb/d, led by the US and a bounce back in Libya (which was not part
of the Vienna agreement).
The Vienna group had a target for production cuts of almost 1.8 Mb/d,
relative to the base month of October 2016. In practice, the production cuts
have far exceeded that, with cuts totalling nearly 2.5 Mb/d in April 2018. This
overshoot has been concentrated in Venezuela – where the economic and
political crisis has caused production to fall by almost 700 Kb/d, far in excess
of the target reduction of 100 Kb/d – and to a lesser extent in Saudi Arabia
and Angola.
Above: A view of Atlantis platform in the Gulf of Mexico.
Oil
To remind you where we left off at the time of last year’s Statistical Review:
flows of oil production and consumption had come back broadly into
balance, but inventories remained at record-high levels; OPEC, together
with 10 non-OPEC countries led by Russia – sometimes known as the
Vienna group – had begun to implement their promised cuts in oil production
in order to accelerate the adjustment in inventories; but US tight oil had
started to pick up threatening to offset the impact of the production cuts.
So what happened next?
Starting first with consumption, oil demand grew by 1.7 Mb/d – similar
to that seen in 2016 and significantly greater than the 10-year average
of around 1.1 Mb/d. To put the recent strength of oil demand in context,
average growth over the past five years is at its highest level since the height
of the commodity super-cycle in 2006/7. This was despite all the talk of peak
oil demand, increasing car efficiency, growth of electrical vehicles. All of
those factors are real and are happening, but persistently low oil prices can
have a very powerful offsetting effect.
Not surprisingly, oil demand in 2017 continued to be driven by oil importers
benefitting from the windfall of low prices, with both Europe (0.3 Mb/d)
and the US (0.2 Mb/d) posting notable increases, compared with average
declines over the previous 10 years. Growth in China (0.5 Mb/d) was closer
to its 10-year average.
The production cuts were instrumental in increasing the pace at which oil
stocks fell back to more normal levels last year. With the cuts in place, daily
consumption exceeded production for much of 2017. As a result, OECD
commercial inventories fell by about 150 million barrels in 2017, and in March
of this year were broadly in line with the five-year moving average measure
originally highlighted by the Vienna group.
That said; the impact of the production cuts would have been even bigger
had it not been for the response of US tight oil and NGLs, which have grown
by almost 2 Mb/d since October 2016. Indeed, the pace of this second wave
of growth in US tight oil seen over the past 18 months or so is comparable
to the rapid growth seen in 2012-2014, even though prices in the earlier
period were materially higher. The scale of the increase in US tight oil meant
the impact of the production cuts was increasingly offset as we moved
through 2017.
The speed and scale of OPEC’s actions mean that it continues to have the
ability to smooth temporary disturbances to the oil market. But the relatively
rapid response of US tight oil reinforces the limits on OPEC’s power. If OPEC
tries to resist more permanent or structural changes in the market, there
is an increasing risk that these actions will quickly be cancelled out by the
responsiveness of US tight oil.
But there were some signs in the product mix that the boost from low oil
prices may be beginning to wane. Growth in consumer-led fuels most
exposed to oil price movements – especially gasoline – slowed in 2017.
In contrast, diesel demand bounced back, buoyed by the acceleration in
industrial activity.
Finally; bringing these developments in demand and supply together in
terms of their implications for prices. Prices drifted lower during the first
half of 2017 as stocks remained stubbornly high. But as the production cuts
started to bite and inventories began to fall, prices increased with Dated
Brent reaching a high of $66/bbl by the end of last year. For the year as a
whole, Brent averaged $54/bbl, up from $44/bbl in 2016 – the first annual
increase since 2012.
Oil demand and supply growth
Oil demand growth
Refining
Oil supply growth
Annual change, Mb/d
2.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.5
Total
growth
1.0
Total
Global
growth
growth
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.5
-0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
10 year
average
2015
Importers
Exporters
4
2016
2017
-1.5
2016
2017
Non-Vienna Group
US
Others
Vienna Group
OPEC-12
Non-OPEC
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
The strong growth in oil demand fed through into refining, with refining runs
increasing by 1.6 Mb/d in 2017, more than twice their 10-year average. The
increase in throughput, together with continuing declines in availability in
Latin America, allowed space for refinery runs in US and Europe to expand
after being squeezed in 2016. The increase in refinery runs, together with
another year of weak capacity growth, pushed refining utilization to its
highest levels for almost 10 years. Refining margins also rose, supported
by the impact of hurricane Harvey, high utilization rates and product stocks
falling back to more normal levels.
1.7 Mb/d
Growth of global oil consumption,
above the 10-year average of 1.1 Mb/d.
Natural gas
2017 was a bumper year for natural gas, with consumption (3.0%, 96 bcm)
and production (4.0%, 131 bcm) both increasing at their fastest rates since
the immediate aftermath of the financial crises. The growth in consumption
was led by Asia, with particularly strong growth in China (15.1%, 31 bcm),
supported by increases in the Middle East (Iran 6.8%, 13 bcm) and Europe.
The growth in consumption was more than matched by increasing
production, particularly in Russia (8.2%, 46 bcm), supported by Iran (10.5%,
21 bcm), Australia (18%, 17 bcm) and China (8.5%, 11 bcm).
Surge in China’s gas demand
The single biggest factor driving global gas consumption last year was the
surge in Chinese gas demand, where consumption increased by over 15%,
accounting for around a third of the global increase in gas consumption.
Much of this rapid expansion can be traced back to the Environmental Action
Plan announced in 2013, which set targets for improvements in air quality
over the subsequent five years. With that five-year deadline looming, the
Chinese authorities in the spring of last year announced an enhanced set of
measures for Beijing, Tiajing and 26 other cities in the North-East provinces
of China, designed to meet the environmental objectives.
These measures, which were further reinforced in the autumn of last year,
were focused on the use of coal outside of the power sector. In particular,
a combination of very sizeable carrots and sticks were used to encourage
industrial and residential users to switch away from coal to either gas or
electricity, with the vast majority opting for gas. Although most attention
has focused on the 3 million households affected by this policy, the
biggest factor driving the expansion in gas demand was switching within
the industrial sector. The resulting increase in gas demand was greatly
compounded by the switch into gas reaching a peak just as winter heating
demand was ramping up.
Chinese gas demand looks set to continue to increase strongly this year, but
it seems unlikely that the extent of the surge in gas demand seen in China
last year will be repeated in 2019 and beyond.
Growth in LNG trade
The other central factor supporting the strength of global gas markets
last year was the continued expansion of liquified natural gas (LNG),
which increased by over 10% in 2017, its strongest growth since 2010,
aided by the start-up of new LNG trains in Australia and the US. China’s
increased need for LNG accounted for almost half of the global expansion,
with China overtaking Korea to be the world’s second largest importer of
LNG after Japan.
US LNG exporters’ costs and Asian spot prices
$/mmBtu
20
15
5
0
Jan-12
Henry Hub
Jan-13
JKM
Jan-14
Jan-15
Jan-16
US exporters’ operating costs*
Jan-17
Jan-2018
US exporters’ full-cycle costs*
*Operating costs = 1.15* Henry Hub + $2/mmBtu (transport);
Full costs also include liquefaction fee ($3/mmBtu).
This is illustrated by Asian spot LNG prices – shown by the Japan Korea
Marker (JKM) – over the past couple of years fluctuating in a range between
US LNG exporters’ full-cycle costs and their short-run operating costs.
Exporters of US LNG have been willing to supply LNG as long as they
covered their operating costs, even if that was less than their full-cycle
costs. So there has in fact been an LNG glut of sorts in recent years, but this
has manifested itself in periods of unsustainably low prices rather than idle
LNG capacity.
Coal
After several years of free-fall, the coal market experienced a mini-revival last
year, with both global consumption and production increasing. Global coal
consumption rose by 1%, (25 mtoe), with India (4.8%, 18 Mtoe) recording
the fastest growth, as demand both inside and outside of the power
sector increased. Interestingly, after three years of successive declines,
China’s coal consumption (0.5%, 4 Mtoe) also ticked-up. This is despite
the substantial coal-to-gas switching in the industrial and residential sector,
as increases in power demand in China sucked in additional coal as the
balancing fuel.
World production of coal increased more strongly (3.2%, 105 mtoe),
driven by notable increases in both Chinese (3.6%, 56 Mtoe) and US (6.9%,
23 Mtoe) output. Interestingly, the increase in US production came despite
a further fall in domestic consumption, with US coal producers instead
increasing exports to Asia.
The tidal wave of LNG projects that were sanctioned between 2009 and
2014 led many to predict the emergence of surplus LNG as it took time for
demand to catch up with the rapid growth in supplies. But many observers
have so far been surprised by the apparent absence of such a glut. There
is certainly little evidence of LNG facilities standing idle due to a lack of
demand. This absence partly reflects that, due to a variety of technical
issues, actual LNG supplies have come on stream less quickly than originally
planned, moving supply more into line with the original demand profiles.
However, the apparent absence of a glut also reflects the fact that the
surplus LNG supplies which did emerge resulted in bouts of unsustainably
low prices rather than a build-up of idle capacity.
15.1%
Growth of Chinese natural gas
consumption, the fastest since 2011.
Above: Trucks move coal at a mine.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
5
Global coal consumption and production
Fuel shares in power generation
Contributions to annual growth
Share
6%
8%
Coal consumption
50%
Coal production
6%
4%
40%
4%
2%
2%
0%
0%
30%
20%
10%
-2%
-2%
-4%
-4%
2011
2013
Other
India
2015
2017
-6%
China
0%
2011
Other
2013
US
2015
2017
China
Somewhat counter-intuitively, the increase in Chinese coal production was
a result of the on-going measures to reduce excess capacity within the
Chinese coal sector. A central part of this reform process has been managing
the need for a Goldilocks-type price for coal. Too hot and it would reduce the
pressure for inefficient mines to close or merge, as well as raising general
energy costs. Too cold and it would threaten the underlying viability of a
sector that still provides around 60% of China’s energy.
The fact that Chinese spot coal prices were above the government’s target
price band through much of last year spurred a series of policy measures to
increase coal supplies and so ease price pressures. The increase in Chinese
coal production of over 3.5% last year, its strongest growth for six years,
was a direct result of these actions.
Power sector
The power sector really matters. It’s by far the single biggest market
for energy: absorbing over 40% of primary energy last year. And it’s at
the leading edge of the energy transition, as renewables grow and the
world electrifies. This year’s Statistical Review for the first time includes
comprehensive data on the fuel mix within the power sector, aiding our
understanding of this key sector.
Global power generation increased by 2.8% in 2017 close to its 10-year
average. Almost all that growth came from the developing world. OECD
demand edged up slightly, but essentially the decoupling of economic
growth and power demand in the OECD seen over the past 10 years
continued, with OECD power broadly flat over the past decade.
The increase in global power generation was driven by strong expansion in
renewable energy, led by wind (17%, 163 TWh) and solar (35%, 114 TWh),
which accounted for almost half of the total growth in power generation,
despite accounting for only 8% of total generation. Although wind continued
in its role of the bigger, more established, elder cousin, it was solar energy
that made all the waves.
1997
1999
Non-fossil
2001
Coal
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
2017
Standing back from the detail of what happened last year, the most striking
– and worrying – chart in the whole of this Statistical Review is the trends in
the power sector fuel mix over the past 20 years.
Striking: because despite the extraordinary growth in renewables in recent
years, and the huge policy efforts to encourage a shift away from coal into
cleaner, lower carbon fuels, there has been almost no improvement in the
power sector fuel mix over the past 20 years. The share of coal in the power
sector in 1998 was 38% – exactly the same as in 2017 – with the slight
edging down in recent years simply reversing the drift up in the early 2000s
associated with China’s rapid expansion. The share of non-fossil in 2017 is
actually a little lower than it was 20 years ago, as the growth of renewables
hasn’t offset the declining share of nuclear. I had no idea that so little
progress had been made until I looked at these data.
Worrying: because the power sector is the single most important source of
carbon emissions from energy consumption, accounting for over a third of
those emissions in 2017. To have any chance of getting on a path consistent
with meeting the Paris climate goals there will need to be significant
improvements in the power sector. But this is one area where at the global
level we haven’t even taken one step forward, we have stood still: perfectly
still for the past 20 years. This chart should serve as a wake-up call for all
of us.
Carbon emissions from energy consumption
The backward step in last year’s data is most stark in carbon emissions from
energy consumption, which are estimated to have increased by 1.6% in
2017. That follows three consecutive years of little or no growth in carbon
emissions. So, on the face of it, a pretty big backward step.
38%
6
2015
Oil and gas
In particular, solar capacity increased by nearly 100 GW last year, with
China on its own building by over 50 GW – that is roughly equivalent to the
generation potential of more than two-and-a-half Hinkley Point nuclear
power plants. Global solar generation increased by more than a third last
year. Much of this growth continues to be underpinned by policy support.
But it has been aided by continuing falls in solar costs, with auction bids
of less than 5 cents/KWh – which would have been unthinkable for most
projects even just a few years ago – now almost common place.
The share of coal in global power generation,
similar to the share in 1998.
2013
Above: Lightsource BP’s floating solar farm near London in the UK.
The factors driving the pick-up in carbon emissions are of course the same
factors that we have just been discussing. Global GDP growth picked up
to above trend rates. Much of that growth was driven by industrial activity,
which is more energy hungry, causing gains in energy intensity to slow.
And the turnaround in coal consumption, from the substantial falls seen in
the previous three years to a small rise last year, meant the improvement in
carbon intensity was more muted. How worried should we be?
Last year when we discussed the exceptional performance seen over the
previous three years, I suggested that some of that improvement was likely
to be structural and would persist, but that the degree of improvement was
probably exaggerated by several cyclical factors, particularly in China. Given
that, as those short-run factors unwind – like they have done this year – it’s
not surprising that carbon emissions increased to some extent.
But the extent of that pick-up has probably also been exaggerated by some
short-run factors working in the opposite direction. The unusually strong
economic and industrial growth in the OECD and the extent of the bounce
back in power demand in China, which sucked in coal as the balancing fuel.
My guess is that some of the deterioration in 2017 relative to the previous
three years will persist, but not all of it. So I’m a bit worried, but not overly
so. Personally, I am more worried by the lack of progress in the power sector
over the past 20 years, than by the pickup in carbon emissions last year.
Cobalt and lithium
A key challenge for the Statistical Review is that it needs to adapt to the
changing needs of you, our customers. One of the questions I am most
often asked is whether the available supplies of raw materials used to
produce batteries for electric cars could act as a constraint on the speed with
which they grow. That question was one of the reasons why we included
a new section in this year’s Statistical Review on ‘Key Materials for the
Changing Energy System’, including data on cobalt and lithium, which are
used in the production of batteries for electric cars.
In terms of the basic facts: lithium production is concentrated in Chile
and Australia, with Chile holding the majority of proved reserves. Lithium
production increased by almost 50% between 2015 and 2017, as prices
more than doubled.
For cobalt, the Democratic Republic of Congo accounts for the vast majority
of both production (66%) and proved reserves (49%). Cobalt prices picked
up sharply last year as demand increased, but this has not yet fed through
into a significant increase in production. The pace of this response may be
affected by the fact that cobalt is produced as a by-product of copper and
nickel mining and so production depends on price trends in these metals
as well.
Lithium and cobalt: reserves and production
Thousand
Lithium
tonnes
Reserves (2017)
Production
50
150
3800
125
2000
40
Reserves (2017)
3500
1650
100
2700
30
Cobalt
Production
75
20
500
50
10
7500
1200
25
250
0
0
2015 2016 2017
Australia
Other
2015 2016 2017
Chile
Argentina
DR Congo
Canada
Cuba
Other
Australia
In terms of whether the availability of either of these metals could act as
a constraint on the growth of electric cars, that question really deserves
a whole presentation on its own. The short answer is that if either metal
is likely to pose a bottleneck, it appears most likely to be cobalt. The
announced expansion plans for lithium production look sufficient to ensure
ample supplies for the next 10 or 15 years. In contrast, the geographical
concentration of reserves, together with the nature of its production
process, means this is less clear for cobalt. But the new wave of battery
technologies now being developed require less cobalt. So rather than act
as a constraint on the growth of electric vehicles, the availability of cobalt
could simply provide further momentum to this technological change.
Watch this space.
Conclusion
Global energy markets in 2017 took a backward step in terms of the
transition to a lower carbon energy system: growth in energy demand, coal
consumption and carbon emissions all increased. But that should be seen
in the context of the exceptional outcomes recorded in the previous three
years. Some backsliding was almost inevitable.
The road to meeting the Paris climate goals is likely to long and challenging,
with many twists and turns, forward lurches and backward stumbles. To
navigate our progress will require timely, comprehensive and relevant data.
That’s the role of BP’s Statistical Review.
Spencer Dale
Group chief economist
June 2018
In detail
This is a shortened version of the presentation given at the launch of BP’s
Statistical Review of World Energy in London on 13 June 2018.
New data has been included on the fuel mix of power generation and the
production and reserves of key material for the changing energy system
(cobalt, lithium, graphite and rare earth metals).
Additional information – including historical time series for the fuels reported
in review; additional country and regional coverage for fuels consumption;
further details on renewable forms of energy; oil consumption by product –
together with the full version of Spencer Dale’s presentation is available at
bp.com/statisticalreview.
Acknowledgements
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the many contacts
worldwide who provide the publicly available data for this publication, and
to the researchers at the Centre for Energy Economics Research and Policy,
Heriot-Watt University who assist in the data compilation.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
7
Primary energy
Consumption*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2017
2017
2006-16
2320.8 2267.9 2159.3 2235.6 2216.7 2161.0 2221.1 2246.2 2227.0 2228.0 2234.9
348.7
321.4
320.7
303.7
310.5
323.2
319.9
331.5
335.4
331.1
339.0
189.3
167.3
170.8
169.5
174.6
183.1
184.2
185.7
185.2
181.6
194.9
2809.5 2759.4 2632.5 2720.7 2722.9 2665.1 2738.3 2766.8 2739.7 2761.9 2772.8
85.9
73.3
74.7
72.6
77.4
78.9
81.2
84.5
84.6
86.4
86.6
294.4
229.6
240.3
238.9
263.6
276.6
283.5
294.3
301.8
299.1
293.0
38.3
32.5
32.2
31.5
31.7
34.5
35.3
35.7
35.1
35.9
37.6
42.6
30.8
33.9
31.7
34.0
35.6
38.3
38.8
40.7
41.5
42.1
16.5
11.3
12.0
11.8
13.1
13.9
14.7
15.2
16.0
15.9
15.8
25.9
15.1
16.4
16.8
18.6
20.3
21.2
21.9
22.6
23.8
25.3
18.1
20.5
20.1
20.7
21.7
21.6
20.6
21.1
20.5
20.3
18.2
74.2
81.8
84.8
83.5
80.5
82.8
86.4
85.4
81.1
78.8
74.3
104.7
92.2
91.4
89.3
92.0
94.6
95.2
95.2
95.4
99.3
103.9
700.6
587.0
605.8
596.8
632.5
658.9
676.5
692.0
697.7
701.1
696.8
35.9
34.7
35.3
34.3
35.5
33.4
35.0
34.8
33.7
33.7
34.9
62.3
66.3
67.5
62.5
66.6
61.9
59.5
60.9
56.8
58.0
62.4
41.6
45.4
44.0
41.7
44.0
42.6
42.2
42.1
40.5
40.5
39.8
27.6
32.5
31.4
29.2
31.9
29.3
28.4
28.0
27.0
27.6
28.3
237.9
260.2
261.9
248.0
256.0
247.2
247.4
250.3
240.6
242.3
238.9
335.1
331.9
335.5
315.0
328.7
317.0
321.3
330.7
317.2
323.3
328.2
27.6
35.0
33.9
33.1
31.8
31.0
29.5
28.0
26.4
26.6
26.6
23.2
25.7
25.3
23.3
23.8
22.9
21.3
20.3
20.3
21.4
22.0
156.0
183.4
181.5
169.6
174.9
171.0
164.6
158.0
149.1
152.2
153.8
86.1
94.7
93.6
91.9
97.0
92.9
89.4
87.3
82.2
83.3
85.2
47.5
45.9
46.8
43.7
41.9
42.8
47.6
44.8
46.3
47.0
47.3
102.1
95.7
97.4
93.9
100.1
100.6
97.6
97.9
94.3
95.3
99.5
26.4
25.4
24.3
24.5
25.8
24.6
22.5
24.6
24.8
24.7
26.8
33.9
38.8
38.7
33.8
34.0
34.9
33.7
31.3
32.7
32.8
32.8
138.8
158.6
154.5
143.5
146.6
143.8
143.0
135.7
133.3
135.3
136.7
54.4
54.0
53.6
49.0
51.9
51.8
55.1
51.9
52.1
53.4
52.8
26.4
28.9
29.9
30.0
29.2
27.7
29.3
30.2
28.9
28.3
27.3
157.7
100.4
100.8
102.2
107.7
115.1
122.3
121.6
125.6
137.5
144.4
191.3
223.1
219.2
208.4
213.5
202.0
204.5
203.7
192.0
194.4
192.2
157.6
161.4
163.3
154.6
160.2
156.6
149.7
152.0
147.6
151.0
155.0
2041.7 2038.5 1932.1 2001.1 1949.1 1944.3 1934.0 1871.2 1908.7 1934.6 1969.5
13.9
12.7
12.8
11.3
11.2
12.5
12.8
13.2
13.5
14.7
14.6
23.2
25.7
26.0
24.5
26.1
26.0
28.0
25.0
25.0
22.7
22.8
67.4
54.1
56.4
50.8
54.9
60.5
62.7
63.5
64.4
63.1
64.5
698.3
673.1
676.6
644.6
668.2
691.7
694.7
683.9
689.6
676.8
689.6
31.7
24.4
24.7
22.9
26.1
27.2
29.9
27.0
29.7
33.2
33.7
81.9
134.9
133.5
113.4
121.5
126.3
123.1
115.2
101.6
84.0
86.1
43.0
48.4
52.0
43.4
43.9
44.9
44.4
44.0
45.6
48.4
42.8
18.6
16.6
16.1
15.8
16.0
16.9
18.4
17.5
17.5
17.8
18.0
978.0
989.8
998.1
926.8
967.8 1006.0 1014.1
989.2
987.0
960.7
972.0
275.4
202.6
210.4
217.7
218.8
228.6
229.9
240.6
255.1
254.1
259.8
49.2
28.1
29.2
32.6
34.7
36.7
39.0
42.0
40.2
40.3
46.1
25.8
23.0
23.3
22.3
23.7
24.2
25.3
24.9
23.3
24.6
24.9
39.3
27.3
29.7
31.1
33.5
33.6
37.3
38.7
35.2
38.2
38.8
29.4
14.9
17.5
17.6
20.6
22.5
24.5
27.4
27.3
28.9
29.2
54.1
26.3
23.3
23.4
28.3
32.3
38.1
40.4
44.1
49.6
49.9
268.3
169.0
184.3
194.3
213.0
219.8
233.1
234.0
250.6
258.7
264.5
108.7
70.7
81.0
79.8
83.7
88.2
92.7
97.3
97.2
106.3
109.6
46.9
56.3
58.3
58.5
58.0
54.8
51.1
49.9
50.1
47.8
46.8
897.2
618.2
657.1
677.2
714.3
740.9
771.1
795.3
823.1
848.3
869.7
53.2
34.4
36.4
38.6
37.6
39.9
43.6
46.2
50.4
53.0
53.0
91.6
67.3
71.7
74.6
78.4
79.7
83.8
83.2
82.9
84.4
88.2
19.6
14.0
15.4
15.0
16.7
17.5
17.8
18.2
18.4
18.9
19.1
120.6
116.9
125.4
125.1
126.5
124.8
123.0
123.8
125.5
120.6
123.0
164.5
114.3
119.8
120.1
127.7
123.7
131.6
139.2
147.9
152.5
154.7
449.5
346.9
368.7
373.4
386.9
385.6
399.8
410.6
425.1
429.4
438.0
139.4
126.7
128.9
128.2
129.2
133.5
132.0
132.9
135.1
138.0
139.5
33.0
17.8
18.8
20.6
21.6
23.0
25.0
25.5
26.8
31.1
31.9
2150.3 2231.2 2329.5 2491.3 2690.1 2799.1 2907.0 2973.5 3009.8 3047.2 3132.2
30.9
26.2
24.4
26.6
27.7
28.4
27.3
28.0
27.3
28.1
28.8
753.7
450.4
476.3
512.0
538.0
570.7
600.3
623.6
666.8
686.9
722.3
175.2
134.4
132.7
137.4
150.9
164.6
173.2
177.6
166.0
165.4
167.4
456.4
524.4
516.9
472.3
503.8
477.8
475.0
471.3
456.7
453.0
451.2
99.6
77.2
80.0
77.7
81.6
82.9
89.1
93.1
93.9
95.1
97.6
22.1
19.3
19.5
19.4
20.0
19.8
20.0
20.2
21.1
21.3
21.7
80.9
62.0
62.4
63.2
63.4
63.5
64.1
64.8
66.7
70.2
76.5
43.3
27.1
28.0
28.3
29.3
29.9
30.9
33.1
34.9
38.3
40.6
86.5
55.8
59.3
63.8
68.6
71.3
71.6
73.6
75.8
80.6
83.6
295.9
236.7
241.2
242.3
259.7
273.0
276.3
276.7
279.3
284.9
292.2
7.7
5.5
5.1
5.3
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.1
6.4
7.4
7.4
115.1
111.8
105.8
104.1
110.4
110.3
110.1
111.9
114.4
112.9
114.0
129.7
94.2
95.5
98.8
105.0
109.1
116.7
118.7
122.1
124.9
126.9
75.3
31.1
38.6
39.4
44.6
51.0
53.4
57.2
62.7
68.8
73.6
66.5
44.5
46.2
42.2
45.4
46.0
48.1
48.6
53.3
55.5
63.1
4195.2 4310.8 4411.1 4696.1 4951.1 5118.2 5269.9 5382.9 5472.4 5585.5 5743.6
11588.4 11738.5 11549.9 12119.4 12414.4 12589.0 12829.3 12953.9 13060.2 13258.5 13511.2
5693.9 5639.3 5367.8 5574.9 5519.4 5463.5 5525.8 5481.1 5494.6 5549.8 5605.0
5894.5 6099.3 6182.1 6544.6 6895.0 7125.5 7303.4 7472.8 7565.6 7708.7 7906.1
1823.9 1816.5 1711.3 1774.7 1716.6 1700.8 1690.7 1626.7 1649.2 1666.4 1689.2
0.6%
3.2%
-2.6%
0.7%
-0.5%
0.8%
2.2%
1.6%
4.3%
2.6%
-0.5%
0.2%
1.0%
0.8%
3.3%
0.1%
5.0%
-2.3%
-0.1%
2.4%
4.3%
5.8%
1.8%
1.3%
0.5%
2.9%
-1.4%
3.7%
1.8%
3.3%
-2.9%
9.5%
-0.1%
2.0%
2.1%
-4.1%
1.9%
4.8%
1.5%
-5.6%
-4.6%
0.8%
3.3%
0.9%
6.3%
7.0%
4.1%
1.5%
1.0%
8.7%
1.7%
-0.5%
0.5%
3.4%
0.6%
4.2%
2.7%
-1.6%
6.6%
2.9%
0.2%
3.6%
3.1%
7.4%
4.6%
5.0%
1.4%
2.4%
2.2%
6.1%
6.9%
3.7%
1.6%
4.8%
1.3%
2.5%
2.7%
5.8%
3.1%
2.2%
1.3%
2.8%
1.6%
-0.3%
0.9%
1.6%
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
*In this review, primary energy comprises commercially-traded fuels, including modern renewables used to generate electricity.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
8
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
2015
2016
◆
2.1%
3.1%
1.7%
3.2%
4.0%
6.2%
-0.7%
-0.9%
1.4%
2.1%
-0.2%
-0.5%
-1.3%
-1.4%
-1.0%
-0.5%
-2.6%
-1.7%
-1.9%
-0.9%
1.1%
0.4%
0.6%
-1.9%
-1.2%
◆
-0.7%
4.4%
-1.8%
-0.5%
-0.6%
0.4%
-1.4%
2.9%
0.3%
4.6%
-4.6%
-0.7%
1.5%
-0.1%
3.2%
5.7%
1.3%
3.3%
6.9%
8.6%
5.0%
5.5%
-1.5%
4.1%
5.0%
3.3%
3.1%
0.8%
3.6%
2.8%
1.1%
6.5%
4.4%
1.6%
5.7%
2.9%
-1.6%
2.9%
1.2%
2.8%
4.6%
4.9%
2.5%
3.3%
0.6%
3.6%
10.0%
3.4%
3.5%
1.7%
-0.2%
3.3%
-1.0%
Share
2017
16.5%
2.6%
1.4%
20.5%
0.6%
2.2%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%
0.8%
5.2%
0.3%
0.5%
0.3%
0.2%
1.8%
2.5%
0.2%
0.2%
1.2%
0.6%
0.4%
0.8%
0.2%
0.3%
1.0%
0.4%
0.2%
1.2%
1.4%
1.2%
14.6%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
5.2%
0.2%
0.6%
0.3%
0.1%
7.2%
2.0%
0.4%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.4%
2.0%
0.8%
0.3%
6.6%
0.4%
0.7%
0.1%
0.9%
1.2%
3.3%
1.0%
0.2%
23.2%
0.2%
5.6%
1.3%
3.4%
0.7%
0.2%
0.6%
0.3%
0.6%
2.2%
0.1%
0.9%
1.0%
0.6%
0.5%
42.5%
100.0%
41.5%
58.5%
12.5%
Primary energy: consumption by fuel*
2016
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
Oil
Natural
gas
Coal
907.6
107.0
90.1
1104.6
32.7
135.7
18.1
16.5
11.5
11.8
2.2
26.0
66.1
320.8
13.3
32.5
8.6
10.0
79.2
117.3
15.4
7.3
59.8
41.1
10.1
29.2
12.0
9.9
10.6
64.2
15.5
47.1
76.3
60.0
719.3
4.7
6.8
14.3
152.5
7.1
9.9
3.3
4.2
202.8
80.7
36.8
10.8
20.4
9.4
12.8
173.8
45.7
25.5
416.0
19.7
42.0
12.8
28.7
89.4
192.6
50.5
6.7
587.2
19.4
217.1
74.2
191.4
36.7
7.9
28.3
20.6
72.7
128.9
5.0
48.6
62.1
21.9
21.8
1601.1
4557.3
2190.6
2366.7
635.5
645.1
94.1
79.0
818.2
41.6
32.4
5.1
9.2
0.6
6.5
16.0
33.0
6.3
150.6
7.1
13.9
7.0
1.7
38.3
73.0
3.4
8.0
58.5
29.7
3.8
15.7
4.4
8.9
2.7
25.0
0.8
38.2
69.6
24.8
434.7
9.4
15.2
13.6
361.3
26.5
26.1
35.8
4.7
492.6
173.1
8.5
8.0
18.1
19.7
37.1
90.6
62.3
20.3
437.6
33.2
42.4
1.0
4.0
33.9
114.5
35.9
22.7
180.1
2.7
43.7
32.9
100.1
36.1
4.2
32.9
3.3
10.2
41.0
–
17.2
43.5
8.8
9.8
625.1
3073.2
1427.3
1645.9
385.9
340.6
18.9
12.4
371.9
1.0
15.9
7.4
5.5
–
1.0
–
0.3
3.8
34.9
3.0
3.0
16.6
4.4
8.2
75.8
4.4
2.3
11.0
10.2
0.8
49.5
3.2
5.3
0.1
10.5
2.1
38.5
11.2
35.3
295.1
†
0.7
33.9
89.2
–
29.7
1.0
1.6
156.2
0.9
–
5.7
0.2
0.1
–
0.1
1.5
0.4
9.1
†
0.2
4.3
84.7
5.7
94.9
43.6
2.2
1889.1
6.7
405.6
53.4
118.8
19.6
1.2
5.6
11.7
0.4
81.9
1.3
38.6
17.7
28.3
18.3
2744.0
3706.0
897.6
2808.4
239.5
2017
Nuclear
Hydroenergy electricity
191.9
21.8
2.4
216.1
1.9
3.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.5
–
9.8
5.5
5.3
91.2
19.2
–
3.6
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.6
5.2
13.3
14.3
–
16.2
8.2
195.2
–
–
–
44.5
–
18.3
–
0.5
63.3
1.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.5
–
–
–
3.6
–
3.6
–
–
48.3
–
8.6
–
4.0
–
–
1.3
–
–
36.7
–
7.2
–
–
–
106.0
591.2
445.9
145.4
190.1
59.7
87.6
6.9
154.2
8.7
86.2
4.5
10.6
3.6
5.4
–
15.0
22.6
156.4
9.0
0.1
0.5
3.6
13.6
4.6
1.3
0.1
9.6
†
32.2
0.5
3.6
4.1
7.9
8.2
14.0
15.2
1.2
16.8
146.1
0.4
†
2.6
41.8
–
1.7
2.7
7.0
56.3
3.5
0.8
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
4.6
†
3.0
0.3
0.2
23.7
27.1
4.0
0.2
261.0
–
29.0
4.4
18.1
4.9
5.9
7.8
1.8
–
0.6
1.0
1.5
0.8
14.5
13.0
368.5
913.3
318.3
594.9
79.2
Renewables
Total
Oil
Natural
gas
83.1 2228.0
9.6
339.0
4.1
194.9
96.8 2761.9
0.7
86.6
19.1
293.0
2.5
37.6
0.4
42.1
0.1
15.8
0.6
25.3
†
18.2
†
74.3
5.2
103.9
28.6
696.8
2.5
34.9
3.1
62.4
1.7
39.8
3.3
28.3
8.4
238.9
38.3
328.2
2.1
26.6
0.7
22.0
14.8
153.8
3.3
85.2
0.5
47.3
4.7
99.5
3.7
26.8
2.0
32.8
0.7
27.3
15.4
136.7
6.1
52.8
5.4
144.4
17.6
192.2
9.8
155.0
144.2 1934.6
†
14.6
†
22.8
0.1
64.5
0.3
689.6
†
33.7
0.4
86.1
†
42.8
†
18.0
0.8
972.0
0.1
259.8
†
46.1
0.4
24.9
†
38.8
†
29.2
†
49.9
†
264.5
0.1
109.6
0.3
46.8
1.0
869.7
0.1
53.0
0.6
88.2
0.8
19.1
1.8
123.0
2.0
154.7
5.2
438.0
5.4
139.5
0.1
31.9
81.7 3047.2
†
28.8
18.3
722.3
2.6
167.4
18.8
451.2
0.3
97.6
2.4
21.7
0.6
76.5
3.1
40.6
0.2
83.6
3.1
292.2
0.1
7.4
1.0
114.0
2.8
126.9
0.1
73.6
0.1
63.1
140.8 5585.5
417.4 13258.5
270.1 5549.8
147.3 7708.7
136.3 1666.4
913.3
108.6
86.8
1108.6
31.6
135.6
18.3
16.7
11.3
12.1
2.2
24.2
66.8
318.8
13.4
32.2
9.8
9.7
79.7
119.8
15.5
7.9
60.6
40.8
10.1
31.6
12.5
10.0
10.9
64.8
15.6
48.8
76.3
61.2
731.2
4.4
6.7
14.6
153.0
7.3
10.0
3.3
4.1
203.4
84.6
38.5
11.7
20.0
9.3
13.3
172.4
45.0
25.2
420.0
19.5
39.7
13.1
28.8
95.2
196.3
52.4
7.5
608.4
21.9
222.1
77.3
188.3
36.9
8.5
29.2
21.7
75.3
129.3
5.3
49.2
63.9
23.0
23.3
1643.4
4621.9
2206.8
2415.1
645.4
635.8
99.5
75.3
810.7
41.7
33.0
5.2
8.6
0.5
5.8
15.9
32.4
6.1
149.1
7.7
14.1
7.2
1.6
38.5
77.5
4.1
8.5
62.0
31.0
3.9
16.5
5.3
10.2
2.7
27.5
0.7
44.4
67.7
25.9
457.2
9.1
15.5
14.0
365.2
24.4
25.6
35.8
4.4
494.1
184.4
10.3
8.5
19.0
20.0
40.8
95.8
62.1
20.4
461.3
33.4
48.1
1.0
3.9
35.5
121.9
36.0
22.9
206.7
2.7
46.6
33.7
100.7
36.8
4.2
35.0
3.2
10.6
42.4
–
19.1
43.1
8.1
10.0
661.8
3156.0
1442.5
1713.5
401.4
Coal
332.1
18.6
13.1
363.8
1.1
16.5
6.7
4.0
–
1.0
–
0.3
3.2
32.7
3.2
2.9
16.0
4.1
9.1
71.3
4.9
2.3
9.8
9.1
0.8
48.7
3.5
5.7
0.1
13.4
1.9
44.6
9.0
36.1
296.4
†
0.9
36.2
92.3
–
24.6
1.2
1.9
157.0
0.9
–
5.2
0.2
0.1
–
0.1
1.6
0.4
8.5
†
0.2
4.5
82.2
6.2
93.1
42.3
2.3
1892.6
6.3
424.0
57.2
120.5
20.0
1.2
7.1
13.1
0.4
86.3
1.4
39.4
18.3
28.2
19.4
2780.0
3731.5
893.4
2838.0
234.3
Nuclear
Hydroenergy electricity
191.7
21.9
2.5
216.1
1.4
3.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.0
–
9.5
6.4
5.1
90.1
17.2
–
3.6
–
1.2
–
–
–
2.6
4.6
13.1
14.9
–
15.9
8.1
192.5
–
–
–
46.0
–
19.4
–
0.6
65.9
1.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.6
–
–
–
3.6
–
3.6
–
–
56.2
–
8.5
–
6.6
–
–
1.8
–
–
33.6
–
5.1
–
–
–
111.7
596.4
442.6
153.8
187.9
Renewables
67.1
89.8
7.2
164.1
9.4
83.6
5.1
13.0
4.5
6.5
–
17.4
22.9
162.3
8.8
0.1
0.4
3.3
11.1
4.5
0.9
†
8.2
†
32.0
0.6
1.3
3.2
7.2
4.2
14.6
13.2
1.3
15.2
130.4
0.4
0.1
2.5
41.5
–
2.0
2.7
7.6
56.7
3.7
0.5
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
4.5
†
3.0
0.3
0.2
25.6
29.1
3.1
0.2
261.5
–
30.7
4.2
17.9
5.6
5.7
7.0
2.2
–
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.1
15.9
13.7
371.6
918.6
314.8
603.9
67.8
Total
94.8 2234.9
348.7
10.3
189.3
4.4
109.5 2772.8
85.9
0.7
294.4
22.2
38.3
3.0
42.6
0.4
16.5
0.1
25.9
0.6
18.1
†
74.2
†
104.7
5.6
700.6
32.6
35.9
2.8
62.3
3.5
41.6
1.7
27.6
3.7
237.9
9.4
335.1
44.8
27.6
2.2
23.2
0.7
156.0
15.5
86.1
4.0
47.5
0.7
102.1
4.8
26.4
3.7
33.9
2.2
26.4
0.8
138.8
15.7
54.4
6.8
157.7
6.6
191.3
21.0
157.6
11.0
161.8 1969.5
13.9
†
23.2
0.1
67.4
0.1
698.3
0.3
31.7
†
81.9
0.4
43.0
†
18.6
†
978.0
0.9
275.4
0.1
49.2
†
25.8
0.4
39.3
†
29.4
†
54.1
†
268.3
†
108.7
0.1
46.9
0.6
897.2
1.4
53.2
0.1
91.6
0.6
19.6
0.8
120.6
2.0
164.5
2.1
449.5
5.5
139.4
5.7
33.0
0.1
106.7 3132.2
30.9
†
753.7
21.8
175.2
2.9
456.4
22.4
99.6
0.4
22.1
2.4
80.9
0.8
43.3
3.1
86.5
0.3
295.9
3.6
7.7
0.1
115.1
1.2
129.7
3.4
75.3
0.1
66.5
0.1
175.1 5743.6
486.8 13511.2
304.9 5605.0
181.9 7906.1
152.3 1689.2
*In this review, primary energy comprises commercially-traded fuels, including modern renewables used to generate electricity.
†Less than 0.05.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
9
World consumption
Million tonnes oil equivalent
14000
Coal
Renewables
Hydroelectricity
Nuclear energy
Natural gas
Oil
13000
12000
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
World primary energy consumption grew by 2.2% in 2017, up from 1.2% in 2016 and the highest since 2013. Growth was below average in Asia Pacific, the Middle East
and S. & Cent. America but above average in other regions. All fuels except coal and hydroelectricity grew at above-average rates. Natural gas provided the largest
increment to energy consumption at 83 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe), followed by renewable power (69 mtoe) and oil (65 mtoe).
Regional consumption by fuel 2017
Percentage
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
0
Oil remains the dominant fuel in Africa, Europe and the Americas, while natural gas dominates in CIS and the Middle East, accounting for more than half of the energy mix
in both regions. Coal is the dominant fuel in the Asia Pacific region. In 2017 coal’s share of primary energy fell to its lowest level in our data series in North America,
Europe, CIS and Africa.
10
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Fuel consumption by region 2017
Percentage
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
Europe
CIS
S. & Cent. America
North America
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Oil
Natural gas
Coal
Nuclear energy
Hydroelectricity
Renewables
0
Asia is the leading regional consumer of oil, coal, renewable power and hydroelectricity, while North America leads for nuclear power and natural gas. Asia dominates
global coal consumption, accounting for almost three quarters of global consumption (74.5%). Asia’s share of the coal market has grown steadily since 1965 when it made
up only 17% of the coal consumption. It reached the 50% mark in 2001. Shares of global primary energy consumption by fuel
Percentage
50
Hydroelectricity
Nuclear energy
Renewables
Oil
Coal
Natural gas
40
30
20
10
65
67
69
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
01
03
05
07
09
11
13
15
17
0
Oil remains the world’s dominant fuel, making up just over a third of all energy consumed. In 2017 oil’s market share declined slightly, following two years of growth.
Coal’s market share fell to 27.6%, the lowest level since 2004. Natural gas accounted for a record 23.4% of global primary energy consumption, while renewable power
hit a new high of 3.6%.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
11
Oil
Total proved reserves
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Denmark
Italy
Norway
Romania
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Angola
Chad
Republic of Congo
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Libya
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan
Tunisia
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
OPEC
Non-OPEC
European Union
Canadian oil sands: Total
of which: Under active development
Venezuela: Orinoco Belt
†Less than 0.05.
◆
At end 1997
Thousand
million
barrels
At end 2007
Thousand
million
barrels
At end 2016
Thousand
million
barrels
Thousand
million
barrels
30.5
48.8
47.8
127.1
2.6
7.1
2.6
3.7
0.8
0.7
74.9
1.1
93.4
0.9
0.6
12.0
0.9
5.2
1.6
21.3
1.2
5.3
113.1
0.5
0.6
0.6
121.4
92.6
112.5
96.5
5.4
12.5
261.5
2.3
97.8
1.8
0.2
683.2
11.2
3.9
–
1.6
3.7
0.6
2.7
29.5
20.8
n/a
0.3
0.3
0.7
75.3
4.0
1.1
17.0
5.6
4.9
5.0
0.3
1.2
1.2
40.3
1162.1
151.4
1010.6
820.7
341.4
8.7
42.0
3.9
–
30.5
178.8
12.2
221.5
2.6
12.6
1.5
6.4
1.1
0.9
99.4
0.8
125.3
1.1
0.5
8.2
0.5
3.4
1.5
15.1
7.0
30.0
106.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
145.3
138.2
115.0
101.5
5.6
27.3
264.2
2.5
97.8
2.7
0.1
754.9
12.2
9.5
1.5
1.6
4.1
1.7
2.0
43.7
37.2
n/a
5.0
0.6
0.7
119.7
3.4
1.1
20.8
5.5
4.0
5.5
0.5
3.4
1.3
45.3
1427.1
239.3
1187.8
956.1
471.0
6.4
172.6
22.0
20.0
50.0
170.6
7.2
227.7
2.2
12.6
2.0
8.3
1.2
0.2
301.8
0.5
328.9
0.4
0.5
7.6
0.6
2.3
1.6
13.1
7.0
30.0
106.2
0.6
0.6
0.5
144.9
157.2
148.8
101.5
5.4
25.2
266.2
2.5
97.8
3.0
0.1
807.7
12.2
9.5
1.5
1.6
3.4
1.1
2.0
48.4
37.5
3.5
1.5
0.4
4.0
126.5
4.0
1.1
25.7
4.7
3.3
3.6
0.3
4.4
1.2
48.3
1697.1
244.0
1453.1
1217.4
479.6
4.8
164.4
23.1
223.0
50.0
168.9
7.2
226.1
2.2
12.8
1.7
8.3
1.2
0.2
303.2
0.5
330.1
0.4
0.6
7.9
0.6
2.3
1.5
13.4
7.0
30.0
106.2
0.6
0.6
0.5
144.9
157.2
148.8
101.5
5.4
25.2
266.2
2.5
97.8
3.0
0.1
807.7
12.2
9.5
1.5
1.6
3.3
1.1
2.0
48.4
37.5
3.5
1.5
0.4
4.0
126.5
4.0
1.1
25.7
4.5
3.2
3.6
0.3
4.4
1.2
48.0
1696.6
242.6
1454.0
1218.8
477.8
4.8
163.4
22.1
224.0
At end 2017
Thousand
million
Share
tonnes
of total
6.0
27.2
1.0
34.2
0.3
1.9
0.2
1.2
0.1
†
47.3
0.1
51.2
0.1
0.1
1.0
0.1
0.3
0.2
1.7
1.0
3.9
14.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
19.7
21.6
20.1
14.0
0.7
2.6
36.6
0.3
13.0
0.4
†
109.3
1.5
1.3
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.3
6.3
5.1
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.5
16.7
0.4
0.1
3.5
0.6
0.4
0.5
†
0.6
0.2
6.4
239.3
36.3
203.0
171.0
68.3
0.6
26.6
3.6
35.9
2.9%
10.0%
0.4%
13.3%
0.1%
0.8%
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%
◆
17.9%
◆
19.5%
◆
◆
0.5%
◆
0.1%
0.1%
0.8%
0.4%
1.8%
6.3%
◆
◆
◆
8.5%
9.3%
8.8%
6.0%
0.3%
1.5%
15.7%
0.1%
5.8%
0.2%
◆
47.6%
0.7%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
2.9%
2.2%
0.2%
0.1%
◆
0.2%
7.5%
0.2%
0.1%
1.5%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
◆
0.3%
0.1%
2.8%
100.0%
14.3%
85.7%
71.8%
28.2%
0.3%
9.6%
1.3%
13.2%
R/P
ratio
10.5
95.8
8.9
30.8
10.0
12.8
5.4
42.7
26.4
6.7
393.6
10.5
125.9
8.7
18.9
11.0
21.8
6.3
16.2
10.4
24.1
44.8
25.8
6.4
30.0
15.0
27.8
86.5
90.2
91.9
15.2
36.1
61.0
278.4
68.1
156.6
1.6
70.0
21.7
15.6
39.7
15.1
13.8
15.2
27.4
153.3
51.6
88.3
47.8
22.1
35.6
42.9
31.6
26.6
18.3
14.4
9.2
14.1
2.1
36.0
12.6
16.7
50.2
27.8
57.9
84.7
24.6
9.0
Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Notes: Total proved reserves of oil – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from
known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The data series for total proved oil reserves does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for
determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP’s view of proved reserves by country.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves
would last if production were to continue at that rate.
Source of data – The estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources, third-party data from the OPEC Secretariat, World Oil, Oil & Gas Journal and
independent estimates of Russian reserves based on official data and Chinese reserves based on official data and information in the public domain.
Canadian oil sands ‘under active development’ are an official estimate. Venezuelan Orinoco Belt reserves are based on the OPEC Secretariat and government announcements.
Reserves include gas condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs) as well as crude oil.
Shares of total and R/P ratios are calculated using thousand million barrels figures.
12
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios
Years
2017 by region
History
150
North
America
S. & Cent.
America
Europe
CIS
Middle
East
Africa
Asia
Pacific
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
150
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
World
120
120
90
90
60
60
30
30
0
87
92
97
02
07
12
17
0
Global proved oil reserves in 2017 fell slightly by 0.5 billion barrels (-0.03%) to 1696.6 billion barrels, which would be sufficient to meet 50.2 years of global production at
2017 levels. Higher reserves in Venezuela (up by 1.4 billion barrels) were outweighed by declines in Canada (-1.6 billion barrels) and smaller declines in a number of other
non-OPEC countries. OPEC countries currently hold 71.8% of global proved reserves.
Note: Lags in reporting official data mean that 2017 figures for many countries are not yet available.
Distribution of proved reserves in 1997, 2007 and 2017
Percentage
Middle East
S. & Cent. America
North America
CIS
Africa
Asia Pacific
Europe
0.8
2.8
47.6
7.5
1.1
3.2
52.9
8.5
8.4
1.8
6.5
3.5
58.8
10.2
10.4
2007
Total 1427.1
thousand million
barrels
1997
Total 1162.1
thousand million
barrels
2017
Total 1696.6
thousand million
barrels
13.3
10.9
15.5
8.0
8.8
19.5
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
13
Oil: Production in thousands of barrels per day*
Growth rate per annum
Thousand barrels daily
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Denmark
Italy
Norway
Romania
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Angola
Chad
Republic of Congo
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Libya
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan
Tunisia
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
OPEC
Non-OPEC
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
6860
3290
3479
13628
816
1831
531
513
116
154
3237
146
7344
311
122
2551
100
1651
298
5032
876
1415
10062
204
104
135
12795
4359
2143
2660
710
1267
10268
404
3094
341
194
25440
1992
1656
144
224
698
374
246
1820
2208
n/a
483
104
191
10139
549
194
3742
768
972
730
343
334
319
7951
82330
19136
63194
35835
46494
2416
6784
3207
3165
13156
804
1897
588
507
122
152
3228
140
7439
287
108
2466
99
1549
281
4790
916
1485
9969
222
102
131
12825
4421
2428
2784
757
1438
10663
406
3113
316
193
26517
1969
1876
127
237
715
369
240
1820
2174
n/a
457
96
184
10263
538
175
3814
803
1006
731
360
309
341
8076
83067
18426
64641
37029
46039
2258
7263
3202
2978
13444
731
2029
671
488
147
150
3038
131
7385
265
95
2349
94
1469
268
4539
1027
1609
10157
218
95
126
13232
4292
2446
2499
813
1421
9663
401
2783
308
192
24818
1775
1754
118
276
730
332
241
1652
2212
n/a
475
91
181
9838
507
168
3805
816
994
691
375
341
330
8028
81284
18436
62848
34596
46688
2119
7549
3332
2959
13841
714
2137
786
488
158
145
2842
140
7410
249
106
2137
90
1356
261
4198
1037
1676
10383
212
78
117
13502
4430
2469
2560
865
1638
10075
385
2915
307
192
25834
1689
1812
122
314
725
306
249
1659
2534
n/a
462
83
149
10104
548
172
4077
882
1003
726
389
323
315
8436
83325
18534
64792
35665
47660
1982
7859
3515
2940
14314
668
2179
915
501
153
137
2755
141
7449
225
110
2039
89
1112
260
3835
932
1684
10538
215
77
111
13557
4472
2773
2913
885
1834
11144
353
3285
221
201
28082
1642
1670
114
301
714
301
246
479
2463
n/a
291
77
198
8494
483
165
4074
916
952
660
419
327
299
8296
84027
18566
65461
36478
47549
1712
8904
3740
2911
15555
658
2145
944
505
154
117
2704
147
7373
204
112
1917
83
946
261
3523
882
1664
10660
225
68
111
13609
3820
3079
3169
918
1939
11635
171
3430
178
184
28523
1537
1734
101
281
715
320
242
1509
2413
31
103
82
196
9264
479
159
4155
906
918
662
457
358
287
8382
86229
19487
66742
38034
48195
1519
10071
4000
2875
16946
647
2110
1004
527
167
116
2680
152
7403
178
114
1838
86
864
275
3356
888
1737
10809
232
63
105
13834
3617
3103
3129
942
2002
11393
59
3543
198
209
28194
1485
1748
91
250
710
282
226
989
2280
100
118
76
225
8580
407
135
4216
906
882
626
452
361
272
8257
86570
20626
65944
37004
49565
1425
11768
4271
2784
18823
640
2341
990
557
169
114
2692
159
7663
167
120
1889
84
852
277
3390
861
1710
10860
241
61
97
13830
3724
3239
3101
943
1985
11505
33
3599
153
214
28496
1589
1668
89
264
714
284
226
498
2278
155
120
71
234
8191
436
126
4246
887
852
650
450
373
307
8327
88721
22571
66149
36945
51775
1405
12750
4389
2587
19726
649
2525
1006
543
145
109
2631
152
7759
158
113
1946
83
963
274
3538
851
1695
11009
261
59
91
13966
3862
3986
3065
981
1958
11994
27
3873
64
213
30023
1558
1772
111
247
726
260
225
432
2204
148
109
64
276
8130
384
127
4309
876
841
698
468
403
299
8405
91547
23571
67976
38362
53186
1499
12366
4470
2456
19292
626
2608
886
548
128
97
2387
140
7418
142
78
1995
79
1013
260
3566
838
1655
11269
253
58
89
14162
4602
4423
3145
1004
1970
12402
25
4020
43
214
31849
1577
1755
103
250
691
223
220
426
1903
117
104
60
258
7687
359
121
3999
856
882
704
475
374
280
8050
92023
23139
68884
39601
52422
1484
13057
4831
2224
20112
593
2734
851
531
127
99
2110
135
7182
138
86
1969
76
999
251
3519
795
1835
11257
258
54
90
14288
4982
4520
3025
971
1916
11951
25
3935
52
220
31597
1540
1674
103
291
660
199
200
865
1988
109
86
53
306
8072
346
113
3846
865
949
697
465
335
263
7879
92649
23901
68748
39436
53213
1464
5.6%
8.1%
-9.4%
4.3%
-5.2%
4.8%
-3.9%
-3.1%
-0.3%
2.1%
-11.6%
-3.0%
-3.2%
-2.4%
10.6%
-1.3%
-4.7%
-1.3%
-3.6%
-1.3%
-5.1%
10.8%
-0.1%
1.9%
-6.1%
0.8%
0.9%
8.2%
2.2%
-3.8%
-3.4%
-2.7%
-3.6%
-1.6%
-2.1%
21.8%
2.8%
-0.8%
-2.3%
-4.6%
0.5%
16.4%
-4.5%
-10.9%
-9.3%
102.9%
4.5%
-7.4%
-17.0%
-11.8%
18.4%
5.0%
-3.6%
-6.4%
-3.8%
1.1%
7.6%
-1.0%
-2.1%
-10.4%
-6.3%
-2.1%
0.7%
3.3%
-0.2%
-0.4%
1.5%
-1.3%
2006-16
Share
2017
6.1% 14.1%
3.4%
5.2%
-4.0%
2.4%
3.5% 21.7%
-3.0%
0.6%
3.7%
3.0%
5.3%
0.9%
0.2%
0.6%
0.8%
0.1%
-5.9%
0.1%
-3.3%
2.3%
0.2%
0.1%
-0.1%
7.8%
-8.5%
0.1%
-4.2%
0.1%
-3.2%
2.1%
-2.8%
0.1%
-4.8%
1.1%
-1.4%
0.3%
-3.9%
3.8%
2.6%
0.9%
1.9%
2.0%
1.4% 12.2%
3.7%
0.3%
-6.6%
0.1%
-4.0%
0.1%
1.4% 15.4%
0.7%
5.4%
8.3%
4.9%
1.4%
3.3%
3.1%
1.0%
4.7%
2.1%
1.5% 12.9%
◆
-24.6%
2.5%
4.2%
-19.7%
0.1%
1.6%
0.2%
2.1% 34.1%
-2.2%
1.7%
2.3%
1.8%
-3.9%
0.1%
-1.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.7%
-4.8%
0.2%
-0.9%
0.2%
-13.5%
0.9%
-2.2%
2.1%
n/a
0.1%
-11.6%
0.1%
-2.3%
0.1%
1.3%
0.3%
-2.5%
8.7%
-3.9%
0.4%
-5.8%
0.1%
0.8%
4.2%
1.2%
0.9%
-1.4%
1.0%
0.1%
0.8%
3.8%
0.5%
0.5%
0.4%
-0.8%
0.3%
0.2%
8.5%
1.1% 100.0%
1.8% 25.8%
0.9% 74.2%
0.9% 42.6%
1.2% 57.4%
-4.9%
1.6%
*Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (natural gas liquids – the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass
and derivatives of coal and natural gas.
Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
◆
14
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Oil: Consumption in thousands of barrels per day*
Growth rate per annum
Thousand barrels daily
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
20680
2342
2089
25111
528
2308
377
234
183
153
43
640
1276
5742
276
700
205
226
1911
2380
435
168
1740
1031
237
548
307
218
1613
363
241
695
1752
1306
16356
91
162
241
2780
111
308
94
56
3844
1838
490
262
383
90
148
2407
576
777
6970
286
642
211
539
1362
3040
935
76
7808
322
2941
1318
5013
701
154
384
295
921
2399
91
1110
1030
283
259
26041
87105
49744
37361
14868
19490
2297
2080
23868
540
2481
390
251
188
172
45
716
1248
6032
274
731
209
223
1889
2502
414
164
1661
977
228
567
291
216
1558
356
256
686
1720
1306
16227
74
159
240
2861
114
299
93
60
3900
1925
481
254
406
123
177
2622
603
795
7385
309
686
231
511
1465
3201
944
77
7941
292
3077
1287
4847
672
154
389
283
973
2308
83
1005
1018
300
250
25901
86515
48131
38384
14746
18771
2174
2021
22967
532
2498
383
232
191
178
44
726
1223
6006
264
654
204
212
1822
2409
398
154
1563
945
237
567
273
195
1473
329
260
709
1646
1224
15537
73
182
198
2775
106
282
89
63
3768
1919
536
232
455
119
173
2914
603
774
7724
327
725
234
507
1533
3325
950
72
8278
332
3237
1317
4390
679
148
415
300
1049
2339
87
1020
1076
305
267
26260
85587
46127
39460
14021
19180
2306
2040
23526
594
2716
343
258
220
189
45
725
1244
6334
276
678
195
222
1763
2445
369
146
1532
964
235
594
271
184
1446
331
242
694
1623
1208
15418
72
150
211
2878
118
267
76
63
3834
1791
570
241
470
135
191
3206
654
716
7973
327
766
258
541
1590
3482
957
80
9436
359
3319
1411
4442
689
150
411
313
1157
2370
87
1045
1122
332
285
27967
88535
46657
41877
13941
18882
2381
2065
23329
609
2839
371
277
226
208
42
737
1262
6570
262
637
193
204
1730
2369
348
139
1475
971
239
592
255
191
1378
313
235
673
1590
1181
14975
89
175
243
3074
125
278
71
65
4118
1826
629
254
445
146
246
3294
733
698
8271
349
720
275
544
1499
3388
1001
104
9796
361
3488
1589
4442
725
150
414
298
1208
2394
92
983
1185
361
320
28911
89561
46126
43435
13521
18490
2342
2083
22915
636
2915
376
297
233
213
40
792
1241
6742
259
622
192
193
1676
2356
312
129
1346
926
235
571
230
191
1291
311
238
704
1533
1127
14443
92
211
245
3119
129
267
63
79
4206
1849
666
295
491
157
257
3461
772
648
8595
370
747
277
556
1619
3569
1025
110
10230
344
3685
1640
4702
759
148
402
309
1202
2458
95
983
1250
368
327
30038
90509
45600
44908
12977
18961
2383
2034
23379
683
3124
362
298
247
227
45
782
1218
6987
264
636
184
191
1664
2408
295
129
1260
898
243
538
239
174
1195
309
249
757
1518
1111
14263
101
145
260
3135
137
257
60
80
4176
2011
716
247
508
178
287
3451
849
622
8870
387
756
280
572
1729
3724
1034
107
10734
352
3727
1663
4516
803
151
442
326
1225
2455
81
1010
1299
398
365
30689
92088
45679
46409
12724
19106
2399
1960
23465
673
3242
353
316
260
225
42
720
1227
7058
260
635
195
183
1616
2348
294
144
1184
866
232
539
238
187
1191
311
224
777
1518
1107
14049
99
165
262
3301
143
221
57
76
4323
1953
681
212
446
185
293
3753
878
632
9032
401
806
269
569
1741
3785
1046
116
11209
336
3849
1681
4303
801
154
458
347
1268
2454
89
1040
1310
410
405
31274
92986
45291
47695
12530
19531
2348
1939
23818
696
3181
355
330
254
239
46
637
1283
7021
262
666
189
203
1615
2340
306
153
1222
835
237
559
244
191
1237
300
228
915
1561
1151
14413
100
139
284
3162
145
194
57
81
4162
1766
687
225
456
186
316
3875
949
569
9029
423
833
268
592
1762
3877
1030
125
11986
368
4164
1564
4151
789
160
505
397
1338
2577
97
1037
1354
437
442
32521
94843
45953
48890
12737
19687
2401
1977
24065
687
3013
376
339
240
254
45
539
1319
6811
266
670
175
211
1600
2378
312
154
1228
851
221
606
245
202
1280
319
216
972
1592
1197
14696
98
136
302
3193
152
204
70
89
4243
1722
758
228
453
191
343
3939
1003
523
9161
411
854
275
577
1833
3950
1041
131
12302
380
4560
1580
4031
799
163
566
430
1381
2771
101
1043
1377
461
446
33562
96488
46552
49936
12970
19880
2428
1910
24219
670
3017
383
344
237
259
44
505
1336
6794
268
661
204
203
1615
2447
314
167
1247
848
223
659
256
203
1293
320
222
1007
1598
1224
14980
92
135
311
3224
155
206
71
88
4282
1816
791
247
449
189
354
3918
1007
520
9290
411
816
282
580
1958
4047
1079
146
12799
427
4690
1652
3988
803
175
589
455
1430
2796
107
1051
1423
486
479
34574
98186
47033
51152
13211
1.0%
1.2%
-3.4%
0.6%
-2.4%
0.1%
1.8%
1.5%
-1.1%
2.0%
-1.7%
-6.4%
1.3%
-0.2%
1.0%
-1.4%
16.4%
-3.6%
1.0%
2.9%
0.7%
8.3%
1.6%
-0.4%
0.9%
8.7%
4.6%
0.6%
1.1%
0.3%
3.2%
3.5%
0.3%
2.3%
1.9%
-5.8%
-0.7%
2.9%
1.0%
2.3%
1.1%
1.8%
-1.4%
0.9%
5.4%
4.4%
8.4%
-0.8%
-1.3%
3.1%
-0.5%
0.4%
-0.7%
1.4%
-0.1%
-4.5%
2.8%
0.6%
6.8%
2.5%
3.6%
11.6%
4.0%
12.4%
2.9%
4.5%
-1.1%
0.5%
7.3%
4.0%
5.9%
3.5%
0.9%
5.9%
0.8%
3.4%
5.3%
7.3%
3.0%
1.8%
1.0%
2.4%
1.9%
2006-16
Share
2017
-0.5% 20.2%
0.5%
2.5%
-0.2%
1.9%
-0.4% 24.7%
3.8%
0.7%
3.4%
3.1%
2.5%
0.4%
3.7%
0.4%
2.9%
0.2%
5.6%
0.3%
◆
1.7%
-2.1%
0.5%
0.4%
1.4%
2.2%
6.9%
-0.9%
0.3%
-0.2%
0.7%
-1.6%
0.2%
-0.6%
0.2%
-1.9%
1.6%
-0.9%
2.5%
-3.2%
0.3%
-0.9%
0.2%
-3.7%
1.3%
-1.4%
0.9%
-0.3%
0.2%
1.4%
0.7%
-2.1%
0.3%
-0.6%
0.2%
-2.2%
1.3%
-1.3%
0.3%
-2.1%
0.2%
3.6%
1.0%
-1.3%
1.6%
-0.6%
1.2%
-1.2% 15.3%
0.2%
0.1%
-2.6%
0.1%
3.2%
0.3%
1.5%
3.3%
3.7%
0.2%
-4.1%
0.2%
-3.8%
0.1%
6.5%
0.1%
1.1%
4.4%
-0.4%
1.8%
4.1%
0.8%
-0.8%
0.3%
1.8%
0.5%
7.6%
0.2%
9.6%
0.4%
5.6%
4.0%
6.4%
1.0%
-3.5%
0.5%
3.1%
9.5%
4.8%
0.4%
3.6%
0.8%
3.2%
0.3%
0.9%
0.6%
3.2%
2.0%
3.1%
4.1%
1.1%
1.1%
5.0%
0.1%
5.2% 13.0%
2.3%
0.4%
5.2%
4.8%
2.4%
1.7%
-2.5%
4.1%
1.9%
0.8%
0.7%
0.2%
4.8%
0.6%
4.3%
0.5%
5.0%
1.5%
1.8%
2.8%
1.6%
0.1%
-0.1%
1.1%
3.3%
1.4%
6.1%
0.5%
6.6%
0.5%
2.9% 35.2%
1.2% 100.0%
-0.7% 47.9%
3.4% 52.1%
-1.5% 13.5%
*Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of biogasoline (such as ethanol), biodiesel and derivatives of coal and natural gas are
also included.
than 0.05%.
Notes: Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute
fuels, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand data.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
◆Less
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
15
Oil: Production in million tonnes*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Denmark
Italy
Norway
Romania
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Angola
Chad
Republic of Congo
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Libya
Nigeria
South Sudan
Sudan
Tunisia
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
OPEC
Non-OPEC
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
305.1
155.3
172.2
632.6
38.3
95.4
28.0
27.5
5.5
7.1
165.7
7.3
374.7
15.2
5.9
118.6
4.7
76.9
14.9
236.1
43.4
67.2
497.5
10.1
4.9
6.4
629.5
213.3
105.1
129.9
34.8
57.6
488.9
19.5
143.6
16.0
9.5
1218.2
86.5
81.2
7.5
11.5
33.8
18.1
12.3
85.4
107.2
n/a
23.8
4.9
9.6
481.7
24.5
9.5
186.3
36.4
47.8
33.5
13.2
16.3
13.9
381.4
3954.2
889.4
3064.9
1722.2
2232.0
114.1
302.3
152.9
156.9
612.0
37.9
99.1
31.1
27.2
5.7
7.0
165.8
7.1
380.9
14.0
5.2
114.8
4.7
72.0
14.1
224.8
45.3
70.7
494.4
11.0
4.8
6.3
632.5
215.6
119.3
136.1
37.1
64.7
509.9
19.6
145.2
14.8
9.5
1271.7
85.6
92.3
6.7
12.2
34.7
18.0
12.0
85.6
105.8
n/a
22.6
4.5
9.2
489.1
24.1
8.6
190.4
37.8
49.4
33.7
14.0
15.2
14.9
388.1
3999.0
857.9
3141.1
1783.0
2216.0
106.6
322.4
152.8
146.7
621.9
34.1
106.0
35.3
26.1
6.5
6.8
155.9
6.6
377.3
12.9
4.6
108.7
4.5
68.3
13.4
212.4
50.9
76.5
501.5
10.7
4.5
6.0
650.0
207.4
119.7
120.9
39.7
62.6
456.7
19.3
128.8
14.4
9.4
1179.0
77.2
86.0
6.2
14.1
35.3
16.0
12.0
77.4
106.9
n/a
23.4
4.2
9.1
468.0
22.4
8.2
189.5
38.0
48.4
31.9
14.5
16.7
14.4
384.0
3892.6
853.8
3038.8
1653.9
2238.7
100.0
332.7
160.3
145.6
638.6
33.3
111.6
41.4
26.1
7.0
6.2
145.8
7.0
378.5
12.2
5.1
98.9
4.3
63.2
13.1
196.7
51.3
79.7
512.5
10.4
3.6
5.6
663.1
212.3
120.8
123.3
42.2
71.1
473.8
18.5
134.2
14.3
9.4
1220.0
73.8
88.9
6.4
16.0
35.0
14.8
12.4
77.9
122.1
n/a
22.8
3.9
7.4
481.5
24.5
8.4
203.0
41.3
48.6
32.9
14.9
15.6
13.8
403.0
3981.4
856.8
3124.6
1697.4
2284.0
93.6
344.8
169.8
144.5
659.1
31.2
114.0
48.2
26.8
6.7
5.9
141.5
7.1
381.5
10.9
5.3
93.7
4.2
52.1
13.1
179.4
46.1
80.1
519.6
10.6
3.6
5.3
665.2
213.0
135.8
140.8
43.2
78.0
525.9
16.9
149.8
10.2
9.9
1323.6
71.7
82.0
6.0
15.3
34.6
14.5
12.3
22.5
118.5
n/a
14.3
3.6
9.8
405.1
21.5
8.1
202.9
42.9
46.3
29.7
15.4
15.8
13.0
395.5
4009.5
856.6
3152.9
1733.2
2276.3
81.3
393.8
182.6
143.9
720.3
30.9
112.4
49.9
27.1
6.7
5.2
139.3
7.4
378.9
10.0
5.4
87.3
4.0
44.7
13.2
164.5
43.7
79.3
526.9
11.0
3.2
5.3
669.4
180.7
151.3
153.9
45.0
82.5
549.8
8.1
156.5
8.2
9.0
1345.1
67.2
85.3
5.3
14.3
34.7
15.5
12.1
71.2
116.5
1.5
5.1
3.8
9.8
442.3
21.4
7.8
207.5
42.5
44.6
30.1
16.6
17.4
12.6
400.4
4120.8
902.4
3218.4
1809.0
2311.8
72.7
447.0
195.1
141.8
783.9
30.3
110.2
52.9
28.2
7.1
5.1
137.8
7.6
379.2
8.7
5.5
83.2
4.1
40.7
13.9
156.1
43.8
82.3
532.3
11.3
2.9
5.0
677.6
169.9
152.0
151.3
46.1
84.5
538.4
2.7
161.8
9.0
10.3
1326.0
64.8
85.7
4.8
12.6
34.4
13.6
11.3
46.6
109.5
4.9
5.8
3.5
11.2
408.5
17.8
6.6
210.0
42.5
42.7
28.7
16.5
17.4
12.0
394.0
4125.3
953.4
3171.9
1755.3
2369.9
68.1
522.5
209.4
137.1
869.0
29.8
122.5
52.2
29.8
7.3
5.0
138.5
8.0
393.1
8.1
5.8
85.3
4.1
40.0
14.0
157.3
42.5
81.1
535.1
11.7
2.8
4.6
677.9
174.3
158.8
150.1
46.2
83.8
543.4
1.5
163.2
6.9
10.5
1338.8
68.8
81.6
4.7
13.3
35.1
13.7
11.3
23.4
109.4
7.7
5.9
3.3
11.6
389.7
19.1
6.1
211.4
41.6
41.2
29.8
16.2
18.0
13.6
397.3
4223.0
1041.3
3181.8
1750.1
2472.9
67.0
565.3
215.6
127.5
908.4
30.1
132.2
53.0
29.1
6.2
4.8
135.4
7.6
398.4
7.7
5.5
87.9
4.0
45.4
13.8
164.3
42.0
80.2
541.9
12.7
2.7
4.4
683.9
180.5
195.6
148.1
48.0
82.1
567.9
1.2
175.0
2.6
10.5
1411.5
67.2
87.0
5.8
12.4
35.4
12.5
11.2
20.3
105.8
7.3
5.4
2.9
13.7
387.0
17.0
6.2
214.6
41.2
40.7
32.3
17.0
19.5
13.3
401.7
4355.2
1085.6
3269.6
1817.7
2537.5
71.5
543.1
218.6
121.4
883.0
29.0
136.7
46.8
29.5
5.3
4.3
123.1
7.0
381.9
6.9
3.8
90.4
3.8
47.5
13.2
165.6
41.4
78.6
555.9
12.3
2.6
4.3
695.1
216.8
217.6
152.6
49.3
82.5
586.6
1.1
181.6
1.6
10.6
1500.3
68.4
86.3
5.4
12.6
33.8
10.7
11.0
20.1
91.4
5.8
5.1
2.8
12.8
366.2
15.5
5.9
199.7
40.2
43.0
32.6
17.5
18.0
12.5
385.0
4377.1
1060.1
3317.0
1878.1
2498.9
70.6
571.0
236.3
109.5
916.8
27.4
142.7
44.8
28.5
5.4
4.4
108.3
6.8
368.3
6.7
4.1
88.8
3.6
46.6
12.7
162.6
39.2
86.9
554.4
12.4
2.5
4.3
699.6
234.2
221.5
146.0
47.6
79.9
561.7
1.1
176.3
2.1
10.9
1481.1
66.6
81.8
5.4
14.7
32.2
9.5
10.0
40.8
95.3
5.3
4.2
2.4
15.1
383.3
14.8
5.5
191.5
40.4
46.4
32.2
16.8
16.1
11.8
375.5
4387.1
1090.3
3296.8
1860.3
2526.9
69.2
5.4%
8.4%
-9.5%
4.1%
-5.6%
4.7%
-3.9%
-3.1%
0.6%
1.5%
-11.8%
-3.0%
-3.3%
-2.4%
10.6%
-1.5%
-4.5%
-1.8%
-3.6%
-1.6%
-5.2%
10.8%
6.0%
3.8%
-4.0%
3.3%
-3.0%
3.8%
5.3%
0.2%
-0.3%
-6.3%
-3.2%
0.1%
◆
1.5%
-6.1%
0.1%
0.9%
8.3%
2.1%
-4.1%
-3.3%
-2.9%
-4.0%
-1.8%
-2.6%
27.0%
2.9%
-1.0%
-2.3%
-4.9%
0.5%
17.0%
-4.6%
-11.2%
-9.3%
103.7%
4.5%
-7.4%
-17.0%
-12.1%
17.7%
5.0%
-4.2%
-6.7%
-3.8%
0.8%
8.1%
-1.1%
-3.9%
-10.4%
-5.4%
-2.2%
0.5%
3.1%
-0.3%
-0.7%
1.4%
-1.6%
◆
Share
2017
13.0%
5.4%
2.5%
20.9%
0.6%
3.3%
1.0%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%
2.5%
0.2%
8.4%
0.2%
0.1%
2.0%
0.1%
1.1%
0.3%
3.7%
0.9%
2.0%
12.6%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
15.9%
5.3%
5.0%
3.3%
1.1%
1.8%
12.8%
-8.5%
-4.2%
-3.5%
-2.7%
-4.7%
-1.2%
-4.0%
2.5%
1.9%
1.3%
3.6%
-6.9%
-4.1%
1.4%
0.3%
8.3%
1.3%
3.1%
3.8%
1.4%
◆
-25.3%
2.2%
4.0%
◆
-21.4%
1.7%
0.2%
1.9% 33.8%
-2.3%
1.5%
2.3%
1.9%
-3.9%
0.1%
-1.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.7%
-4.9%
0.2%
-0.9%
0.2%
-13.5%
0.9%
-2.3%
2.2%
n/a
0.1%
-11.6%
0.1%
-2.4%
0.1%
1.2%
0.3%
-2.5%
8.7%
-4.1%
0.3%
-5.9%
0.1%
0.8%
4.4%
1.1%
0.9%
-1.5%
1.1%
0.1%
0.7%
3.4%
0.4%
0.5%
0.4%
-0.5%
0.3%
0.1%
8.6%
1.0% 100.0%
1.6% 24.9%
0.8% 75.1%
0.8% 42.4%
1.2% 57.6%
-4.8%
1.6%
*Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (natural gas liquids – the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass
and derivatives of coal and natural gas.
than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
◆Less
16
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Oil: Consumption in million tonnes oil equivalent*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
967.6
106.0
96.4
1170.1
24.8
105.3
18.5
11.2
8.8
7.4
2.2
30.8
65.0
273.9
13.9
35.3
10.0
11.1
94.5
117.2
21.7
8.1
86.2
50.4
11.0
26.1
15.1
10.5
81.1
17.7
11.8
33.5
84.0
65.5
804.8
4.6
8.1
11.9
134.0
5.3
15.0
4.8
2.7
186.4
90.6
23.2
12.7
18.1
4.5
5.7
108.2
29.3
38.5
330.7
13.4
31.4
10.0
26.7
67.1
148.6
44.5
3.8
377.7
16.4
140.9
64.2
239.3
32.3
7.4
19.5
14.4
48.6
112.6
4.5
52.8
47.7
13.8
12.9
1253.3
4167.8
2366.8
1801.0
732.5
912.8
104.8
96.2
1113.7
25.5
112.6
19.2
12.1
9.1
8.3
2.3
34.8
63.6
287.6
13.8
36.8
10.2
11.0
93.8
123.7
20.8
7.8
82.5
47.9
10.6
27.2
14.4
10.5
78.6
17.5
12.6
33.1
82.6
65.6
801.0
3.7
8.0
11.9
138.1
5.4
14.7
4.7
2.9
189.4
94.7
23.0
12.3
19.4
6.0
6.8
118.6
30.8
39.5
351.0
14.6
33.6
11.0
25.3
72.2
156.7
45.2
3.9
385.5
14.9
147.8
62.6
232.4
31.0
7.5
19.8
13.8
51.7
108.0
4.1
47.6
46.6
14.6
12.5
1249.3
4148.8
2296.1
1852.7
728.9
871.2
98.6
92.9
1062.7
25.0
112.9
18.7
11.1
9.2
8.5
2.2
35.3
61.9
284.9
13.3
32.4
10.0
10.3
90.3
118.7
19.9
7.4
77.2
46.1
11.0
27.1
13.4
9.5
74.2
16.3
12.8
33.6
78.8
61.3
763.4
3.5
9.3
9.6
132.5
5.2
14.0
4.4
3.1
181.6
93.9
26.1
11.1
20.9
5.8
6.5
130.2
30.0
38.2
362.7
15.5
35.4
11.1
25.0
75.3
162.3
45.4
3.6
400.0
16.9
155.4
63.3
208.2
30.8
7.2
21.2
14.5
55.8
108.8
4.3
47.9
48.8
14.8
13.2
1260.0
4077.6
2184.7
1892.9
690.4
889.8
105.3
93.3
1088.4
28.7
122.9
16.6
12.4
10.7
9.0
2.3
35.2
62.8
300.5
13.8
33.6
9.5
10.8
87.3
120.3
18.4
7.0
75.3
46.7
11.0
28.6
13.3
9.0
72.8
16.4
11.9
32.8
77.9
60.6
756.8
3.4
7.6
10.2
137.9
5.7
13.1
3.7
3.1
184.8
85.7
27.8
11.5
21.5
6.6
7.0
141.3
32.1
35.3
368.7
15.5
37.4
12.3
26.7
78.1
170.0
45.7
4.0
455.2
18.3
159.0
67.4
210.5
30.9
7.3
21.0
15.2
61.3
110.2
4.3
49.1
50.4
16.0
14.0
1339.8
4208.9
2207.4
2001.5
685.6
874.7
108.5
94.9
1078.1
29.0
128.7
18.1
13.3
10.9
9.9
2.1
35.7
63.9
311.7
13.1
31.4
9.3
10.0
85.7
116.6
17.3
6.6
72.6
47.4
10.9
28.5
12.4
9.3
69.5
15.4
11.5
32.1
76.5
59.2
735.5
4.2
8.7
11.9
147.0
6.0
13.6
3.5
3.2
198.1
87.3
30.5
12.2
19.9
6.9
8.8
144.4
34.8
34.4
379.2
16.5
34.8
13.2
26.8
73.3
164.7
48.2
5.2
472.1
18.4
166.8
76.0
211.0
33.1
7.3
21.1
14.4
64.0
111.1
4.6
46.3
52.6
17.4
15.6
1385.1
4252.4
2181.9
2070.5
665.4
856.4
106.4
96.4
1059.2
30.3
133.0
18.1
14.4
11.3
10.0
2.1
38.4
63.0
320.7
12.9
30.5
9.3
9.4
83.1
116.2
15.5
6.2
66.2
45.1
10.9
27.6
11.3
9.4
65.4
15.3
11.7
33.8
74.2
56.7
710.5
4.4
10.4
12.0
149.6
6.2
13.1
3.1
3.8
202.6
88.8
32.6
14.3
22.3
7.5
9.0
151.9
36.3
31.9
394.6
17.6
36.5
13.3
27.6
79.4
174.3
49.6
5.6
494.9
17.6
176.7
78.2
224.9
34.6
7.2
20.5
15.0
63.8
114.4
4.7
46.3
55.4
17.6
16.0
1442.9
4304.9
2160.0
2144.9
639.4
872.8
107.7
93.8
1074.3
32.6
141.7
17.5
14.5
12.0
10.6
2.3
38.0
61.3
330.4
13.1
31.1
8.9
9.3
82.1
118.3
14.6
6.1
61.3
42.8
11.1
25.7
11.6
8.6
60.2
15.0
12.3
36.5
73.1
55.5
697.1
4.8
7.3
12.6
149.5
6.4
12.4
3.0
3.8
199.8
96.9
34.9
11.7
23.2
8.7
10.2
152.2
40.1
30.4
408.3
18.4
36.9
13.3
28.4
84.6
181.5
49.9
5.4
516.8
18.0
177.9
78.9
214.7
36.8
7.3
22.4
15.8
64.6
113.9
4.0
47.1
57.6
19.0
17.8
1467.9
4359.3
2150.0
2209.2
622.7
879.4
108.2
89.5
1077.1
32.2
147.5
17.0
15.4
12.7
10.5
2.1
34.8
61.6
333.8
12.9
30.7
9.4
8.9
79.8
115.3
14.5
6.8
57.6
40.9
10.5
25.7
11.5
9.1
60.1
15.1
11.0
37.4
73.0
55.3
685.6
4.7
8.2
12.6
157.5
6.7
10.7
2.8
3.6
206.8
93.6
33.1
10.0
19.9
8.9
10.7
166.8
40.7
30.9
414.5
19.1
39.5
12.6
28.2
85.0
184.4
50.5
5.9
538.1
17.1
183.0
79.4
204.0
36.8
7.5
23.2
16.7
66.3
113.7
4.4
48.5
58.0
19.5
19.8
1492.5
4394.7
2128.2
2266.4
612.3
898.3
105.0
88.5
1091.7
33.2
143.1
17.1
16.0
12.3
11.1
2.3
30.7
64.3
330.3
13.0
32.0
9.2
9.6
79.7
115.0
15.0
7.2
59.5
39.9
10.6
26.8
11.8
9.3
62.1
14.6
11.2
44.2
74.7
57.6
703.2
4.7
7.0
13.5
149.9
6.8
9.4
2.8
3.8
198.0
83.7
33.4
10.6
20.6
9.1
11.6
173.2
43.5
27.8
413.5
20.2
41.0
12.5
29.4
85.9
188.9
49.9
6.4
573.5
18.7
197.8
73.5
196.5
36.2
7.8
25.3
19.1
70.0
119.7
4.7
48.3
60.4
20.8
21.6
1550.1
4475.8
2157.8
2318.0
622.3
907.6
107.0
90.1
1104.6
32.7
135.7
18.1
16.5
11.5
11.8
2.2
26.0
66.1
320.8
13.3
32.5
8.6
10.0
79.2
117.3
15.4
7.3
59.8
41.1
10.1
29.2
12.0
9.9
64.2
15.5
10.6
47.1
76.3
60.0
719.3
4.7
6.8
14.3
152.5
7.1
9.9
3.3
4.2
202.8
80.7
36.8
10.8
20.4
9.4
12.8
173.8
45.7
25.5
416.0
19.7
42.0
12.8
28.7
89.4
192.6
50.5
6.7
587.2
19.4
217.1
74.2
191.4
36.7
7.9
28.3
20.6
72.7
128.9
5.0
48.6
62.1
21.9
21.8
1601.1
4557.3
2190.6
2366.7
635.5
913.3
108.6
86.8
1108.6
31.6
135.6
18.3
16.7
11.3
12.1
2.2
24.2
66.8
318.8
13.4
32.2
9.8
9.7
79.7
119.8
15.5
7.9
60.6
40.8
10.1
31.6
12.5
10.0
64.8
15.6
10.9
48.8
76.3
61.2
731.2
4.4
6.7
14.6
153.0
7.3
10.0
3.3
4.1
203.4
84.6
38.5
11.7
20.0
9.3
13.3
172.4
45.0
25.2
420.0
19.5
39.7
13.1
28.8
95.2
196.3
52.4
7.5
608.4
21.9
222.1
77.3
188.3
36.9
8.5
29.2
21.7
75.3
129.3
5.3
49.2
63.9
23.0
23.3
1643.4
4621.9
2206.8
2415.1
645.4
0.9%
1.8%
-3.4%
0.6%
-3.0%
0.2%
1.6%
1.4%
-2.0%
2.2%
-1.4%
-6.7%
1.2%
-0.4%
1.2%
-0.6%
14.6%
-3.2%
1.0%
2.5%
0.9%
8.3%
1.5%
-0.5%
0.6%
8.7%
5.1%
1.2%
1.2%
0.8%
3.2%
3.8%
0.3%
2.2%
1.9%
-6.0%
-0.8%
2.5%
0.6%
2.4%
1.1%
0.7%
-1.6%
0.6%
5.1%
4.7%
8.1%
-1.7%
-1.4%
4.3%
-0.6%
-1.2%
-0.7%
1.2%
-0.5%
-5.2%
2.6%
0.6%
6.7%
2.2%
4.0%
11.5%
3.9%
13.2%
2.6%
4.4%
-1.4%
0.6%
7.5%
3.5%
5.5%
3.8%
0.6%
6.1%
1.5%
3.2%
5.2%
7.1%
2.9%
1.7%
1.0%
2.3%
1.8%
2006-16
Share
2017
-0.7% 19.8%
0.4%
2.3%
-0.3%
1.9%
-0.5% 24.0%
3.9%
0.7%
3.2%
2.9%
2.3%
0.4%
3.9%
0.4%
2.9%
0.2%
5.3%
0.3%
◆
1.7%
-2.2%
0.5%
0.2%
1.4%
2.0%
6.9%
-1.0%
0.3%
-0.6%
0.7%
-1.6%
0.2%
-0.9%
0.2%
-1.9%
1.7%
-0.9%
2.6%
-3.4%
0.3%
-0.9%
0.2%
-3.9%
1.3%
-1.7%
0.9%
-0.7%
0.2%
1.5%
0.7%
-2.1%
0.3%
-0.6%
0.2%
-2.2%
1.4%
-1.5%
0.3%
-2.1%
0.2%
3.7%
1.1%
-1.3%
1.7%
-0.6%
1.3%
-1.3% 15.8%
-0.4%
0.1%
-2.5%
0.1%
2.7%
0.3%
1.3%
3.3%
3.6%
0.2%
-4.0%
0.2%
-4.6%
0.1%
6.2%
0.1%
0.9%
4.4%
-0.9%
1.8%
4.3%
0.8%
-1.0%
0.3%
1.3%
0.4%
7.4%
0.2%
9.8%
0.3%
5.5%
3.7%
5.2%
1.0%
-3.6%
0.5%
2.7%
9.1%
5.1%
0.4%
3.6%
0.9%
3.0%
0.3%
0.9%
0.6%
3.1%
2.1%
3.0%
4.2%
1.2%
1.1%
5.2%
0.2%
5.0% 13.2%
2.4%
0.5%
5.2%
4.8%
2.0%
1.7%
-2.5%
4.1%
2.0%
0.8%
0.7%
0.2%
4.6%
0.6%
4.1%
0.5%
5.0%
1.6%
1.7%
2.8%
1.7%
0.1%
-0.4%
1.1%
3.0%
1.4%
5.9%
0.5%
6.4%
0.5%
2.8% 35.6%
1.1% 100.0%
-0.8% 47.7%
3.2% 52.3%
-1.6% 14.0%
*Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of biogasoline (such as ethanol), biodiesel and derivatives of coal and natural gas are
also included.
than 0.05%.
Notes: Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels,
and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand data.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes oil equivalent figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
◆Less
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
17
Oil: Production by region
Oil: Consumption by region
Million barrels daily
Million barrels daily
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
CIS
92
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
97
02
07
12
17
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
92
97
02
07
12
17
World oil production rose by only 0.6 million b/d in 2017, below average for the second consecutive year. Production fell in the Middle East (-250,000 b/d) and South
& Central America (-240,000 Kb/d) but this was outweighed by growth from North America (820,000 b/d) and Africa (390,000 b/d). Global oil consumption growth
averaged 1.7 million b/d, above its 10-year average of 1.1 million b/d for the third consecutive year. China (500,000 b/d) and the US (190,000 b/d) were the single largest
contributors to growth.
Oil: Consumption per capita 2017
Tonnes
0-0.5
0.5-1.0
1.0-1.5
1.5-2.5
> 2.5
18
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
0
Oil: Regional consumption – by product group
Growth rate per annum
Thousand barrels daily
North America
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total North America
of which: US
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total US
S. & Cent. America
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total S. & Cent. America
Europe
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Europe
CIS
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total CIS
Middle East
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Middle East
Africa
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Africa
Asia Pacific
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Asia Pacific
of which: China
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total China
of which: India
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total India
of which: Japan
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Japan
World
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total World
OECD
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total OECD
Non-OECD
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Non-OECD
2006-16
Share
2017
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
11200
7318
1081
5512
25111
10859
6934
941
5135
23868
10839
6281
801
5046
22967
10950
6567
810
5199
23526
10697
6694
745
5193
23329
10572
6409
662
5272
22915
10778
6519
576
5506
23379
10841
6801
447
5376
23465
11092
6813
418
5495
23818
11287
6759
474
5544
24065
11260
6933
529
5497
24219
-0.2%
2.6%
11.4%
-0.9%
0.6%
0.1% 46.5%
-0.8% 28.6%
-7.7%
2.2%
0.1% 22.7%
-0.4% 100.0%
9597
6199
718
4166
20680
9253
5801
609
3827
19490
9257
5241
508
3766
18771
9263
5464
532
3921
19180
9022
5518
459
3883
18882
8932
5278
367
3913
18490
9125
5371
317
4147
18961
9164
5632
256
4054
19106
9413
5657
258
4203
19531
9547
5603
325
4212
19687
9558
5746
358
4218
19880
0.1%
2.6%
9.9%
0.2%
1.0%
-0.1% 48.1%
-1.0% 28.9%
-7.1%
1.8%
0.1% 21.2%
-0.5% 100.0%
1589
2118
802
1234
5742
1671
2177
830
1354
6032
1760
2144
781
1321
6006
1860
2368
761
1345
6334
1936
2487
738
1409
6570
1981
2604
737
1420
6742
2084
2729
712
1462
6987
2145
2743
734
1436
7058
2203
2729
717
1372
7021
2166
2650
654
1341
6811
2174
2671
614
1335
6794
0.3%
0.8%
-6.1%
-0.4%
-0.2%
3.8% 32.0%
3.2% 39.3%
-1.9%
9.0%
0.7% 19.7%
2.2% 100.0%
3766
7706
1643
3241
16356
3532
7905
1581
3209
16227
3448
7627
1419
3042
15537
3395
7714
1308
3001
15418
3176
7594
1259
2945
14975
3026
7469
1141
2807
14443
2936
7504
1023
2800
14263
2885
7471
951
2742
14049
2824
7826
899
2864
14413
2835
7976
938
2946
14696
2867
8221
963
2929
14980
1.1%
3.1%
2.7%
-0.6%
1.9%
-2.9% 19.1%
0.2% 54.9%
-6.0%
6.4%
-0.9% 19.6%
-1.2% 100.0%
1171
1219
423
1030
3844
1233
1286
397
984
3900
1211
1168
379
1010
3768
1267
1273
350
944
3834
1273
1386
373
1086
4118
1300
1395
361
1151
4206
1338
1379
369
1090
4176
1328
1339
435
1221
4323
1307
1269
354
1232
4162
1313
1301
377
1251
4243
1344
1351
319
1267
4282
2.3%
3.8%
-15.3%
1.2%
0.9%
1.7% 31.4%
1.2% 31.6%
-3.8%
7.5%
2.2% 29.6%
1.1% 100.0%
1453
2260
1580
1677
6970
1565
2303
1747
1771
7385
1627
2301
1901
1895
7724
1665
2279
1934
2096
7973
1756
2392
1951
2172
8271
1837
2488
1991
2280
8595
1910
2622
2067
2272
8870
1981
2526
2172
2354
9032
2026
2418
2215
2370
9029
2055
2302
2137
2666
9161
2145
2295
2108
2742
9290
4.4%
-0.3%
-1.4%
2.8%
1.4%
3.7% 23.1%
0.8% 24.7%
3.4% 22.7%
5.0% 29.5%
3.1% 100.0%
703
1376
422
538
3040
760
1458
434
550
3201
801
1510
445
568
3325
836
1611
458
577
3482
816
1608
392
572
3388
867
1678
438
586
3569
885
1807
433
599
3724
906
1845
432
602
3785
970
1881
428
598
3877
1046
1864
419
621
3950
1103
1929
387
628
4047
5.5%
3.5%
-7.8%
1.0%
2.5%
4.3% 27.3%
3.7% 47.7%
-0.1%
9.6%
1.9% 15.5%
3.1% 100.0%
7401
9303
3583
5754
26041
7454
9388
3361
5698
25901
7697
9391
3043
6129
26260
8320
9917
3047
6683
27967
8525
10345
3114
6927
28911
8954
10780
3218
7086
30038
9482
10987
2984
7236
30689
9806
11085
2823
7560
31274
10596
11334
2809
7782
32521
10952
11498
2844
8269
33562
11304
11907
2770
8593
34574
3.2%
3.6%
-2.6%
3.9%
3.0%
4.5% 32.7%
2.4% 34.4%
-2.1%
8.0%
4.2% 24.9%
2.9% 100.0%
1846
2859
906
2198
7808
1975
3078
724
2164
7941
2046
3127
662
2443
8278
2406
3452
666
2912
9436
2593
3667
588
2948
9796
2776
3963
560
2932
10230
3105
4068
564
2998
10734
3324
4114
592
3179
11209
3768
4220
591
3408
11986
3940
4155
556
3651
12302
4106
4312
573
3807
12799
4.2%
3.8%
3.0%
4.3%
4.0%
8.7% 32.1%
4.5% 33.7%
-5.3%
4.5%
5.8% 29.7%
5.2% 100.0%
550
1252
232
907
2941
581
1350
226
921
3077
569
1439
222
1006
3237
573
1519
199
1028
3319
607
1601
178
1102
3488
644
1686
147
1209
3685
665
1685
117
1260
3727
688
1694
107
1360
3849
797
1774
113
1480
4164
868
1848
136
1708
4560
883
1879
122
1807
4690
1.7%
1.7%
-10.6%
5.8%
2.9%
5.0% 18.8%
4.7% 40.1%
-4.4%
2.6%
7.5% 38.5%
5.2% 100.0%
1731
1621
657
1005
5013
1614
1502
707
1025
4847
1634
1381
450
925
4390
1696
1391
442
913
4442
1635
1343
577
887
4442
1614
1361
824
903
4702
1631
1345
646
895
4516
1575
1319
532
876
4303
1621
1281
433
816
4151
1581
1291
371
788
4031
1591
1296
285
817
3988
0.6%
0.4%
-23.2%
3.7%
-1.1%
-1.1% 39.9%
-3.1% 32.5%
-5.6%
7.1%
-2.3% 20.5%
-2.5% 100.0%
27284
31301
9535
18986
87105
27074
31451
9289
18701
86515
27384
30423
8769
19012
85587
28293
31729
8668
19845
88535
28178
32507
8572
20305
89561
28537
32823
8548
20601
90509
29413
33547
8163
20964
92088
29892
33809
7994
21291
92986
31018
34271
7840
21713
94843
31655
34350
7843
22640
96488
32198
35307
7690
22990
98186
1.7%
2.8%
-2.0%
1.5%
1.8%
1.7% 32.8%
1.1% 36.0%
-2.0%
7.8%
2.0% 23.4%
1.2% 100.0%
18112
17670
3703
10259
49744
17389
17348
3499
9894
48131
17361
16269
2901
9596
46127
17535
16687
2773
9663
46657
17069
16692
2775
9590
46126
16870
16363
2828
9540
45600
17003
16506
2429
9741
45679
16998
16726
2078
9489
45291
17291
17120
1906
9636
45953
17507
17263
1971
9811
46552
17623
17735
1925
9750
47033
0.7%
2.7%
-2.3%
-0.6%
1.0%
-0.3% 37.5%
-0.3% 37.7%
-6.3%
4.1%
-0.4% 20.7%
-0.7% 100.0%
9172
13630
5832
8727
37361
9685
14103
5790
8807
38384
10023
14154
5868
9416
39460
10758
15042
5895
10182
41877
11109
15815
5796
10715
43435
11667
16460
5720
11061
44908
12411
17041
5734
11223
46409
12894
17083
5917
11802
47695
13728
17151
5934
12078
48890
14148
17087
5873
12829
49936
14575
17572
5766
13240
51152
3.0%
2.8%
-1.8%
3.2%
2.4%
5.0%
2.9%
28.5%
34.4%
11.3%
4.4% 25.9%
3.4% 100.0%
◆
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: ‘Light distillates’ consists of aviation and motor gasolines and light distillate feedstock (LDF).
‘Middle distillates’ consists of jet and heating kerosenes, and gas and diesel oils (including marine bunkers).
‘Fuel oil’ includes marine bunkers and crude oil used directly as fuel.
‘Others’ consists of refinery gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), solvents, petroleum coke, lubricants, bitumen, wax, other refined products and refinery fuel and loss.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures
An extended breakdown of oil consumption by product group is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
19
Spot crude prices
US dollars per barrel
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Dubai
$/bbl*
Brent
$/bbl†
Nigerian
Forcados
$/bbl
West Texas
Intermediate
$/bbl‡
31.80
28.78
28.06
27.53
13.10
16.95
13.27
15.62
20.45
16.63
17.17
14.93
14.74
16.10
18.52
18.23
12.21
17.25
26.20
22.81
23.74
26.78
33.64
49.35
61.50
68.19
94.34
61.39
78.06
106.18
109.08
105.47
97.07
51.20
41.19
53.13
32.97
29.55
28.78
27.56
14.43
18.44
14.92
18.23
23.73
20.00
19.32
16.97
15.82
17.02
20.67
19.09
12.72
17.97
28.50
24.44
25.02
28.83
38.27
54.52
65.14
72.39
97.26
61.67
79.50
111.26
111.67
108.66
98.95
52.39
43.73
54.19
33.29
29.54
28.14
27.75
14.46
18.39
15.00
18.30
23.85
20.11
19.61
17.41
16.25
17.26
21.16
19.33
12.62
18.00
28.42
24.23
25.04
28.66
38.13
55.69
67.07
74.48
101.43
63.35
81.05
113.65
114.21
111.95
101.35
54.41
44.54
54.31
33.65
30.30
29.39
27.98
15.10
19.18
15.97
19.68
24.50
21.54
20.57
18.45
17.21
18.42
22.16
20.61
14.39
19.31
30.37
25.93
26.16
31.07
41.49
56.59
66.02
72.20
100.06
61.92
79.45
95.04
94.13
97.99
93.28
48.71
43.34
50.79
*1982-1985 Arabian Light, 1986-2017 Dubai dated.
†1982-1983 Forties, 1984-2017 Brent dated.
‡1982-1983 Posted WTI prices, 1984-2017 Spot WTI (Cushing) prices.
Source: S&P Global Platts, © 2018, S&P Global Inc.
Crude oil prices 1861-2017
US dollars per barrel
World events
Yom Kippur war
Post-war reconstruction
Fears of shortage in US
Growth of Venezuelan
production
Pennsylvanian
oil boom
Russian
oil exports
began
East Texas field
discovered
Sumatra
Discovery of
production Spindletop,
began
Texas
Iranian revolution
Loss of Iranian
supplies
Netback pricing
introduced
Suez crisis
Iraq
invaded
Kuwait
Asian financial crisis
Invasion
of Iraq
‘Arab
Spring’
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1861-69
1870-79
1880-89
1890-99
1900-09
1910-19
$ 2017 (deflated using the Consumer Price Index for the US)
$ money of the day
20
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
1920-29
1930-39
1940-49
1950-59
1960-69
1970-79
1980-89
1990-99
2000-09
2010-19
0
1861-1944 US average.
1945-1983 Arabian Light posted at Ras Tanura.
1984-2017 Brent dated.
Oil product prices (Rotterdam)
Product differentials to crude
(Rotterdam products minus Dated Brent)
US dollars per barrel
US dollars per barrel
160
Gasoline
Gas oil
High sulphur fuel oil
140
40
Gasoline
Gas oil
High sulphur fuel oil
30
20
120
10
100
0
80
-10
60
-20
40
-30
20
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
0
Source: S&P Global Platts, © 2018, S&P Global Inc.
-40
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
-50
Source: S&P Global Platts, © 2018, S&P Global Inc.
Regional refining margins
US dollars per barrel
25
20
15
10
5
USGC Medium Sour Coking
NWE Light Sweet Cracking
Singapore Medium Sour Hydrocracking
07
08
0
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
-5
17
Note: The refining margins presented are benchmark margins for three major global refining centres: US Gulf Coast (USGC), North West Europe (NWE – Rotterdam)
and Singapore. In each case they are based on a single crude oil appropriate for that region and have optimized product yields based on a generic refinery configuration
(cracking, hydrocracking or coking), again appropriate for that region. The margins are on a semi-variable basis, i.e. the margin after all variable costs and fixed energy costs.
Refinery utilization
Percentage (based on average annual capacity)
100
90
80
70
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
07
08
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
World
09
60
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
50
Refinery throughput growth averaged 1.6 million b/d, up from only 0.5 million b/d in 2016. Growth was driven by China (570,000 b/d), the US (410,000 b/d) and Europe
(370,000 b/d) which outweighed a decline of 280,000 b/d in South & Central America. Global refining capacity growth was 0.6 million b/d, below average for the third
consecutive year, with China and India the main contributors to growth. As a result, refinery utilization rose from 82.5% to 83.7% – the highest in nine years. Utilization
in South & Central America fell to 66.1% – the lowest since 1985.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
21
Oil: Refinery throughput
Growth rate per annum
Thousand barrels daily*
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Curacao
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
Nigeria
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
15156
1849
1261
18266
600
1741
201
313
209
150
177
154
1004
966
5516
174
662
143
149
157
218
1654
2193
385
142
1863
118
1131
305
402
247
280
120
1159
369
518
1528
357
14274
150
429
229
4597
144
279
95
3
5927
261
1719
342
189
923
69
149
1936
529
396
6515
391
653
128
52
388
732
2345
614
6594
3107
904
3995
557
91
238
206
1163
2417
992
922
10
120
21930
74772
39311
35461
13260
14648
1781
1295
17724
578
1760
204
313
197
155
177
150
1010
961
5505
176
675
143
165
156
222
1676
2151
360
140
1741
195
1120
279
417
241
282
117
1174
413
490
1533
343
14210
147
427
236
4742
149
243
93
3
6041
257
1779
476
215
906
224
145
2018
493
391
6904
429
617
114
107
408
720
2396
570
6828
3213
910
3946
560
99
226
184
1161
2365
900
927
10
118
22017
74797
38532
36265
13246
14336
1731
1184
17251
532
1781
192
302
183
156
192
152
961
801
5251
169
629
125
148
157
220
1449
2026
346
127
1614
174
1104
278
408
209
247
114
1057
394
375
1440
349
13159
121
434
235
4765
152
255
88
2
6053
256
1826
417
220
869
203
158
1928
492
386
6754
475
598
93
49
388
698
2301
577
7452
3641
900
3627
554
95
209
147
844
2297
956
938
28
115
22380
73148
36672
36476
12307
14724
1774
1184
17682
531
1787
159
300
64
137
195
126
969
702
4970
158
668
110
159
146
211
1314
1915
393
128
1673
190
1156
259
458
227
217
110
1060
406
392
1395
334
13078
124
330
257
5018
170
249
73
2
6224
265
1829
520
226
892
167
294
1922
571
381
7067
548
580
110
96
389
702
2425
606
8408
3899
853
3619
470
99
190
181
979
2390
876
963
121
122
23776
75222
37158
38064
12237
14806
1680
1166
17652
516
1813
173
306
164
156
189
137
991
712
5157
168
598
102
143
137
225
1313
1876
331
132
1570
189
1115
289
482
206
194
120
1051
374
394
1433
304
12748
127
411
326
5185
165
206
69
2
6492
259
1873
543
218
852
201
278
1884
635
349
7091
520
523
103
108
383
518
2155
627
8686
4085
880
3410
516
108
193
190
1035
2533
809
937
137
126
24270
75564
36824
38740
11885
14999
1751
1199
17949
530
1889
164
305
165
152
189
107
936
325
4761
170
634
118
145
153
215
1138
1901
410
122
1475
181
1110
287
505
221
182
108
1186
417
398
1348
262
12685
124
434
331
5438
157
108
62
2
6656
263
1932
579
219
916
193
292
1953
638
268
7253
478
534
111
92
403
584
2202
600
9199
4302
820
3400
575
109
192
170
1020
2582
897
978
130
113
25086
76593
37096
39498
11861
15312
1719
1224
18255
527
2035
174
284
170
141
183
132
952
297
4895
174
555
113
134
144
227
1117
1857
399
120
1259
192
1065
292
488
239
189
116
1168
332
421
1197
291
12088
132
425
341
5636
146
85
58
3
6826
264
1999
598
221
873
187
270
1876
650
238
7176
492
514
111
97
413
594
2221
588
9599
4462
822
3453
558
105
223
158
936
2484
847
1078
140
124
25576
77038
36738
40300
11202
15848
1640
1155
18643
526
2085
174
247
189
125
185
105
920
283
4839
173
645
104
151
139
225
1096
1833
416
131
1198
160
1090
274
486
217
194
105
1185
380
406
1125
281
12013
135
448
361
5926
136
69
55
5
7135
257
1932
487
230
879
180
261
2201
659
237
7323
615
530
104
64
431
445
2189
538
10155
4475
848
3289
553
101
232
168
871
2516
850
1029
121
119
25865
78009
36919
41090
11154
16188
1635
1064
18887
536
1972
165
244
178
121
182
125
863
280
4666
179
644
121
145
147
197
1152
1875
436
130
1347
170
1157
293
532
278
208
119
1306
401
526
1118
264
12746
130
462
342
5773
127
64
51
9
6959
256
1867
409
236
905
190
253
2447
929
182
7673
591
530
53
22
443
459
2096
427
10684
4561
836
3258
514
109
257
212
937
2784
838
1132
146
113
26808
79836
37972
41864
11788
16187
1594
933
18714
511
1812
163
339
156
150
186
148
654
275
4395
164
640
125
109
140
226
1122
1887
464
133
1293
187
1171
230
517
279
228
115
1302
395
531
1071
270
12600
120
372
339
5715
118
62
51
10
6787
247
1882
440
223
841
178
280
2651
1000
144
7886
584
509
–
62
464
456
2074
433
11084
4930
885
3280
543
108
242
216
965
2928
861
1096
145
128
27843
80299
37762
42537
11697
16593
1754
767
19114
500
1741
172
354
95
156
217
131
513
234
4113
163
685
136
158
151
226
1148
1878
480
131
1392
192
1179
311
508
290
225
112
1325
392
542
1064
282
12968
117
362
355
5708
125
66
52
10
6795
249
1968
527
224
701
204
379
2802
1008
166
8228
573
508
–
67
447
453
2049
419
11656
5010
887
3215
565
108
261
211
1068
3061
848
1064
144
130
28647
81914
38567
43347
11970
2.5%
10.0%
-17.8%
2.1%
-2.2%
-3.9%
5.5%
4.5%
-39.2%
3.9%
16.8%
-11.8%
-21.5%
-15.1%
-6.4%
-1.1%
6.9%
8.5%
45.7%
7.7%
0.6%
-1.1%
-3.0%
0.2%
-1.1%
0.6%
-2.8%
0.7%
-2.7%
-0.1%
0.8%
-0.3%
-4.4%
-11.6%
-2.1%
-0.4%
0.1%
-1.3%
-3.7%
-1.3%
0.8%
-3.8%
-1.7%
2.1%
-0.4%
-3.5%
1.1%
0.3%
-2.9%
2.7%
0.5%
-1.5%
0.1%
0.7%
-0.5%
*Atmospheric distillation capacity on a calendar-day basis.
◆Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
22
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
◆
Share
2017
20.3%
2.1%
0.9%
23.3%
0.6%
2.1%
0.2%
0.4%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.6%
0.3%
5.0%
0.2%
0.8%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.3%
1.4%
2.3%
0.6%
0.2%
1.7%
0.2%
1.4%
0.4%
0.6%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
1.6%
0.5%
0.7%
1.3%
0.3%
15.8%
0.1%
0.4%
0.4%
7.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
2.3%
-0.5%
3.5%
-1.4%
7.6%
2.6%
0.7%
35.0%
-1.7%
4.0%
-1.3%
-2.9%
1.8%
-0.9%
◆
1.9%
-0.6%
-3.5%
4.5%
-2.8%
2.9%
-1.4%
-2.2%
-2.2%
-2.7%
-1.4%
4.7%
4.2%
-0.1%
2.6%
5.7%
-1.5%
6.4%
-14.3%
2.2%
-7.0%
◆
3.7%
18.4%
0.1%
1.7%
8.3%
1.0%
-0.5%
0.3%
4.6%
1.2%
2.4%
19.7%
-0.1%
0.6%
0.3%
1.0%
0.3%
-16.6%
-0.7%
0.9%
15.0%
7.6%
0.2%
35.2%
8.0%
0.5%
5.7%
2.9%
3.4%
0.7%
5.4%
1.2%
15.6%
-9.8%
0.2%
4.3%
1.7% 10.0%
-1.9%
4.3%
0.7%
-0.1%
-2.1%
0.6%
n/a -100.0%
–
8.6%
-6.4%
0.1%
-3.7%
1.9%
0.5%
-0.5%
-4.2%
0.6%
-1.2%
-1.2%
2.5%
-3.3%
-3.2%
0.5%
5.2%
5.9% 14.2%
1.6%
5.6%
6.1%
0.2%
-0.3%
1.1%
-2.0%
-2.0%
3.9%
4.1%
0.4%
0.7%
0.3%
1.1%
0.1%
7.7%
0.9%
0.3%
-2.0%
0.2%
0.3%
10.7%
-1.8%
1.3%
4.5%
2.0%
3.7%
-1.4%
-1.5%
1.0%
-2.9%
1.7%
1.3%
-0.7%
32.0%
0.2%
1.8%
-0.2%
0.2%
2.9%
2.7% 35.0%
2.0%
0.8% 100.0%
2.1%
-0.5% 47.1%
1.9%
2.0% 52.9%
2.3%
-1.4% 14.6%
Source: Includes data from ICIS.
Oil: Refining capacity
Growth rate per annum
Thousand barrels daily*
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Curacao
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
Nigeria
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
17594
1907
1463
20964
628
1964
242
324
320
175
223
165
1303
1192
6536
201
781
175
193
189
261
1962
2390
425
165
2377
241
1236
316
493
306
389
122
1362
454
613
1819
616
17088
205
460
330
5471
251
526
232
10
7485
260
1772
738
272
936
216
137
2107
625
496
7559
443
810
156
150
520
958
3037
733
8737
2983
1094
4650
534
103
271
270
1427
2679
1197
1100
11
206
25995
88663
45524
43139
15790
17672
1951
1463
21086
628
1977
242
326
320
175
230
165
1303
1176
6542
201
786
175
193
189
261
1971
2366
425
165
2396
241
1280
316
492
306
358
122
1362
454
613
1827
613
17113
205
460
330
5387
251
566
232
10
7441
260
1805
738
275
936
222
137
2107
680
496
7656
444
810
131
250
520
958
3113
734
9670
2992
1094
4650
568
103
274
270
1427
2712
1197
1165
11
208
27075
90025
45742
44283
15818
17584
1976
1463
21023
625
1992
242
336
320
175
252
165
1303
900
6310
201
786
180
193
189
261
1842
2362
425
165
2396
241
1280
316
491
306
283
122
1362
454
613
1757
635
16860
205
460
330
5425
251
582
232
10
7495
260
1860
853
275
936
222
283
2109
700
496
7994
554
810
131
110
520
958
3083
734
10616
3574
1099
4630
572
136
273
267
1427
2746
1197
1236
159
216
28880
91645
45521
46124
15543
17736
1913
1463
21113
625
1992
242
336
320
175
252
165
1303
901
6311
201
787
195
193
189
261
1702
2091
490
165
2396
241
1274
316
560
306
247
122
1421
454
613
1757
635
16618
205
460
330
5563
251
474
232
14
7529
260
1860
914
280
936
222
283
2109
700
496
8060
554
810
131
211
520
959
3185
740
11604
3703
1099
4291
582
136
277
264
1427
2774
1197
1230
159
216
29699
92513
45089
47424
15301
17322
2005
1606
20932
625
2014
250
336
320
175
252
165
1303
1013
6453
193
788
195
193
181
261
1610
2077
495
165
2276
241
1276
329
580
306
229
122
1542
454
596
1787
619
16516
205
460
330
5721
251
474
232
10
7683
260
1860
935
292
936
222
283
2107
705
496
8096
652
810
131
336
520
780
3229
742
12296
3795
1099
4274
601
136
277
261
1427
2864
1197
1230
159
217
30575
93484
44938
48547
15219
17824
2015
1606
21444
657
2004
254
336
320
175
252
165
1303
356
5822
193
753
195
175
181
261
1513
2097
498
165
2098
241
1274
342
582
330
214
122
1546
454
596
1526
607
15962
205
460
330
5816
251
248
232
10
7552
260
1952
971
292
936
222
283
2107
710
496
8229
652
810
201
342
520
910
3435
663
12962
4279
1099
4254
606
136
275
261
1422
2878
1197
1230
159
218
31639
94083
44806
49277
14664
17925
1929
1606
21460
657
2097
254
336
320
175
253
165
1303
361
5921
193
776
195
175
181
261
1375
2061
498
165
1861
241
1274
342
582
330
235
122
1546
454
596
1498
591
15552
205
460
350
6279
251
262
232
11
8050
260
1985
823
294
936
222
283
2507
710
382
8402
647
810
201
342
520
930
3449
662
13594
4319
1099
4123
612
136
390
270
1414
2878
1197
1237
159
227
32316
95150
44311
50839
14270
17889
1929
1522
21340
657
2238
258
336
320
175
253
165
1303
376
6081
193
776
195
175
180
261
1375
2077
498
165
1900
241
1274
342
582
330
228
122
1546
454
596
1337
591
15438
205
460
350
6407
251
240
232
28
8173
260
1985
931
301
936
222
283
2899
726
382
8925
651
810
201
345
520
930
3457
536
14534
4319
1099
3749
612
136
390
271
1514
3123
1197
1252
159
234
33125
96540
43841
52698
14156
18315
1931
1522
21768
657
2281
258
421
320
175
253
165
1303
384
6217
193
776
195
175
180
261
1375
2049
528
165
1900
241
1293
342
581
330
239
122
1562
454
596
1337
519
15414
205
460
350
6513
271
240
232
37
8308
260
1985
903
301
936
222
283
2899
1147
382
9318
651
810
201
345
520
930
3457
443
14306
4307
1111
3721
612
136
389
271
1514
3123
988
1252
159
234
32564
97046
44112
52934
14204
18621
1934
1522
22077
657
2289
258
421
320
175
253
165
1303
384
6225
193
776
195
175
180
261
1245
2051
528
165
1900
241
1293
342
581
330
256
122
1562
454
596
1227
519
15193
205
460
350
6583
271
240
232
37
8378
260
1985
919
301
936
222
429
2899
1147
382
9480
651
810
201
345
520
930
3457
452
14177
4620
1111
3600
618
136
389
271
1514
3246
988
1235
163
234
32753
97562
44194
53368
13983
18567
1968
1546
22081
657
2285
258
421
320
175
253
165
1303
384
6221
193
776
195
175
181
261
1245
2069
528
165
1900
241
1294
342
559
330
247
122
1562
454
596
1227
519
15180
205
470
360
6584
271
240
232
37
8399
260
2105
919
301
736
304
429
2821
1147
496
9518
651
810
201
345
520
910
3437
454
14513
4972
1111
3343
625
136
401
271
1514
3246
1083
1235
167
234
33303
98139
43940
54199
13970
-0.3%
1.8%
1.6%
*Atmospheric distillation capacity at year end on a calendar-day basis.
◆Less than 0.05%.
◆
–
-0.2%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
-0.1%
–
–
–
–
0.3%
–
–
0.8%
–
–
–
–
0.1%
–
-3.8%
–
-3.7%
–
–
–
–
–
–
-0.1%
–
2.2%
2.9%
◆
–
–
–
–
0.3%
–
6.0%
–
–
-21.4%
36.9%
–
-2.7%
–
29.8%
0.4%
◆
–
–
–
–
-2.2%
-0.6%
0.5%
2.4%
7.6%
–
-7.1%
1.1%
–
3.1%
0.1%
–
–
9.6%
–
2.5%
–
1.7%
0.6%
-0.6%
1.6%
-0.1%
2006-16
Share
2017
0.7% 18.9%
0.1%
2.0%
0.4%
1.6%
0.6% 22.5%
0.6%
0.7%
1.7%
2.3%
1.0%
0.3%
2.7%
0.4%
–
0.3%
-0.1%
0.2%
1.3%
0.3%
–
0.2%
0.1%
1.3%
-10.4%
0.4%
-0.3%
6.3%
-0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.8%
-0.5%
0.2%
-1.0%
0.2%
-0.5%
0.2%
–
0.3%
-4.4%
1.3%
-1.5%
2.1%
2.2%
0.5%
–
0.2%
-2.8%
1.9%
–
0.2%
0.1%
1.3%
0.8%
0.3%
1.6%
0.6%
0.7%
0.3%
-4.1%
0.3%
–
0.1%
1.4%
1.6%
–
0.5%
-0.3%
0.6%
-3.9%
1.3%
-1.7%
0.5%
-1.3% 15.5%
–
0.2%
–
0.5%
0.6%
0.4%
1.8%
6.7%
0.8%
0.3%
-7.5%
0.2%
–
0.2%
◆
14.0%
1.1%
8.6%
–
0.3%
1.1%
2.1%
2.1%
0.9%
1.1%
0.3%
–
0.7%
1.0%
0.3%
12.1%
0.4%
3.2%
2.9%
6.3%
1.2%
-2.6%
0.5%
2.3%
9.7%
3.9%
0.7%
–
0.8%
2.7%
0.2%
8.7%
0.4%
–
0.5%
-0.3%
0.9%
1.3%
3.5%
-4.2%
0.5%
5.2% 14.8%
4.9%
5.1%
1.0%
1.1%
-2.4%
3.4%
1.6%
0.6%
2.8%
0.1%
3.7%
0.4%
-0.2%
0.3%
0.6%
1.5%
2.1%
3.3%
-1.4%
1.1%
1.2%
1.3%
30.9%
0.2%
1.3%
0.2%
2.6% 33.9%
1.0% 100.0%
-0.3% 44.8%
2.3% 55.2%
-1.3% 14.2%
Source: Includes data from ICIS.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
23
Oil: Trade movements
Growth rate per annum
Thousand barrels daily
Imports
US
Europe
China
India
Japan
Rest of World
Total World
Exports
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Russia
Other CIS
Saudi Arabia
Middle East (ex S. Arabia)
North Africa
West Africa
Asia Pacific (ex Japan)
Rest of World
Total World
2006-16
Share
2017
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
13632
14034
4172
2924
5032
17598
57392
12872
13885
4494
3066
4925
17282
56524
11453
12608
5100
3491
4263
17332
54247
11689
12201
5886
3749
4567
17143
55234
11338
12272
6295
3823
4494
17717
55938
10587
12569
6675
4168
4743
17862
56604
9859
12815
6978
4370
4637
20085
58744
9241
12855
7398
4155
4383
21261
59293
9451
13877
8333
4380
4332
22103
62477
10056
13817
9214
4912
4180
22617
64795
10077
14060
10241
4947
4142
24125
67592
0.2%
1.8%
11.1%
0.7%
-0.9%
6.7%
4.3%
-3.0% 14.9%
0.2% 20.8%
9.0% 15.2%
6.5%
7.3%
-2.2%
6.1%
3.7% 35.7%
1.7% 100.0%
1439
2457
1975
3570
2305
7827
1538
8101
12198
3341
4961
6004
1675
57392
1967
2498
1609
3616
2086
7540
1680
8357
12415
3268
4712
5392
1385
56524
1947
2518
1449
3748
2074
7257
1790
7276
11744
2943
4531
5631
1340
54247
2154
2599
1539
3568
1949
7397
1944
7595
11976
2878
4755
6226
653
55234
2495
2798
1487
3755
2106
7448
2080
8120
12188
1951
4759
6088
663
55938
2682
3056
1366
3830
2193
7457
1848
8468
11742
2602
4724
6299
338
56604
3563
3296
1347
3790
2578
7948
2102
8365
12242
2127
4590
6307
491
58744
4033
3536
1293
3939
2512
7792
2012
7911
12699
1743
4849
6450
524
59293
4521
3836
1323
4107
2968
8313
2021
7968
13537
1701
4880
6780
525
62477
4873
3887
1376
4144
2966
8354
1847
8515
14950
1697
4396
7297
494
64795
5540
4201
1279
3993
3281
8611
1974
8238
15680
2155
4470
7641
528
67592
13.7%
8.1%
-7.1%
-3.6%
10.6%
3.1%
6.9%
-3.2%
4.9%
27.0%
1.7%
4.7%
7.0%
4.3%
14.0%
8.2%
5.3%
6.2%
-4.1%
1.9%
1.2%
5.9%
2.8%
4.9%
2.1% 12.7%
3.5%
2.9%
0.2% 12.2%
1.8% 23.2%
-6.3%
3.2%
-0.9%
6.6%
4.8% 11.3%
-9.6%
0.8%
1.7% 100.0%
Notes: Unless otherwise stated, this table shows inter-regional trade based on the regional classification in the table ‘Oil trade in 2016 and 2017’ (see page 25).
Bunkers are not included as exports.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
Oil: Inter-area movements 2017
To
Crude (million tonnes)
From
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Russia
Other CIS
Iraq
Kuwait
Saudi Arabia
UAE
Other Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & S. Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Total imports
S. & Cent.
Mexico America
Europe
Russia
Other
CIS
Middle
East
US
Canada
Africa Australasia
–
170.3
30.3
68.4
3.2
2.4
0.3
30.0
7.2
47.0
1.0
0.8
6.5
25.3
†
0.1
–
–
–
–
1.2
394.1
16.1
–
–
0.5
2.2
0.3
1.7
0.1
–
5.0
–
–
1.4
2.3
–
†
–
–
–
–
–
29.7
–
†
–
†
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
†
3.9
0.1
1.0
–
0.5
3.0
–
0.4
–
3.9
†
†
2.1
8.2
–
0.1
†
†
–
†
†
23.1
10.8
2.2
10.9
11.0
–
170.2
66.4
50.6
9.9
37.0
0.4
39.6
52.8
53.0
1.2
†
–
†
†
–
†
516.0
–
–
–
†
†
–
0.6
†
–
–
†
–
–
†
†
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.6
†
–
–
–
†
18.1
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
0.1
†
†
†
–
–
–
–
–
18.3
0.1
†
0.1
–
0.4
2.8
5.3
4.5
†
13.7
†
0.1
1.6
†
†
†
†
–
–
–
0.1
28.6
0.3
†
–
0.1
0.3
†
0.4
1.7
2.8
8.3
0.1
0.1
†
8.3
†
†
†
†
–
†
†
22.7
–
28.8
3.5
10.6
20.9
16.1
0.7
0.2
†
0.3
0.6
0.4
6.4
2.0
†
–
1.0
4.0
1.2
0.9
5.8
103.5
24.7
–
†
0.1
5.3
0.3
0.5
–
–
†
†
†
†
†
†
†
0.3
†
†
0.1
†
31.2
38.4
0.9
–
1.1
2.3
†
†
†
–
–
0.1
†
†
†
†
†
†
–
0.3
0.4
0.3
43.9
80.0
0.6
0.9
–
8.5
1.9
0.1
–
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
3.7
0.7
0.1
†
3.7
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.5
102.9
25.5
2.4
0.1
3.9
–
84.7
4.5
0.2
2.9
12.3
6.5
7.0
10.7
2.0
0.3
†
2.5
6.7
†
1.3
3.3
176.9
†
†
†
†
0.3
–
0.5
–
–
†
†
†
†
†
†
†
0.3
†
†
†
0.1
1.2
†
†
†
†
2.6
10.7
–
–
†
0.1
†
0.1
†
†
†
†
†
0.1
†
†
†
13.7
2.1
†
†
0.3
17.5
2.4
0.1
0.2
0.1
1.4
2.1
6.8
0.5
†
0.8
†
1.2
10.5
†
0.9
1.4
48.5
6.5
0.1
0.3
2.0
42.2
3.4
0.4
†
2.7
9.5
7.7
3.9
0.5
0.3
0.6
0.1
1.5
8.3
†
2.6
4.4
96.8
Japan Singapore
Other
Asia
Pacific
Total
exports
China
India
0.2
†
†
–
†
0.7
–
–
0.1
0.3
5.0
0.2
1.2
1.9
–
–
†
†
†
1.5
10.4
21.5
7.7
0.6
1.3
57.2
9.9
59.8
3.8
36.9
18.2
52.2
10.2
66.5
5.6
72.3
4.7
2.1
–
†
–
–
13.3
422.1
1.2
0.1
7.2
24.5
0.5
2.8
3.2
41.0
11.2
34.1
16.4
31.6
4.1
26.4
1.2
–
–
–
–
†
5.5
211.1
1.4
–
2.2
2.3
0.1
9.0
1.3
2.7
11.5
63.4
37.7
24.1
†
0.8
†
0.4
1.9
–
–
–
3.5
162.5
0.1
–
†
0.4
0.3
1.4
0.2
1.0
6.5
10.1
14.4
11.1
0.8
0.5
†
0.8
0.2
†
–
–
5.9
53.7
4.2
–
4.2
4.3
6.2
6.7
6.7
20.1
34.2
82.4
40.6
41.1
4.9
15.1
0.2
6.5
2.6
†
0.1
0.1
–
280.2
45.8
173.3
57.3
168.8
23.6
277.2
90.0
189.0
101.6
357.5
125.7
215.4
81.2
214.2
7.4
9.9
4.7
†
0.1
1.7
39.9
2184.2
0.8
†
†
0.2
0.1
†
†
–
†
†
0.1
0.1
†
0.4
†
–
2.4
1.6
4.1
9.0
12.6
31.2
8.2
0.4
†
1.3
5.2
2.1
0.5
–
1.4
2.8
8.9
4.2
0.6
1.7
†
0.4
–
0.9
2.3
11.5
31.9
84.4
8.4
0.6
†
0.1
0.7
0.4
0.1
†
1.5
8.1
5.4
4.4
0.2
†
†
0.1
1.0
–
†
0.8
1.9
33.9
10.5
0.4
–
0.2
0.4
2.0
†
–
3.1
2.5
4.8
5.1
0.6
†
†
0.7
0.6
2.5
–
1.0
7.7
42.1
6.9
0.2
1.2
8.6
20.8
12.5
0.1
4.0
2.1
4.8
4.3
2.7
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.5
8.9
8.7
3.0
–
39.0
128.5
9.1
†
0.1
0.4
7.4
9.1
0.6
0.5
9.6
8.7
25.0
14.1
1.7
0.8
0.2
0.8
24.6
12.7
4.1
66.9
–
196.6
221.0
34.5
6.2
28.8
134.2
145.6
8.0
5.1
23.5
50.7
65.8
48.9
25.1
8.1
2.2
2.6
48.0
56.2
15.9
95.9
108.9
1135.1
Product (million tonnes)
From
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Russia
Other CIS
Iraq
Kuwait
Saudi Arabia
UAE
Other Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & S. Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Total imports
†Less than 0.05.
Notes: Bunkers are not included as exports. Intra-area movements (for example, between countries in Europe) are excluded.
Crude imports and exports include condensates.
24
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Major trade movements 2017
Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes)
36.2
254.9
24.2
61.9
70.9
28.9
199.2
15
154.9
166.3
3
55.0
40.8
38.4
201.3
63
3.5
27.3
33.8
6 8
60.8
87.4
83.8
42.5
42.
42
5
27.2
36.9
45.2
153.
3.
3.8
79.1
276.4
21.1
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
44.9
9
67
67.0
23.0
26.4
74.0
24.7
58.5
Oil trade in 2016 and 2017
2016
2017
Million tonnes
Crude
imports
Product
imports
Crude
exports
Product
exports
Crude
imports
Product
imports
Crude
exports
Product
exports
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Russia
Other CIS
Iraq
Kuwait
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & S. Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Total World
392.0
31.2
†
24.8
489.7
0.2
18.2
†
†
†
1.1
26.5
4.3
0.6
21.2
20.7
382.6
214.0
168.0
48.1
272.6
2116.2
105.8
32.1
38.0
90.9
192.3
1.4
10.6
1.7
0.7
4.4
12.5
17.4
38.1
26.1
27.1
29.2
74.4
30.0
39.1
121.7
181.7
1075.2
27.6
163.0
59.6
176.2
18.2
272.2
82.7
179.0
103.2
375.5
124.4
202.1
58.5
212.2
7.0
10.6
2.7
†
†
0.7
41.0
2116.2
207.2
29.9
8.8
29.5
124.8
139.2
9.1
1.4
25.6
47.7
60.6
44.9
25.2
7.0
2.5
4.0
45.9
49.2
14.4
94.5
103.6
1075.2
394.1
29.7
†
23.1
516.0
0.6
18.3
†
†
†
1.3
27.2
5.2
0.3
17.2
21.5
422.1
211.1
162.5
53.7
280.2
2184.2
103.5
31.2
43.9
102.9
176.9
1.2
13.7
1.3
0.7
5.9
21.8
18.7
34.3
31.6
31.0
31.2
84.4
33.9
42.1
128.5
196.6
1135.1
45.8
173.3
57.3
168.8
23.6
277.2
90.0
189.0
101.6
357.5
125.7
215.4
81.2
214.2
7.4
9.9
4.7
†
0.1
1.7
39.9
2184.2
221.0
34.5
6.2
28.8
134.2
145.6
8.0
5.1
23.5
50.7
65.8
48.9
25.1
8.1
2.2
2.6
48.0
56.2
15.9
95.9
108.9
1135.1
7851
626
1
498
9807
3
365
‡
‡
‡
22
532
87
12
424
415
7663
4286
3365
963
5460
42381
2205
670
793
1894
4010
30
222
36
15
91
260
362
795
543
564
609
1551
625
815
2538
3787
22414
553
3264
1193
3528
364
5451
1657
3585
2066
7520
2491
4048
1171
4250
140
213
54
‡
‡
13
820
42381
4320
623
183
616
2602
2903
190
28
534
995
1263
935
526
146
53
83
957
1026
301
1971
2161
22414
7914
596
‡
465
10363
13
368
‡
‡
‡
27
547
103
7
345
432
8477
4239
3263
1078
5628
43864
2163
653
917
2151
3697
25
285
28
15
124
456
390
717
660
648
653
1764
708
879
2685
4109
23728
919
3481
1150
3391
474
5567
1807
3796
2040
7178
2524
4325
1631
4302
148
199
94
1
2
34
801
43864
4621
720
129
603
2806
3044
167
107
492
1060
1374
1022
524
168
47
55
1003
1174
331
2004
2276
23728
Thousand barrels daily
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Russia
Other CIS
Iraq
Kuwait
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & S. Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Total World
†Less than 0.05.
‡Less than 0.5.
Notes: Bunkers are not included as exports. Intra-area movements (for example, between countries in Europe) are excluded.
Crude imports and exports include condensates.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
25
Natural gas
Total proved reserves
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Denmark
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Nigeria
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less
At end 1997
Trillion
cubic
metres
At end 2007
Trillion
cubic
metres
At end 2016
Trillion
cubic
metres
Trillion
cubic
metres
4.5
1.7
1.8
8.0
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
4.6
0.1
6.6
0.1
0.2
0.3
1.7
1.2
0.1
0.3
0.8
0.2
4.9
0.7
1.5
33.6
2.6
0.7
1.2
†
40.3
0.1
22.7
3.0
†
1.4
0.5
8.8
5.6
0.2
5.9
0.3
†
48.6
3.9
0.9
1.2
3.3
0.8
10.2
1.2
0.3
0.4
1.2
0.7
2.2
2.2
0.3
0.4
†
0.2
0.2
0.4
9.4
128.1
13.8
114.2
3.6
6.4
1.6
0.4
8.4
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.1
0.3
0.5
5.4
0.1
7.8
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.2
2.3
0.1
0.6
0.3
0.2
5.0
1.0
1.5
33.9
2.6
0.8
1.3
†
41.2
0.1
27.7
3.0
†
1.7
0.9
26.4
6.9
0.3
6.3
0.3
†
73.6
4.3
2.0
1.5
5.0
1.2
14.0
1.8
0.4
0.3
2.3
1.0
3.0
2.4
0.5
0.7
†
0.3
0.5
0.3
13.6
163.5
14.7
148.9
2.6
8.7
2.0
0.2
10.9
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.3
6.4
0.1
8.3
†
†
†
0.7
1.8
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
3.0
1.3
1.1
34.8
19.5
1.1
1.2
†
59.0
0.2
33.2
3.5
0.2
1.7
0.7
24.9
8.0
0.3
5.9
0.3
†
78.8
4.3
1.8
1.4
5.2
1.1
13.8
3.6
0.2
0.3
5.5
1.2
2.9
2.7
1.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.3
19.2
193.1
17.7
175.4
1.2
8.7
1.9
0.2
10.8
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.3
6.4
0.1
8.2
†
†
†
0.7
1.7
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
3.0
1.3
1.1
35.0
19.5
1.1
1.2
†
59.2
0.2
33.2
3.5
0.5
1.7
0.7
24.9
8.0
0.3
5.9
0.3
†
79.1
4.3
1.8
1.4
5.2
1.1
13.8
3.6
0.2
0.3
5.5
1.2
2.9
2.7
1.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.3
19.3
193.5
17.8
175.6
1.2
At end 2017
Trillion
cubic
Share of
feet
total
308.5
66.5
6.9
381.9
11.6
9.6
13.5
3.9
15.5
9.2
225.0
2.2
290.3
0.5
1.1
1.5
23.1
60.6
2.4
3.6
6.5
5.1
104.5
46.6
40.4
1234.9
688.1
37.1
42.7
1.2
2091.1
5.5
1173.0
123.9
16.1
59.9
23.5
879.9
283.8
9.5
209.7
9.4
0.2
2794.2
153.1
62.8
50.5
183.7
37.8
487.8
128.3
6.3
9.5
193.5
43.8
102.9
96.6
41.3
13.4
6.8
7.1
22.8
9.5
681.8
6831.7
628.9
6202.8
41.7
4.5%
1.0%
0.1%
5.6%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
3.3%
◆
4.2%
◆
◆
◆
0.3%
0.9%
◆
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
1.5%
0.7%
0.6%
18.1%
10.1%
0.5%
0.6%
◆
30.6%
0.1%
17.2%
1.8%
0.2%
0.9%
0.3%
12.9%
4.2%
0.1%
3.1%
0.1%
◆
40.9%
2.2%
0.9%
0.7%
2.7%
0.6%
7.1%
1.9%
0.1%
0.1%
2.8%
0.6%
1.5%
1.4%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%
10.0%
100.0%
9.2%
90.8%
0.6%
R/P
ratio
11.9
10.7
4.8
11.4
8.8
15.8
13.8
10.8
33.7
7.7
170.2
21.6
45.9
2.7
5.1
8.1
17.9
13.9
16.6
9.9
4.4
16.0
12.2
74.4
42.2
55.0
314.1
54.0
22.7
160.0
72.6
10.3
148.4
337.7
48.3
97.6
20.6
141.8
72.1
86.5
98.2
410.6
48.2
119.9
47.5
36.3
124.0
110.2
41.1
61.4
32.0
6.7
22.4
36.7
43.6
42.9
34.9
65.0
11.0
15.7
5.2
68.3
14.7
31.8
52.6
13.6
74.2
10.0
than 0.05%.
Notes: Total proved reserves of natural gas – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the
future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The data series for total proved natural gas does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices
used for determining proved reserves at a company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP’s view of proved
reserves by country.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves
would last if production were to continue at that rate.
As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar) and have been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.
Source of data – The estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data from Cedigaz and the OPEC Secretariat.
26
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios
Years
2017 by region
History
150
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
600
Africa
Middle East
Asia Pacific
World
500
120
400
90
300
60
200
30
100
North
America
S. & Cent.
America
Europe
CIS
Middle
East
Africa
0
Asia
Pacific
87
92
97
02
07
12
17
0
Global proved gas reserves in 2017 rose slightly by 0.4 trillion cubic metres (tcm) or 0.2% to 193.5 tcm. This is sufficient to meet 52.6 years of global production at 2017
levels. Israel was the largest single contributor to growth (0.3 tcm), while the CIS region also added 0.2 tcm to reserves. By region, the Middle East holds the largest
proved reserves (79.1 tcm, 40.9% of the global total), followed by CIS (59.2 tcm, a 30.6% share).
Note: Lags in reporting official data mean that 2017 figures for many countries are not yet available.
Distribution of proved reserves in 1997, 2007 and 2017
Percentage
Middle East
CIS
Asia Pacific
Africa
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
4.2 1.5 40.9
5.6
7.1
4.8
3.1 45.0
5.1
10.0
8.5
5.2
3.8 37.9
6.3
8.3
7.9
7.4
1997
Total 128.1
trillion cubic
metres
2007
Total 163.5
trillion cubic
metres
31.5
2017
Total 193.5
trillion cubic
metres
30.6
25.2
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
27
Natural gas: Production in billion cubic metres*
Growth rate per annum
Billion cubic metres
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Denmark
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Nigeria
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
Share
2017
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
521.9
174.7
46.9
743.4
43.6
13.3
11.8
7.3
2.6
41.0
37.2
3.9
160.7
9.6
15.0
9.3
63.3
89.6
4.5
10.7
75.5
10.0
287.6
10.6
15.8
601.6
68.4
20.0
60.9
0.2
777.4
11.2
123.1
4.5
10.7
24.6
65.4
70.7
5.7
49.0
–
2.8
367.7
81.6
53.6
14.5
35.0
12.6
197.4
42.8
15.3
11.9
69.8
29.0
72.6
67.6
13.3
33.8
26.9
6.8
17.2
407.1
2941.3
1072.7
1868.7
196.8
546.1
166.5
47.2
759.8
42.8
13.8
14.6
8.7
3.5
40.8
33.4
3.7
161.5
10.5
13.6
8.9
69.6
99.4
4.3
10.5
72.8
9.4
299.0
15.9
18.3
611.5
69.1
20.3
60.4
0.2
795.7
12.0
128.9
6.5
12.1
24.1
79.7
76.4
5.6
49.0
–
3.5
397.6
82.6
56.8
15.1
34.4
16.7
205.5
41.7
16.4
11.8
80.9
29.4
74.8
69.2
12.2
34.6
29.8
7.2
18.3
426.4
3045.4
1100.4
1945.0
198.4
557.6
155.0
52.6
765.2
40.3
11.9
12.5
10.1
3.6
42.4
31.8
3.7
156.3
8.8
12.7
7.7
65.6
103.6
4.3
10.4
61.2
9.2
283.5
15.9
19.0
536.2
38.0
20.3
58.1
0.2
687.8
12.1
141.6
6.9
10.9
23.9
92.4
74.5
6.1
47.6
0.8
2.7
419.6
76.6
60.3
15.1
24.7
16.1
192.8
46.7
18.7
11.1
85.9
35.7
78.0
66.9
11.4
34.7
32.0
7.7
18.6
447.5
2952.8
1095.1
1857.7
179.0
575.2
149.6
51.2
775.9
39.0
13.7
15.3
10.8
7.3
43.5
30.5
3.7
163.8
8.5
11.1
8.1
73.8
106.4
4.3
10.0
57.9
9.3
289.5
16.3
20.4
598.4
44.3
19.4
56.9
0.2
755.9
12.4
150.1
7.1
11.1
25.7
123.9
83.3
8.4
50.0
6.3
3.3
481.6
77.4
59.0
16.0
35.5
18.2
206.1
54.0
19.3
12.0
96.5
48.0
87.0
67.6
12.2
35.3
37.5
9.1
18.1
496.5
3169.3
1120.2
2049.1
182.0
617.4
151.1
52.1
820.5
37.7
15.0
17.5
10.5
11.5
41.9
30.2
3.0
167.5
6.9
10.5
8.1
67.1
100.5
4.5
10.1
46.1
9.2
262.9
16.0
20.1
616.8
62.3
19.5
53.9
0.3
788.9
12.6
157.5
6.3
12.9
27.1
150.4
87.6
7.4
51.0
9.4
4.2
526.4
79.6
59.1
7.5
38.6
17.9
202.6
55.7
19.6
12.5
106.2
44.0
82.7
67.0
12.6
35.3
38.3
8.2
18.3
500.1
3269.0
1139.6
2129.4
161.2
649.1
150.3
50.9
850.3
36.7
17.1
20.2
11.5
12.0
41.5
31.9
2.8
173.8
6.0
9.5
8.3
66.8
113.9
4.5
10.1
39.2
8.3
266.5
16.8
19.8
601.9
65.1
19.4
53.9
0.2
777.1
13.1
163.7
6.3
14.7
28.3
162.5
94.4
6.1
52.9
7.6
2.5
552.2
78.4
58.6
11.6
41.1
18.1
207.8
59.5
21.3
12.3
111.5
38.2
78.3
69.3
12.5
36.6
42.9
9.0
18.0
509.4
3337.1
1175.5
2161.6
151.5
655.7
151.9
52.5
860.1
34.6
19.6
22.3
13.2
12.4
41.7
30.6
2.5
176.9
5.0
8.6
7.4
71.8
107.9
4.4
10.0
37.0
7.2
259.4
17.4
21.4
614.5
65.2
20.2
53.9
0.2
792.8
14.0
164.3
7.1
15.5
30.8
167.7
95.0
5.0
53.2
10.4
6.3
569.1
79.3
54.0
12.2
34.4
18.5
198.3
61.8
22.0
11.9
121.8
31.9
77.6
72.9
12.9
35.6
43.3
9.4
18.6
519.6
3376.2
1184.2
2192.0
150.4
704.7
159.1
51.3
915.1
34.5
20.3
23.7
12.3
13.1
40.9
31.8
2.4
179.1
4.8
8.1
6.9
60.6
108.0
4.3
10.2
37.4
6.3
246.7
18.4
21.7
591.2
70.2
20.2
54.2
0.2
776.1
14.7
183.1
7.5
14.3
29.3
169.1
97.3
4.6
52.9
9.8
7.3
589.9
80.2
47.0
11.8
42.8
18.8
200.6
66.6
23.0
11.6
131.2
30.2
76.4
72.0
16.5
35.0
43.6
9.9
23.5
539.4
3446.9
1232.3
2214.6
137.6
740.3
160.9
47.9
949.2
35.5
19.6
24.2
11.6
12.7
38.5
36.1
2.7
180.9
4.8
7.5
6.5
45.4
116.2
4.3
10.2
40.7
6.1
241.7
18.8
22.0
584.4
72.8
18.8
54.6
0.2
771.6
14.8
191.4
7.3
16.1
30.7
175.2
99.2
4.1
58.7
2.9
8.1
608.4
81.4
42.6
12.4
47.6
19.7
203.6
76.0
25.9
12.2
135.7
29.2
76.2
73.9
19.2
35.0
41.2
10.3
29.3
564.0
3519.4
1271.1
2248.3
124.5
729.3
171.6
43.7
944.6
37.3
17.6
24.5
10.9
14.0
33.5
38.0
2.9
178.8
4.7
6.9
5.6
42.0
115.8
4.1
9.1
41.8
8.7
238.6
18.3
22.9
589.3
66.9
19.0
53.1
0.2
769.8
14.7
203.2
9.9
16.4
31.4
177.0
105.3
3.6
59.6
0.6
9.0
630.8
91.4
40.3
11.2
42.6
21.5
207.0
96.4
26.5
11.7
137.9
27.3
70.7
75.6
18.3
34.7
40.4
10.2
30.5
580.3
3549.8
1286.6
2263.2
121.8
734.5
176.3
40.7
951.5
37.1
17.1
27.5
10.1
13.0
33.8
37.4
2.8
179.0
5.1
6.4
5.3
36.6
123.2
4.0
10.3
41.9
9.1
241.9
17.7
27.1
635.6
62.0
19.4
53.4
0.2
815.5
15.1
223.9
10.4
17.4
32.3
175.7
111.4
3.1
60.4
0.7
9.5
659.9
91.2
49.0
11.5
47.2
26.0
225.0
113.5
26.6
12.0
149.2
28.5
68.0
78.4
18.0
34.7
38.7
9.5
30.6
607.5
3680.4
1313.6
2366.8
117.8
1.0%
3.0%
-6.5%
1.0%
-0.1%
-2.6%
12.4%
-6.5%
-6.9%
1.2%
-1.3%
-2.5%
0.4%
7.7%
-7.6%
-4.0%
-12.6%
6.7%
-2.0%
14.2%
0.6%
5.0%
1.7%
-2.7%
18.6%
8.2%
-7.1%
2.5%
0.8%
-6.1%
6.2%
3.0%
10.5%
5.3%
6.1%
2.9%
-0.5%
6.1%
-14.6%
1.8%
2.1%
5.7%
4.9%
0.1%
22.1%
2.9%
11.0%
21.7%
9.0%
18.0%
0.8%
2.5%
8.5%
4.5%
-3.6%
4.1%
-1.4%
0.2%
-4.0%
-7.4%
0.6%
5.0%
4.0%
2.4%
4.9%
-3.1%
3.8%
-0.4%
-1.0%
2.6%
-1.8%
3.5%
7.7%
4.9%
23.4%
-1.5%
0.9%
-2.8%
1.4%
-8.0%
-8.2%
-6.2%
-4.2%
2.8%
-0.9%
-2.0%
-6.7%
-2.1%
-2.3%
10.7%
4.2%
-0.3%
0.6%
-0.5%
-1.1%
-0.4%
20.0%
4.8%
1.1%
25.9%
1.0%
0.5%
0.7%
0.3%
0.4%
0.9%
1.0%
0.1%
4.9%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
1.0%
3.3%
0.1%
0.3%
1.1%
0.2%
6.6%
0.5%
0.7%
17.3%
1.7%
0.5%
1.5%
◆
22.2%
0.4%
6.1%
0.3%
0.5%
0.9%
4.8%
3.0%
0.1%
1.6%
◆
3.2%
6.3%
21.8%
3.4%
2.6%
12.9%
4.2%
-4.7%
2.3%
◆
n/a
14.1%
0.3%
6.5% 17.9%
1.2%
2.5%
-2.6%
1.3%
-1.1%
0.3%
4.3%
1.3%
7.0%
0.7%
1.1%
6.1%
9.0%
3.1%
6.3%
0.7%
-0.4%
0.3%
8.9%
4.1%
-0.3%
0.8%
-0.6%
1.8%
1.0%
2.1%
4.0%
0.5%
0.4%
0.9%
4.8%
1.1%
4.2%
0.3%
7.7%
0.8%
4.0% 16.5%
2.2% 100.0%
1.9% 35.7%
2.3% 64.3%
-5.3%
3.2%
*E xcludes gas flared or recycled. Includes natural gas produced for gas-to-liquids transformation.
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
◆Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Notes: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar); as they are derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average
conversion factor and have been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using billion cubic metres figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Natural gas production data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
28
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Natural gas: Consumption in billion cubic metres*
Growth rate per annum
Billion cubic metres
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
624.1
90.9
57.0
772.1
42.7
22.2
5.0
7.2
0.5
2.6
21.3
37.3
4.4
143.1
8.3
17.4
8.4
4.1
44.7
88.6
3.9
12.4
81.5
38.6
4.2
14.4
4.4
14.8
37.0
1.0
2.8
33.9
95.3
34.8
550.7
8.8
19.7
10.6
428.8
22.2
66.1
48.0
5.7
609.9
123.6
4.5
2.6
10.7
12.2
24.0
70.7
47.9
19.5
315.8
23.4
36.9
0.6
3.8
29.9
94.6
29.0
15.3
71.1
2.6
38.8
34.6
94.4
40.4
4.2
33.8
3.5
8.1
36.3
–
11.2
35.2
6.8
6.4
472.0
2958.0
1465.2
1492.8
505.4
628.9
89.3
60.0
778.2
43.2
26.1
2.8
7.3
0.4
3.3
20.7
35.1
4.7
143.5
8.9
17.3
8.3
4.2
46.4
89.5
4.1
12.3
81.4
40.3
4.3
15.6
4.8
14.1
40.6
0.9
2.9
35.3
97.9
34.0
563.1
10.0
20.2
10.6
422.7
22.4
62.7
50.9
5.8
605.4
131.2
6.5
3.6
12.1
13.4
19.3
76.4
58.0
20.7
341.0
24.4
39.3
0.6
3.9
30.4
98.6
28.5
16.4
81.9
3.0
40.0
39.7
98.1
43.5
4.0
34.6
3.7
8.7
37.3
–
12.2
36.9
7.2
6.3
502.3
3032.1
1488.3
1543.8
516.8
617.6
86.6
65.2
769.4
41.0
21.0
2.8
8.4
0.5
3.3
21.6
33.2
4.9
136.6
8.7
17.6
7.9
3.7
44.7
84.4
3.4
10.6
74.9
40.7
4.1
15.1
4.8
12.3
36.3
1.1
2.8
33.7
91.2
29.8
527.9
8.6
16.9
10.1
399.5
20.6
48.9
41.7
5.6
551.8
140.6
6.9
4.0
11.8
13.7
19.6
74.5
57.6
22.7
351.3
26.2
40.9
0.6
3.3
26.1
97.2
29.1
18.7
90.2
2.9
48.3
42.1
91.5
40.0
4.2
34.7
3.7
9.2
35.5
–
11.9
38.1
7.7
5.5
513.5
2947.8
1441.3
1506.5
484.2
648.2
88.7
66.0
803.0
42.2
28.0
5.7
8.7
0.5
4.9
22.5
32.2
5.2
150.1
9.4
19.8
9.4
4.1
49.6
88.1
3.7
11.4
79.7
45.6
4.1
16.2
5.2
12.5
36.2
1.5
3.2
35.8
98.5
33.5
567.7
8.1
20.7
11.0
422.6
23.7
54.6
42.7
5.3
588.7
150.6
7.1
5.1
14.0
16.3
24.7
83.3
59.3
25.2
385.6
25.3
43.4
0.7
4.1
29.0
102.5
33.8
19.3
108.9
3.6
59.5
44.0
98.9
39.8
4.5
35.3
3.5
8.3
45.0
–
14.8
43.2
9.1
6.8
578.3
3175.9
1538.9
1637.0
521.0
658.2
95.6
70.8
824.6
44.0
28.0
5.8
8.5
0.5
5.4
22.7
32.6
5.8
153.1
8.9
16.5
7.9
3.6
43.0
80.9
4.6
10.9
74.8
39.8
4.0
16.5
5.3
12.9
33.6
1.3
2.8
41.8
81.9
32.3
523.3
8.9
19.3
12.2
435.6
24.6
56.1
44.1
5.4
606.2
159.8
6.3
4.7
15.9
18.1
27.3
87.6
61.6
22.2
403.6
26.8
47.8
0.9
4.3
28.6
108.3
35.3
19.6
135.2
2.9
61.3
42.7
110.4
38.3
4.0
35.3
3.8
8.3
48.4
–
16.2
44.3
8.2
7.5
621.9
3241.0
1530.2
1710.9
470.3
688.1
92.8
73.7
854.6
45.7
33.1
5.3
9.5
0.6
6.0
21.6
34.0
6.3
162.2
8.5
16.7
8.0
3.2
44.5
81.1
4.2
9.7
71.9
37.7
4.0
17.4
4.6
12.5
33.2
1.1
3.1
43.3
76.9
30.7
512.3
9.4
19.5
13.0
429.6
27.5
51.8
43.7
6.0
600.5
159.1
6.3
2.4
17.5
19.7
33.7
94.4
63.9
20.5
417.6
29.9
50.6
1.2
4.4
30.2
116.2
35.4
21.3
150.9
2.7
56.7
42.9
122.4
42.0
4.4
36.6
3.6
8.9
52.5
–
17.1
48.6
9.0
8.5
663.6
3327.1
1564.1
1763.0
457.9
707.0
98.0
78.5
883.6
45.8
39.0
5.3
10.5
0.7
5.9
21.8
32.9
6.9
168.7
8.1
16.5
8.1
3.0
45.2
85.0
3.7
9.1
67.2
38.2
4.0
17.4
4.3
11.4
30.3
1.1
3.2
44.0
76.3
30.0
506.2
9.4
19.5
13.6
423.0
23.9
45.2
43.3
5.1
583.1
160.4
7.1
6.6
17.8
21.7
35.0
95.0
64.4
21.0
429.0
32.1
49.5
1.1
4.1
29.8
116.6
37.2
22.0
171.9
2.5
49.8
41.4
122.3
44.6
4.7
35.6
3.4
10.0
55.0
–
17.1
48.9
9.4
8.6
684.3
3371.5
1597.1
1774.4
450.7
722.3
103.2
80.1
905.6
46.2
41.3
4.4
11.4
0.7
6.7
21.4
32.9
7.2
172.2
7.5
14.4
7.2
2.7
37.9
73.9
2.8
8.1
59.4
33.3
4.3
17.0
4.1
11.0
27.5
0.9
2.8
46.6
70.1
27.2
458.9
9.9
18.6
15.0
423.6
26.7
38.5
45.3
5.2
582.7
180.9
7.5
7.2
17.6
21.3
38.8
97.3
63.4
20.9
455.0
36.1
46.2
1.1
4.3
34.4
122.1
40.1
23.0
188.4
2.4
49.6
41.5
120.5
44.7
5.1
35.0
3.5
10.4
50.0
–
18.0
49.9
9.9
10.1
702.2
3398.7
1569.1
1829.6
400.9
743.6
102.9
78.0
924.5
46.7
43.7
4.8
11.2
0.7
7.1
20.9
36.5
7.1
178.6
7.9
15.8
7.5
2.3
40.8
77.0
3.1
8.7
64.8
32.9
4.5
17.1
4.8
10.4
28.5
0.9
3.0
46.0
71.8
28.1
475.8
11.1
17.4
15.3
409.6
30.8
30.1
48.6
5.4
568.4
191.9
7.3
8.1
20.3
23.0
44.1
99.2
71.0
22.4
487.2
37.9
46.0
1.1
4.4
40.1
129.6
42.1
25.9
194.7
3.1
46.4
41.0
118.7
43.9
4.7
36.5
3.3
11.6
45.6
–
19.2
51.0
10.3
12.0
710.1
3474.2
1601.4
1872.8
417.7
750.3
109.5
91.8
951.6
48.3
37.7
5.9
10.6
0.7
7.6
18.6
38.3
7.3
175.1
8.3
16.1
8.2
2.0
44.6
84.9
4.0
9.3
68.0
34.5
4.4
18.3
5.1
10.4
29.1
1.0
3.1
44.4
81.0
28.9
505.6
10.9
17.7
15.8
420.2
30.9
30.3
41.6
5.5
572.9
201.4
9.9
9.2
21.1
22.9
43.1
105.3
72.5
23.6
508.9
38.6
49.4
1.1
4.6
39.5
133.2
41.7
26.5
209.4
3.2
50.8
38.3
116.4
41.9
4.9
38.3
3.8
11.9
47.6
–
20.0
50.6
10.2
11.4
727.0
3574.2
1660.0
1914.2
448.8
739.5
115.7
87.6
942.8
48.5
38.3
6.0
10.0
0.6
6.7
18.5
37.6
7.1
173.4
9.0
16.4
8.4
1.8
44.7
90.2
4.8
9.9
72.1
36.1
4.5
19.1
6.2
11.9
32.0
0.8
3.1
51.7
78.8
30.2
531.7
10.6
18.0
16.3
424.8
28.4
29.8
41.6
5.2
574.6
214.4
12.0
9.9
22.2
23.3
47.4
111.4
72.2
23.7
536.5
38.9
56.0
1.1
4.5
41.3
141.8
41.9
26.6
240.4
3.2
54.2
39.2
117.1
42.8
4.9
40.7
3.8
12.3
49.4
–
22.2
50.1
9.5
11.6
769.6
3670.4
1677.6
1992.8
466.8
-1.2%
6.0%
-4.4%
-0.7%
0.5%
1.9%
1.6%
-5.8%
-9.9%
-11.1%
-0.4%
-1.5%
-1.9%
-0.7%
9.0%
1.7%
2.9%
-7.9%
0.7%
6.5%
20.9%
6.7%
6.3%
4.7%
3.8%
5.1%
21.4%
14.6%
10.2%
-19.1%
0.7%
16.6%
-2.4%
4.7%
5.5%
-2.9%
2.2%
3.4%
1.4%
-7.7%
-1.5%
0.3%
-5.8%
0.6%
6.8%
21.2%
7.4%
5.4%
2.2%
10.3%
6.1%
-0.2%
0.9%
5.7%
1.0%
13.7%
-0.6%
-2.3%
4.9%
6.8%
0.6%
0.8%
15.1%
-0.1%
6.9%
2.6%
0.8%
2.4%
-0.5%
6.7%
-0.7%
3.5%
3.9%
–
11.2%
-0.7%
-7.4%
2.1%
6.2%
3.0%
1.3%
4.4%
4.3%
2.5%
2.5%
4.7%
2.7%
1.7%
5.8%
-3.5%
4.6%
5.2%
16.1%
-1.0%
0.9%
6.5%
2.3%
-0.6%
-0.8%
-0.8%
-7.7%
-0.3%
-0.8%
2.7%
-3.5%
-1.7%
-1.4%
◆
2.4%
2.1%
-4.5%
-2.2%
0.2%
1.0%
4.3%
-1.5%
-1.8%
-0.9%
0.9%
-1.0%
6.0%
◆
Share
2017
20.1%
3.2%
2.4%
25.7%
1.3%
1.0%
0.2%
0.3%
◆
0.2%
0.5%
1.0%
0.2%
4.7%
0.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
1.2%
2.5%
0.1%
0.3%
2.0%
1.0%
0.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.3%
0.9%
◆
0.1%
1.4%
2.1%
0.8%
14.5%
0.3%
0.5%
0.4%
11.6%
0.8%
0.8%
1.1%
0.1%
15.7%
5.8%
0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
0.6%
1.3%
3.0%
2.0%
0.6%
14.6%
1.1%
1.5%
4.9%
-8.0%
-0.5%
0.4%
-0.4%
6.2%
21.8%
15.5%
6.0%
6.6%
8.3%
4.2%
5.5%
2.2%
5.9%
5.4%
3.5%
◆
8.1%
2.1%
0.1%
4.6%
1.1%
4.3%
3.9%
4.9%
1.1%
6.3%
0.7%
13.7%
6.6%
1.3%
0.1%
3.5%
1.5%
0.3%
1.1%
2.9%
3.2%
0.5%
1.2%
2.4%
0.1%
1.4%
1.1%
2.6%
0.1%
3.9%
0.3%
3.6%
1.3%
–
–
6.6%
0.6%
4.4%
1.4%
4.2%
0.3%
7.2%
0.3%
5.2% 21.0%
2.3% 100.0%
1.6% 45.7%
3.0% 54.3%
-1.3% 12.7%
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
*Excludes natural gas converted to liquid fuels but includes derivatives of coal as well as natural gas consumed in gas-to-lquids transformation.
than 0.05%.
Notes: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar); as they are derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average
conversion factor and have been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.
The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable
disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using billion cubic metres figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Natural gas consumption data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
◆Less
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
29
Natural gas: Production in million tonnes oil equivalent*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Denmark
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Nigeria
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
448.7
150.2
40.3
639.2
37.5
11.5
10.1
6.2
2.2
35.3
32.0
3.4
138.2
8.3
12.9
8.0
54.4
77.1
3.9
9.2
64.9
8.6
247.3
9.1
13.6
517.3
58.8
17.2
52.3
0.2
668.5
9.6
105.8
3.9
9.2
21.2
56.2
60.8
4.9
42.2
–
2.4
316.2
70.2
46.1
12.5
30.1
10.8
169.7
36.8
13.2
10.3
60.0
24.9
62.4
58.2
11.4
29.1
23.1
5.9
14.8
350.0
2529.1
922.3
1606.8
169.3
469.5
143.2
40.6
653.3
36.8
11.9
12.6
7.5
3.0
35.1
28.7
3.2
138.8
9.0
11.7
7.6
59.9
85.4
3.7
9.0
62.6
8.1
257.1
13.7
15.7
525.8
59.4
17.5
51.9
0.2
684.2
10.3
110.8
5.6
10.4
20.8
68.5
65.7
4.8
42.1
–
3.0
341.9
71.0
48.8
13.0
29.5
14.4
176.7
35.8
14.1
10.2
69.6
25.3
64.3
59.5
10.5
29.8
25.6
6.2
15.7
366.6
2618.6
946.2
1672.4
170.6
479.4
133.3
45.2
658.0
34.6
10.2
10.7
8.7
3.1
36.5
27.3
3.2
134.4
7.5
11.0
6.6
56.4
89.1
3.7
8.9
52.6
7.9
243.7
13.7
16.3
461.0
32.7
17.5
50.0
0.2
591.4
10.4
121.7
5.9
9.4
20.6
79.5
64.1
5.3
40.9
0.7
2.4
360.8
65.8
51.9
13.0
21.2
13.9
165.8
40.2
16.1
9.6
73.9
30.7
67.1
57.5
9.8
29.8
27.5
6.6
16.0
384.8
2538.9
941.6
1597.3
153.9
494.5
128.6
44.0
667.2
33.5
11.8
13.1
9.3
6.3
37.4
26.2
3.2
140.8
7.3
9.6
6.9
63.4
91.5
3.7
8.6
49.8
8.0
248.9
14.0
17.6
514.5
38.1
16.7
48.9
0.2
650.0
10.7
129.0
6.1
9.6
22.1
106.5
71.6
7.2
43.0
5.4
2.8
414.1
66.5
50.7
13.7
30.5
15.7
177.2
46.4
16.6
10.3
83.0
41.2
74.8
58.1
10.5
30.4
32.2
7.8
15.6
426.9
2725.1
963.2
1761.9
156.5
530.8
129.9
44.8
705.5
32.4
12.9
15.1
9.1
9.9
36.0
26.0
2.6
144.0
5.9
9.0
7.0
57.7
86.4
3.8
8.7
39.6
7.9
226.1
13.7
17.3
530.4
53.5
16.8
46.4
0.2
678.3
10.9
135.4
5.4
11.1
23.3
129.3
75.4
6.4
43.9
8.1
3.6
452.7
68.4
50.9
6.4
33.1
15.4
174.2
47.9
16.8
10.7
91.3
37.8
71.1
57.6
10.8
30.4
32.9
7.0
15.7
430.0
2810.8
979.9
1831.0
138.6
558.1
129.2
43.7
731.1
31.5
14.7
17.3
9.9
10.3
35.7
27.4
2.4
149.4
5.2
8.1
7.1
57.4
97.9
3.9
8.7
33.7
7.2
229.2
14.5
17.1
517.5
56.0
16.7
46.3
0.2
668.2
11.2
140.7
5.5
12.7
24.4
139.8
81.1
5.2
45.5
6.5
2.2
474.8
67.4
50.4
10.0
35.4
15.5
178.7
51.2
18.3
10.5
95.9
32.9
67.3
59.5
10.8
31.5
36.9
7.8
15.5
438.0
2869.4
1010.8
1858.7
130.3
563.8
130.6
45.1
739.6
29.7
16.8
19.2
11.4
10.7
35.8
26.3
2.2
152.1
4.3
7.4
6.4
61.8
92.8
3.8
8.6
31.8
6.1
223.0
15.0
18.4
528.4
56.1
17.3
46.3
0.2
681.7
12.0
141.3
6.1
13.3
26.5
144.2
81.7
4.3
45.8
8.9
5.4
489.4
68.2
46.4
10.5
29.6
15.9
170.5
53.1
18.9
10.2
104.7
27.4
66.7
62.7
11.1
30.6
37.2
8.1
16.0
446.8
2903.0
1018.2
1884.8
129.3
606.0
136.8
44.1
786.9
29.7
17.4
20.4
10.6
11.3
35.2
27.3
2.1
154.0
4.1
7.0
5.9
52.1
92.9
3.7
8.8
32.2
5.4
212.1
15.8
18.6
508.3
60.3
17.4
46.6
0.2
667.3
12.6
157.4
6.5
12.3
25.2
145.4
83.6
4.0
45.5
8.4
6.3
507.2
68.9
40.4
10.2
36.8
16.2
172.5
57.3
19.8
9.9
112.8
26.0
65.7
61.9
14.2
30.1
37.5
8.5
20.2
463.8
2963.8
1059.6
1904.2
118.3
636.5
138.4
41.2
816.2
30.5
16.8
20.8
10.0
10.9
33.1
31.0
2.4
155.5
4.1
6.5
5.6
39.0
99.9
3.7
8.8
35.0
5.2
207.8
16.2
18.9
502.5
62.6
16.2
47.0
0.2
663.5
12.7
164.6
6.3
13.8
26.4
150.7
85.3
3.5
50.5
2.5
6.9
523.1
70.0
36.6
10.6
40.9
16.9
175.1
65.4
22.2
10.5
116.7
25.1
65.5
63.5
16.5
30.1
35.4
8.8
25.2
485.0
3026.2
1093.0
1933.2
107.0
627.1
147.6
37.5
812.2
32.1
15.1
21.1
9.4
12.1
28.8
32.7
2.5
153.7
4.0
6.0
4.8
36.1
99.6
3.6
7.8
35.9
7.5
205.1
15.7
19.7
506.7
57.6
16.4
45.7
0.2
661.9
12.6
174.7
8.5
14.1
27.0
152.2
90.6
3.1
51.2
0.5
7.8
542.4
78.6
34.6
9.7
36.7
18.4
178.0
82.9
22.7
10.1
118.6
23.5
60.8
65.0
15.7
29.8
34.7
8.8
26.2
498.9
3052.3
1106.3
1946.0
104.8
631.6
151.6
35.0
818.2
31.9
14.7
23.7
8.7
11.2
29.1
32.2
2.4
153.9
4.3
5.5
4.6
31.5
106.0
3.5
8.9
36.0
7.8
208.0
15.2
23.3
546.5
53.3
16.7
45.9
0.2
701.2
13.0
192.5
8.9
14.9
27.7
151.1
95.8
2.7
52.0
0.6
8.2
567.4
78.5
42.1
9.9
40.6
22.4
193.5
97.6
22.9
10.3
128.3
24.5
58.4
67.4
15.5
29.8
33.3
8.1
26.3
522.4
3164.6
1129.5
2035.1
101.3
1.0%
3.0%
-6.5%
1.0%
-0.1%
-2.6%
12.4%
-6.5%
-6.9%
1.2%
-1.3%
-2.5%
0.4%
7.7%
-7.6%
-4.0%
-12.6%
6.7%
-2.0%
14.2%
0.6%
5.0%
1.7%
-2.7%
18.6%
8.2%
-7.1%
2.5%
0.8%
-6.1%
6.2%
3.0%
10.5%
5.3%
6.1%
2.9%
-0.5%
6.1%
-14.6%
1.8%
2.1%
5.7%
4.9%
0.1%
22.1%
2.9%
11.0%
21.7%
9.0%
18.0%
0.8%
2.5%
8.5%
4.5%
-3.6%
4.1%
-1.4%
0.2%
-4.0%
-7.4%
0.6%
5.0%
4.0%
2.4%
4.9%
-3.1%
3.8%
-0.4%
-1.0%
2.6%
-1.8%
3.5%
7.7%
4.9%
23.4%
-1.5%
0.9%
-2.8%
1.4%
-8.0%
-8.2%
-6.2%
-4.2%
2.8%
-0.9%
-2.0%
-6.7%
-2.1%
-2.3%
10.7%
4.2%
-0.3%
0.6%
-0.5%
-1.1%
-0.4%
20.0%
4.8%
1.1%
25.9%
1.0%
0.5%
0.7%
0.3%
0.4%
0.9%
1.0%
0.1%
4.9%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
1.0%
3.3%
0.1%
0.3%
1.1%
0.2%
6.6%
0.5%
0.7%
17.3%
1.7%
0.5%
1.5%
◆
22.2%
0.4%
6.1%
0.3%
0.5%
0.9%
4.8%
3.0%
0.1%
1.6%
*Excludes gas flared or recycled. Includes natural gas produced for gas-to-liquids transformation.
◆Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes oil equivalent figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
30
Share
2017
2007
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
3.2%
6.3%
21.8%
3.4%
2.6%
12.9%
4.2%
-4.7%
2.3%
n/a
14.1%
6.5%
1.2%
-2.6%
-1.1%
4.3%
7.0%
1.1%
9.0%
6.3%
-0.4%
8.9%
-0.3%
-0.6%
1.0%
4.0%
0.4%
4.8%
4.2%
7.7%
4.0%
2.2%
1.9%
2.3%
-5.3%
◆
◆
0.3%
17.9%
2.5%
1.3%
0.3%
1.3%
0.7%
6.1%
3.1%
0.7%
0.3%
4.1%
0.8%
1.8%
2.1%
0.5%
0.9%
1.1%
0.3%
0.8%
16.5%
100.0%
35.7%
64.3%
3.2%
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
Natural gas: Consumption in million tonnes oil equivalent*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
536.7
78.2
49.0
663.9
36.7
19.1
4.3
6.2
0.4
2.2
18.3
32.0
3.8
123.0
7.2
14.9
7.2
3.5
38.5
76.2
3.3
10.7
70.0
33.2
3.6
12.4
3.8
12.8
31.8
0.9
2.4
29.1
82.0
30.0
473.5
7.5
16.9
9.2
368.7
19.1
56.8
41.3
4.9
524.4
106.3
3.9
2.3
9.2
10.5
20.6
60.8
41.2
16.8
271.5
20.1
31.7
0.5
3.3
25.7
81.3
25.0
13.2
61.1
2.2
33.4
29.8
81.2
34.7
3.6
29.1
3.0
7.0
31.2
–
9.6
30.2
5.9
5.5
405.8
2543.4
1259.9
1283.6
434.6
540.7
76.8
51.6
669.2
37.1
22.4
2.4
6.3
0.4
2.8
17.8
30.2
4.0
123.4
7.7
14.8
7.2
3.6
39.9
77.0
3.5
10.6
70.0
34.6
3.7
13.5
4.1
12.2
34.9
0.8
2.5
30.4
84.1
29.2
484.2
8.6
17.3
9.1
363.5
19.2
54.0
43.8
5.0
520.5
112.8
5.6
3.1
10.4
11.5
16.6
65.7
49.8
17.8
293.2
21.0
33.8
0.5
3.4
26.1
84.8
24.5
14.1
70.4
2.6
34.4
34.1
84.4
37.4
3.4
29.8
3.2
7.5
32.1
–
10.5
31.8
6.2
5.5
431.9
2607.2
1279.7
1327.4
444.4
531.1
74.4
56.0
661.5
35.2
18.1
2.4
7.2
0.4
2.9
18.5
28.5
4.2
117.5
7.5
15.1
6.8
3.2
38.4
72.6
2.9
9.2
64.4
35.0
3.5
13.0
4.1
10.6
31.2
1.0
2.4
29.0
78.5
25.6
453.9
7.4
14.5
8.7
343.5
17.7
42.1
35.9
4.8
474.5
120.9
5.9
3.4
10.2
11.8
16.8
64.1
49.5
19.5
302.1
22.5
35.2
0.6
2.9
22.4
83.6
25.1
16.1
77.6
2.5
41.6
36.2
78.7
34.4
3.6
29.8
3.2
7.9
30.5
–
10.2
32.8
6.6
4.7
441.6
2534.6
1239.3
1295.3
416.4
557.3
76.3
56.8
690.4
36.3
24.1
4.9
7.5
0.4
4.2
19.4
27.7
4.5
129.1
8.1
17.0
8.1
3.6
42.6
75.7
3.2
9.8
68.6
39.2
3.5
14.0
4.5
10.8
31.1
1.3
2.7
30.8
84.7
28.8
488.1
7.0
17.8
9.5
363.4
20.3
46.9
36.7
4.5
506.2
129.5
6.1
4.4
12.0
14.0
21.3
71.6
51.0
21.7
331.6
21.8
37.3
0.6
3.5
24.9
88.2
29.0
16.6
93.6
3.1
51.2
37.9
85.1
34.2
3.9
30.4
3.0
7.2
38.7
–
12.7
37.2
7.8
5.8
497.3
2730.8
1323.2
1407.6
447.9
566.0
82.2
60.9
709.0
37.8
24.0
5.0
7.3
0.4
4.6
19.5
28.0
5.0
131.6
7.6
14.2
6.8
3.1
37.0
69.5
4.0
9.4
64.3
34.3
3.5
14.1
4.5
11.1
28.9
1.1
2.4
36.0
70.4
27.8
450.0
7.7
16.6
10.5
374.5
21.2
48.3
38.0
4.7
521.3
137.4
5.4
4.1
13.6
15.6
23.5
75.4
53.0
19.1
347.1
23.0
41.1
0.8
3.7
24.6
93.1
30.3
16.8
116.2
2.5
52.7
36.7
95.0
32.9
3.5
30.4
3.3
7.1
41.7
–
14.0
38.1
7.0
6.5
534.7
2786.8
1315.7
1471.1
404.4
591.7
79.8
63.3
734.8
39.3
28.5
4.6
8.1
0.5
5.2
18.6
29.3
5.4
139.4
7.3
14.4
6.9
2.7
38.2
69.7
3.6
8.4
61.8
32.4
3.4
15.0
3.9
10.8
28.6
0.9
2.6
37.2
66.1
26.4
440.5
8.0
16.8
11.1
369.4
23.7
44.6
37.5
5.1
516.3
136.8
5.5
2.1
15.1
16.9
29.0
81.1
55.0
17.7
359.1
25.7
43.5
1.0
3.7
25.9
99.9
30.4
18.3
129.7
2.3
48.7
36.9
105.3
36.1
3.8
31.5
3.1
7.7
45.2
–
14.7
41.8
7.8
7.3
570.6
2860.8
1344.9
1515.9
393.7
607.9
84.3
67.5
759.7
39.4
33.6
4.6
9.0
0.6
5.1
18.7
28.3
5.9
145.1
7.0
14.2
6.9
2.6
38.8
73.1
3.2
7.8
57.8
32.8
3.4
15.0
3.7
9.8
26.1
0.9
2.8
37.8
65.6
25.8
435.2
8.1
16.8
11.7
363.8
20.6
38.9
37.3
4.4
501.4
137.9
6.1
5.7
15.3
18.6
30.1
81.7
55.4
18.0
368.9
27.6
42.6
1.0
3.5
25.6
100.3
32.0
18.9
147.8
2.2
42.8
35.6
105.2
38.3
4.0
30.6
2.9
8.6
47.3
–
14.7
42.0
8.1
7.4
588.4
2899.0
1373.3
1525.7
387.5
621.0
88.8
68.9
778.7
39.8
35.6
3.8
9.8
0.6
5.8
18.4
28.2
6.2
148.1
6.4
12.4
6.2
2.3
32.6
63.5
2.4
7.0
51.1
28.6
3.7
14.6
3.5
9.5
23.7
0.8
2.4
40.1
60.2
23.4
394.6
8.5
16.0
12.9
364.2
23.0
33.1
39.0
4.5
501.0
155.6
6.5
6.2
15.1
18.3
33.4
83.6
54.5
18.0
391.2
31.0
39.7
1.0
3.7
29.6
105.0
34.5
19.8
162.0
2.1
42.7
35.7
103.6
38.4
4.4
30.1
3.0
8.9
43.0
–
15.5
42.9
8.5
8.7
603.7
2922.3
1349.2
1573.2
344.7
639.4
88.5
67.1
794.9
40.1
37.5
4.1
9.6
0.6
6.1
18.0
31.4
6.1
153.6
6.8
13.6
6.5
1.9
35.1
66.2
2.6
7.5
55.7
28.3
3.9
14.7
4.1
9.0
24.5
0.8
2.6
39.5
61.7
24.1
409.1
9.6
15.0
13.2
352.2
26.5
25.9
41.7
4.7
488.7
165.0
6.3
6.9
17.5
19.8
37.9
85.3
61.0
19.3
418.9
32.6
39.6
1.0
3.8
34.5
111.4
36.2
22.2
167.4
2.7
39.9
35.3
102.1
37.8
4.0
31.4
2.9
10.0
39.3
–
16.5
43.8
8.8
10.3
610.6
2987.3
1377.0
1610.3
359.1
645.1
94.1
79.0
818.2
41.6
32.4
5.1
9.2
0.6
6.5
16.0
33.0
6.3
150.6
7.1
13.9
7.0
1.7
38.3
73.0
3.4
8.0
58.5
29.7
3.8
15.7
4.4
8.9
25.0
0.8
2.7
38.2
69.6
24.8
434.7
9.4
15.2
13.6
361.3
26.5
26.1
35.8
4.7
492.6
173.1
8.5
8.0
18.1
19.7
37.1
90.6
62.3
20.3
437.6
33.2
42.4
1.0
4.0
33.9
114.5
35.9
22.7
180.1
2.7
43.7
32.9
100.1
36.1
4.2
32.9
3.3
10.2
41.0
–
17.2
43.5
8.8
9.8
625.1
3073.2
1427.3
1645.9
385.9
635.8
99.5
75.3
810.7
41.7
33.0
5.2
8.6
0.5
5.8
15.9
32.4
6.1
149.1
7.7
14.1
7.2
1.6
38.5
77.5
4.1
8.5
62.0
31.0
3.9
16.5
5.3
10.2
27.5
0.7
2.7
44.4
67.7
25.9
457.2
9.1
15.5
14.0
365.2
24.4
25.6
35.8
4.4
494.1
184.4
10.3
8.5
19.0
20.0
40.8
95.8
62.1
20.4
461.3
33.4
48.1
1.0
3.9
35.5
121.9
36.0
22.9
206.7
2.7
46.6
33.7
100.7
36.8
4.2
35.0
3.2
10.6
42.4
–
19.1
43.1
8.1
10.0
661.8
3156.0
1442.5
1713.5
401.4
-1.2%
6.0%
-4.4%
-0.7%
0.5%
1.9%
1.6%
-5.8%
-9.9%
-11.1%
-0.4%
-1.5%
-1.9%
-0.7%
9.0%
1.7%
2.9%
-7.9%
0.7%
6.5%
20.9%
6.7%
6.3%
4.7%
3.8%
5.1%
21.4%
14.6%
10.2%
-19.1%
0.7%
16.6%
-2.4%
4.7%
5.5%
-2.9%
2.2%
3.4%
1.4%
-7.7%
-1.5%
0.3%
-5.8%
0.6%
6.8%
21.2%
7.4%
5.4%
2.2%
10.3%
6.1%
-0.2%
0.9%
5.7%
1.0%
13.7%
-0.6%
-2.3%
4.9%
6.8%
0.6%
0.8%
15.1%
-0.1%
6.9%
2.6%
0.8%
2.4%
-0.5%
6.7%
-0.7%
3.5%
3.9%
–
11.2%
-0.7%
-7.4%
2.1%
6.2%
3.0%
1.3%
4.4%
4.3%
2.5%
2.5%
4.7%
2.7%
1.7%
5.8%
-3.5%
4.6%
5.2%
16.1%
-1.0%
0.9%
6.5%
2.3%
-0.6%
-0.8%
-0.8%
-7.7%
-0.3%
-0.8%
2.7%
-3.5%
-1.7%
-1.4%
◆
2.4%
2.1%
-4.5%
-2.2%
0.2%
1.0%
4.3%
-1.5%
-1.8%
-0.9%
0.9%
-1.0%
6.0%
◆
Share
2017
20.1%
3.2%
2.4%
25.7%
1.3%
1.0%
0.2%
0.3%
◆
0.2%
0.5%
1.0%
0.2%
4.7%
0.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
1.2%
2.5%
0.1%
0.3%
2.0%
1.0%
0.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.3%
0.9%
◆
0.1%
1.4%
2.1%
0.8%
14.5%
0.3%
0.5%
0.4%
11.6%
0.8%
0.8%
1.1%
0.1%
15.7%
5.8%
0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
0.6%
1.3%
3.0%
2.0%
0.6%
14.6%
1.1%
1.5%
4.9%
-8.0%
-0.5%
0.4%
-0.4%
6.2%
21.8%
15.5%
6.0%
6.6%
8.3%
4.2%
5.5%
2.2%
5.9%
5.4%
3.5%
◆
8.1%
2.1%
0.1%
4.6%
1.1%
4.3%
3.9%
4.9%
1.1%
6.3%
0.7%
13.7%
6.6%
1.3%
0.1%
3.5%
1.5%
0.3%
1.1%
2.9%
3.2%
0.5%
1.2%
2.4%
0.1%
1.4%
1.1%
2.6%
0.1%
3.9%
0.3%
3.6%
1.3%
–
–
6.6%
0.6%
4.4%
1.4%
4.2%
0.3%
7.2%
0.3%
5.2% 21.0%
2.3% 100.0%
1.6% 45.7%
3.0% 54.3%
-1.3% 12.7%
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
*E xcludes natural gas converted to liquid fuels but includes derivatives of coal as well as natural gas consumed in gas-to-liquids transformation. than 0.05%.
Notes: The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with
unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes oil equivalent figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
◆Less
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
31
Natural gas: Production by region
Natural gas: Consumption by region
Billion cubic metres
Billion cubic metres
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
CIS
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
92
97
02
07
12
17
4000
4000
3500
3500
3000
3000
2500
2500
2000
2000
1500
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
92
97
02
07
12
17
Global natural gas production increased by 131 billion cubic metres (bcm), or 4%, almost double the 10-year average growth rate of 2.2%. Russian growth was the largest
by far at 46 bcm, followed by Iran at 21 bcm, and Australia at 17 bcm. Gas consumption rose by 96 bcm, or 3% – the fastest growth since 2010. Growth was driven by
China (31 bcm, or 15.1%), the Middle East (28 bcm) and Europe (26 bcm). Consumption in the US fell by 1.2%, or 11 bcm.
Natural gas: Consumption per capita 2017
Million tonnes oil equivalent
0-0.5
0.5-1.0
1.0-1.5
1.5-2.0
> 2.0
32
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
0
Prices
LNG
Japan
CIF1
US dollars per million Btu
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Japan Korea
Marker (JKM)2
3.35
3.34
3.28
3.64
3.99
3.62
3.52
3.18
3.46
3.66
3.91
3.05
3.14
4.72
4.64
4.27
4.77
5.18
6.05
7.14
7.73
12.55
9.06
10.91
14.73
16.75
16.17
16.33
10.31
6.94
8.10
Average German
UK
Import Price3 (Heren NBP Index)4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.28
7.72
14.02
15.12
16.56
13.86
7.45
5.72
7.13
2.55
2.22
2.00
2.78
3.23
2.70
2.51
2.35
2.43
2.50
2.66
2.33
1.86
2.91
3.67
3.21
4.06
4.30
5.83
7.87
7.99
11.60
8.53
8.03
10.49
10.93
10.73
9.11
6.72
4.93
5.62
Natural gas
Netherlands TTF
(DA Heren Index)4
US
Henry Hub5
Canada
(Alberta)5
Crude oil
OECD
countries CIF6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.07
7.46
5.93
10.66
4.96
6.77
9.26
9.45
9.75
8.14
6.44
4.54
5.72
–
–
1.70
1.64
1.49
1.77
2.12
1.92
1.69
2.76
2.53
2.08
2.27
4.23
4.07
3.33
5.63
5.85
8.79
6.76
6.95
8.85
3.89
4.39
4.01
2.76
3.71
4.35
2.60
2.46
2.96
–
–
–
1.05
0.89
0.98
1.69
1.45
0.89
1.12
1.36
1.42
2.00
3.75
3.61
2.57
4.83
5.03
7.25
5.83
6.17
7.99
3.38
3.69
3.47
2.27
2.93
3.87
2.01
1.55
1.60
3.09
2.56
3.01
3.82
3.33
3.19
2.82
2.70
2.96
3.54
3.29
2.16
2.98
4.83
4.08
4.17
4.89
6.27
8.74
10.66
11.95
16.76
10.41
13.47
18.55
18.82
18.25
16.80
8.77
7.04
8.97
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.87
1.96
1.86
1.58
2.71
3.17
2.37
3.33
4.46
7.38
7.87
6.01
10.79
4.85
6.56
9.04
9.46
10.64
8.25
6.53
4.69
5.80
Source:
.
EDMC Energy Trend.
Source: S&P Global Platts ©2018, S&P Global Inc.
Source: 1987-1990 German Federal Statistical Office, 1991-2017 German Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA).
4
Source: ICIS Heren Energy Ltd.
5
Source: Energy Intelligence Group, Natural Gas Week.
6
Source: ©OECD/IEA 2018, Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity Quarterly Statistics www.iea.org/statistics.
1
2
3
Note: CIF = cost+insurance+freight (average prices).
Prices
$/mmBtu
18
US Henry Hub
Average German Import Price
UK NBP
Netherlands TTF Index
Japan LNG CIF
Japan Korea Marker (JKM)
15
12
9
6
3
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
17
0
33
US
Canada
Mexico
North America
Argentina
Brazil
Other S. & Cent. America
S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Slovakia
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other EU
Rest of Europe
Europe
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Middle East
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Australia
China
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Asia Pacific
Total exports
–
24.0
42.1
66.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
66.1
80.7
–
–
80.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
80.7
†
–
–
†
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
†
–
–
–
–
6.3
8.6
–
14.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
14.9
–
–
–
–
0.3
–
0.3
0.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.6
–
–
–
5.4
–
2.2
–
11.5
–
48.5
–
2.7
–
8.2
–
–
–
22.3
–
8.6
–
11.1
–
13.7
–
–
–
27.6
–
4.0
–
12.1
–
2.7
– 189.3
–
17.8
–
3.3
12.1
–
–
–
–
5.0
12.1
26.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.1
–
13.2 215.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.7
6.7
–
–
8.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.4
–
–
–
3.4
11.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.9
–
–
–
8.9
–
–
–
–
2.0
2.0
–
1.6
1.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
12.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
16.4
2.0
18.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
18.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
18.0
–
–
–
11.8
–
–
3.2
–
33.0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.4
3.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
36.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.9
0.3
4.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.7
7.3
–
8.0
8.0
My
anm
ar
O th
Pac er A sia
ific
Tot
impal
or t
s
ia
nes
Indo
er A
O th
a
Liby
eria
A lg
Q at
Iran
ar
ekis
t an
fric
a
t an
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
–
–
–
0.3
–
1.7
1.7
–
–
–
–
31.7
–
–
–
31.7
33.6
Uzb
Turk
m
enis
ak h
st an
Rus
Fed sian
er at
ion
rbaij
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.3
–
–
2.1
8.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.6
0.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.9
K az
O th
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
0.4
0.6
–
–
0.1
8.6
3.5
–
†
–
–
0.9
1.9
16.2
–
–
–
13.3
–
13.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
29.5
A ze
u ro
er E
ed K
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
7.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.8
–
1.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
†
10.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
10.8
an
pe
om
From
ingd
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
9.6
0.2
–
3.0
–
–
4.9
17.1
20.2
25.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.1
0.8
–
22.6
–
–
–
–
–
2.6
–
–
–
35.4
–
0.9
0.5
0.7
43.3 109.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
43.3 109.2
Unit
w ay
land
s
N or
her
N et
via
Boli
xico
Me
To
C an
US
ad a
Billion cubic metres
O th
Amer S. &
eric
a Cent.
Natural gas: Trade movements 2017 by pipeline
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.3
–
–
8.2
11.5
11.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.8
–
–
1.5
–
7.3
7.3
80.7
24.0
42.1
146.8
6.6
8.6
0.3
15.4
8.6
17.7
8.5
2.2
33.5
94.8
3.4
8.2
1.8
53.8
40.9
14.7
13.7
14.4
42.8
39.4
17.1
8.0
423.4
17.8
5.3
18.9
13.3
7.0
62.3
16.4
5.8
22.2
3.9
3.7
7.6
5.8
39.4
0.7
8.9
8.2
62.9
740.7
Source: Includes data from FGE MENAgas service, IHS.
†Less than 0.05.
Note: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar) and has been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.
Natural gas: Trade movements 2017 as liquefied natural gas*
†Less than 0.05.
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
–
0.1
0.1
†
†
0.1
0.2
–
0.2
0.1
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.2
2.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
†
–
0.1
–
–
0.6
–
9.9
–
–
–
2.6
2.3
–
15.4
15.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.0
–
0.1
–
0.1
–
0.1
–
2.2
–
1.2
–
2.0
–
6.8
–
3.5
–
1.6
–
6.1
–
2.6
–
–
– 23.7
0.7
2.3
–
5.5
0.3 10.3
0.7 13.2
3.8 13.8
–
–
–
5.0
–
1.2
5.7 15.9
0.2
7.0
–
3.2
10.7 69.6
11.4 103.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.4
–
0.4
0.1
–
–
0.5
6.4
–
–
0.1
–
0.1
0.1
7.2
7.7
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
–
–
0.1
–
4.1
1.0
2.4
4.7
0.3
1.5
–
14.1
1.0
0.6
0.1
0.3
0.1
–
–
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.9
16.6
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
–
–
0.3
–
0.2
–
0.3
–
–
0.1
–
0.6
1.4
0.2
0.4
1.4
0.2
–
–
0.2
0.4
–
–
2.6
5.0
–
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.7
–
0.1
–
0.8
–
–
–
–
0.3
–
0.1
–
0.4
0.9
0.1
0.1
1.2
0.5
–
0.3
0.1
0.2
–
0.1
2.5
4.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.2
–
23.7
2.5
35.0
0.8
–
2.1
9.6
1.4
0.7
75.7
75.9
–
–
0.3
0.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
4.2
0.2
8.9
–
–
–
4.9
2.9
0.3
21.4
21.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.8
0.3
20.2
–
–
0.3
5.1
4.1
0.4
36.1
36.1
Pap
Guinua New
ea
O th
e
Pac r A sia
ific*
Tot
impal
or t
s
ia
lays
Ma
nes
ia
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.2
–
5.1
1.1
–
–
2.0
0.6
0.1
9.1
9.1
Indo
nei
Bru
trali
a
0.2
–
1.5
1.7
0.6
0.8
–
–
1.3
–
3.3
–
4.4
2.1
0.1
2.3
–
12.2
2.7
1.2
0.5
3.6
2.1
–
0.5
–
1.1
0.7
0.2
8.7
27.8
Aus
eria
Nig
pt
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
0.1
0.1
–
–
†
–
0.3
0.2
–
0.1
0.4
0.2
–
–
0.1
–
–
–
0.7
1.2
Eq u
Guinatorial ea
Eg y
ola
A ng
A lg
Unit
Em e d A r a
irate b
s
ar
Q at
an
Om
–
0.1
–
0.1
–
–
–
–
–
†
0.8
†
0.9
0.9
0.1
2.0
–
4.8
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
–
0.4
5.8
O th
Eu r e r
ope
*
Rus
Fed sian
er at
ion
1.9
0.2
0.4
2.6
0.7
0.1
3.5
2.5
6.8
–
0.1
0.3
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.3
–
1.8
1.0
–
0.2
0.3
0.2
–
0.1
–
0.2
0.3
–
1.2
13.4
w ay
N or
–
–
0.6
0.6
0.1
–
–
–
0.1
–
0.2
–
3.6
–
0.1
–
–
3.9
–
–
0.1
–
0.4
–
–
–
0.5
0.1
–
1.1
5.6
u
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
–
–
0.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
0.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
zil
Trin
& T idad
oba
go
–
†
3.8
3.8
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.2
1.8
–
–
0.2
0.8
0.7
0.1
0.9
–
2.6
1.9
0.2
2.1
0.6
1.3
–
0.1
–
2.7
0.2
0.1
7.1
17.4
Per
US
Canada
Mexico
North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Other S. & Cent. America
S. & Cent. America
Belgium
France
Italy
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other EU
Rest of Europe Europe
Middle East
Africa
China
India
Japan
Malaysia
Pakistan
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Asia Pacific
Total exports
Bra
U S*
To
eria
From
Billion cubic metres
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
5.8
–
–
–
0.1
2.6
–
11.5
11.5
*Includes re-exports.
Note: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar) and has been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.
34
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
–
–
–
–
0.2
–
–
–
0.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
–
0.2
–
–
†
0.1
–
–
0.6
0.7
2.2
0.4
6.6
9.2
4.8
1.9
4.4
2.8
13.8
1.3
10.8
8.4
16.6
10.9
7.2
10.5
0.1
65.7
13.0
8.2
52.6
25.7
113.9
2.0
6.1
4.1
51.3
22.5
5.2
283.5
393.4
Major trade movements 2017
Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres)
161.7
4.8
26.2
109.2
21.4
80.7
2.6
18.9
12.5
24.1
24.0
7.1
27.6
13.3
6.3
37.4
5.0
5.7
3.1
18.4 5.0
5.5
10.6
13.1
3.3
14.3
6.2
13.1
44.6 45.6
36.1
8.9
14.1
42.1 3.8
51.9
4.4
23.7 10.6
10.2
7.3
8.2
3.3
6.9
8.0
5.8
8.6
6.3
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
Pipeline gas
Source: Includes data from FGE MENAgas service, IHS.
LNG
Gas trade in 2016 and 2017
Billion cubic metres
US
Canada
Mexico
Trinidad and Tobago
Other S. & Cent. America
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Other CIS
Qatar
Other Middle East
Algeria
Other Africa
Australia
China
India
Japan
Indonesia
South Korea
Other Asia Pacific
Total World
†Less than 0.05.
Pipeline
imports
79.5
21.1
37.5
–
16.2
32.2
95.6
60.5
36.8
†
15.5
36.9
35.2
94.8
18.1
10.5
29.3
–
25.8
–
8.3
6.4
36.0
–
–
–
–
18.1
714.4
2016
LNG
imports
2.4
0.3
5.9
–
15.6
9.1
–
5.9
1.3
–
13.8
7.8
11.0
7.9
–
–
–
–
13.7
–
10.7
0.1
35.9
23.6
113.6
–
45.7
32.5
356.7
Pipeline
exports
LNG
exports
Pipeline
imports
58.6
79.5
†
–
16.2
–
9.1
–
46.8
109.4
0.6
0.6
9.7
13.9
200.1
–
68.5
18.5
8.0
38.1
8.6
–
–
–
–
8.2
–
20.0
714.4
4.3
†
–
14.3
6.4
1.5
–
–
0.9
6.0
0.2
–
0.6
1.3
14.6
–
–
107.2
18.8
15.8
30.0
59.2
–
0.1
–
22.2
0.1
53.4
356.7
80.7
24.0
42.1
–
15.4
33.5
94.8
53.8
40.9
†
14.4
42.8
39.4
103.7
18.9
13.3
30.1
–
22.2
–
7.6
5.8
39.4
–
–
–
–
17.7
740.7
2017
LNG
imports
2.2
0.4
6.6
–
13.8
10.8
–
8.4
1.6
–
16.6
10.9
7.2
10.2
–
–
–
–
13.0
–
8.2
–
52.6
25.7
113.9
–
51.3
40.0
393.4
Pipeline
exports
LNG
exports
66.1
80.7
†
–
15.4
–
7.1
–
43.3
109.2
0.1
0.6
10.8
21.6
215.4
–
67.5
18.4
12.5
36.4
8.7
–
–
–
–
8.0
–
18.8
740.7
17.4
†
–
13.4
5.8
1.0
–
–
0.8
5.8
0.1
–
0.3
0.2
15.5
–
–
103.4
19.1
16.6
38.9
75.9
–
–
–
21.7
0.1
57.2
393.4
Source: Includes data from FGE MENAgas service, IHS.
Note: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar) and has been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
35
Coal
Total proved reserves at end 2017
Million tonnes
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Brazil
Colombia
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Poland
Romania
Serbia
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
South Africa
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Middle East
Total Middle East & Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Mongolia
New Zealand
Pakistan
South Korea
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
Anthracite
and
bituminous
Subbituminous
and lignite
Total
220800
4346
1160
226306
1547
4881
731
1784
8943
192
1099
8
–
276
19808
11
402
868
378
70
1108
24220
25605
69634
32039
1375
1509
130162
9893
502
2756
1203
14354
68310
130851
92786
15068
340
1170
825
207
326
–
3116
1326
314325
718310
320377
397933
22913
30116
2236
51
32403
5049
–
–
24
5073
2174
2541
36100
2876
2633
6003
280
7112
319
10975
–
5172
76185
–
90730
2336
–
–
93066
–
–
66
–
66
76508
7968
4942
7530
10
1350
6750
2857
–
1063
244
687
109909
316702
177608
139094
53416
250916
6582
1211
258709
6596
4881
731
1808
14016
2366
3640
36108
2876
2909
25811
291
7514
1187
11353
70
6280
100405
25605
160364
34375
1375
1509
223228
9893
502
2822
1203
14420
144818
138819
97728
22598
350
2520
7575
3064
326
1063
3360
2013
424234
1035012
497985
537027
76329
Share
of total
24.2%
0.6%
0.1%
25.0%
0.6%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
1.4%
0.2%
0.4%
3.5%
0.3%
0.3%
2.5%
◆
0.7%
0.1%
1.1%
◆
0.6%
9.7%
2.5%
15.5%
3.3%
0.1%
0.1%
21.6%
1.0%
◆
0.3%
0.1%
1.4%
14.0%
13.4%
9.4%
2.2%
◆
0.2%
0.7%
0.3%
◆
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
41.0%
100.0%
48.1%
51.9%
7.4%
R/P ratio
357
111
116
335
*
55
*
*
141
69
81
206
76
366
203
11
188
427
115
23
192
159
230
391
*
340
418
397
39
171
184
*
53
301
39
136
49
252
51
*
*
219
65
88
31
79
134
282
91
164
*More than 500 years.
Source: Includes data from Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Energy Study 2017.
than 0.05%.
Notes: Total proved reserves of coal – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from
known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The data series for total proved coal reserves does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for
determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP’s view of proved reserves by country.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves
would last if production were to continue at that rate.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios are calculated excluding other solid fuels in reserves and production.
Shares of total and R/P ratios are calculated using million tonnes figures.
◆Less
Prices
US dollars per tonne
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Northwest
Europe
marker price†
US Central
Appalachian coal
spot price index‡
Japan steam
spot CIF price†
China Qinhuangdao
spot price†
38.92
32.00
28.79
35.99
39.03
31.65
43.60
72.08
60.54
64.11
88.79
147.67
70.66
92.50
121.52
92.50
81.69
75.38
56.64
60.09
84.51
29.76
31.00
31.29
29.90
50.15
33.20
38.52
64.90
70.12
57.82
49.73
117.42
60.73
67.87
84.75
67.28
69.72
67.08
51.57
51.45
63.83
–
–
–
–
37.69
31.47
39.61
74.22
64.62
65.22
95.59
157.88
83.59
108.47
126.13
100.30
90.07
76.13
60.10
71.66
96.02
–
–
–
27.52
31.78
33.19
31.74
42.76
51.34
53.53
61.23
104.97
87.86
110.08
127.27
111.89
95.42
84.12
67.53
71.35
94.72
†Source: IHS Northwest Europe prices for 1997-2000 are the average of the monthly marker, 2001-2017 the average of weekly prices. IHS Japan prices basis = 6,000 kilocalories per kilogram
NAR CIF. Chinese prices are the average monthly price for 2000-2005, weekly prices 2006-2017, 5,500 kilocalories per kilogram NAR, including cost and freight (CFR).
‡Source: S&P Global Platts, © 2018, S&P Global Inc. Prices are for Central Appalachian 12,500 BTU, 1.2 SO2 coal, FOB. Prices for 1997-2000 are by coal price publication date, 2001-2005 by coal price
assessment date. 2006-2017 weekly CAPP 12,500 BTU, 1.6 SO2 coal, FOB.
Note: CIF = cost+insurance+freight (average prices); FOB = free on board.
36
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios
Years
History
2017 by region
400
700
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
Middle East & Africa 600
Asia Pacific
World
350
300
500
250
400
200
300
150
200
100
100
50
North
America
S. & Cent.
America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
& Africa
0
Asia
Pacific
97
02
07
12
17
0
World proved coal reserves are currently sufficient to meet 134 years of global production, much higher than the R/P ratio for oil and gas. By region, Asia Pacific holds the
most proved reserves (41% of total), split mainly between Australia, China and India. The US remains the largest single reserve holder (24.2% of total).
Distribution of proved reserves in 1997, 2007 and 2017
Percentage
Asia Pacific
North America
CIS
Europe
Middle East & Africa
S. & Cent. America
0.9
5.6
34.9
1.4 1.4
14.2
2.0
5.2
9.7
37.7
41.0
6.1
21.6
23.1
21.8
1997
Total 1106210
million tonnes
2017
Total 1035012
million tonnes
2007
Total 982564
million tonnes
22.6
25.9
25.0
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
37
Coal: Production*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Brazil
Colombia
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Poland
Romania
Serbia
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Total Middle East
South Africa
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Mongolia
New Zealand
Pakistan
South Korea
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
558.3
35.7
7.3
601.3
2.7
48.0
5.0
0.3
55.9
4.8
23.8
54.4
8.4
1.8
62.5
6.9
7.2
5.9
14.8
10.7
15.5
216.6
42.2
143.5
34.0
1.0
0.8
221.5
1.1
138.4
1.3
0.8
140.5
227.0
1439.3
210.3
127.8
0.8
4.8
3.0
1.7
1.3
4.9
23.8
20.7
2065.5
3302.4
1026.5
2275.9
187.1
566.9
35.6
6.9
609.4
2.9
50.5
3.7
0.4
57.5
4.9
22.8
50.1
8.1
1.7
60.9
7.0
7.5
4.4
16.7
11.3
15.7
211.0
47.9
149.0
34.4
0.9
0.8
233.0
1.0
141.0
1.0
0.8
142.7
234.2
1491.8
227.5
141.6
0.7
5.2
3.0
1.8
1.3
4.9
22.3
22.1
2156.2
3410.8
1034.7
2376.0
179.0
513.7
33.1
6.1
552.9
2.3
50.0
2.4
0.4
55.1
4.6
20.9
46.4
8.2
1.6
56.4
6.6
7.4
3.8
17.4
11.0
15.8
200.1
43.4
141.7
31.8
1.0
0.8
218.8
0.7
139.7
1.1
0.7
141.5
242.5
1537.9
246.0
151.0
0.7
8.2
2.8
1.6
1.2
4.7
24.7
19.3
2240.5
3409.6
976.4
2433.2
168.0
523.7
35.4
7.3
566.4
2.3
51.1
1.9
0.4
55.7
4.9
20.8
45.9
7.3
1.6
55.4
5.9
7.2
3.3
17.5
11.4
16.0
197.4
47.5
151.0
31.8
1.0
0.9
232.0
0.7
144.1
1.7
0.9
146.8
250.6
1665.3
252.4
162.1
0.5
15.2
3.3
1.5
1.0
4.9
25.1
20.7
2402.6
3601.6
995.9
2605.7
165.8
528.3
35.5
9.4
573.1
2.4
58.9
1.9
0.4
63.6
6.2
21.0
46.7
7.5
1.6
55.7
6.7
7.8
2.6
17.9
11.5
16.0
201.4
49.8
157.6
36.3
1.1
1.0
245.7
0.7
143.2
1.7
1.1
146.0
245.1
1851.7
250.8
208.2
0.7
19.9
3.1
1.4
1.0
5.9
26.1
22.2
2636.0
3866.6
997.8
2868.8
168.6
491.9
35.5
7.4
534.9
2.9
61.2
1.4
0.5
65.9
5.6
20.3
47.8
8.0
1.6
57.8
6.3
7.3
2.5
17.0
10.6
14.4
199.2
51.6
168.3
38.0
1.2
1.2
260.3
0.7
146.6
1.0
4.3
151.9
265.9
1873.5
255.0
227.4
0.7
17.9
3.0
1.4
1.0
4.8
23.6
22.8
2697.0
3909.8
979.9
2930.0
168.2
475.8
36.1
7.2
519.1
3.7
58.7
0.9
1.7
65.0
4.8
17.8
45.1
6.7
1.6
57.2
4.7
7.7
1.8
15.5
8.0
16.7
187.5
51.4
173.1
36.6
1.1
1.3
263.5
0.7
145.3
2.0
5.1
152.4
285.8
1894.6
255.7
279.7
0.7
18.0
2.9
1.3
0.8
4.8
23.0
23.4
2790.6
3978.9
975.5
3003.4
157.4
482.3
35.9
7.3
525.5
3.4
60.8
0.6
3.0
67.8
5.1
17.0
44.1
6.4
1.6
54.0
4.4
5.7
1.6
16.4
7.3
15.4
179.0
48.9
176.6
25.9
1.2
1.4
254.0
0.7
148.2
3.7
5.8
157.7
305.9
1864.2
269.5
269.9
0.7
15.2
2.5
1.5
0.8
4.7
23.0
23.8
2781.7
3966.4
996.5
2969.9
150.5
426.9
32.3
6.9
466.1
2.7
58.8
0.6
2.3
64.4
5.9
17.1
42.8
5.7
1.5
53.0
4.7
7.2
1.2
12.8
5.4
13.9
171.2
46.2
186.4
16.4
1.1
1.4
251.5
0.7
142.9
2.8
6.0
151.6
306.4
1825.6
281.0
272.0
0.6
14.3
2.0
1.5
0.8
3.9
23.3
25.2
2756.7
3862.1
925.9
2936.3
144.9
348.3
31.8
6.1
386.2
3.0
62.2
0.7
2.0
67.8
5.1
16.1
39.8
4.0
1.5
52.1
4.2
7.3
0.7
15.5
2.6
12.5
161.3
44.3
194.0
17.1
1.1
1.7
258.1
0.8
142.4
1.7
5.4
149.6
307.7
1691.4
284.9
268.8
0.7
21.5
1.7
1.8
0.8
4.3
21.6
34.3
2639.6
3663.5
838.0
2825.5
132.4
371.3
31.1
5.5
407.9
3.0
61.4
0.3
2.0
66.8
5.6
15.4
39.6
4.6
1.3
49.6
4.7
7.5
1.0
20.8
1.9
12.5
164.6
47.9
206.3
14.4
1.1
2.0
271.8
0.8
143.0
1.9
9.6
154.5
297.4
1747.2
294.2
271.6
0.8
30.3
1.8
1.8
0.7
4.1
21.3
31.0
2702.3
3768.6
851.6
2917.0
130.8
6.9%
-2.0%
-8.5%
5.9%
–
-0.9%
-52.4%
1.1%
-1.3%
10.3%
-3.8%
-0.3%
16.2%
-13.5%
-4.4%
12.1%
3.9%
47.6%
34.8%
-27.0%
-0.2%
2.3%
8.5%
6.7%
-15.6%
4.2%
19.7%
5.6%
–
0.7%
8.7%
77.3%
3.6%
-3.1%
3.6%
3.5%
1.3%
3.9%
41.4%
2.2%
-0.8%
-8.0%
-4.5%
-0.9%
-9.2%
2.7%
3.2%
1.9%
3.5%
-0.9%
2006-16
Share
2017
-4.7%
9.9%
-0.9%
0.8%
-1.1%
0.1%
-4.4% 10.8%
1.5%
0.1%
3.2%
1.6%
◆
-18.3%
17.6%
0.1%
2.4%
1.8%
1.7%
0.1%
-3.9%
0.4%
-2.9%
1.0%
-7.0%
0.1%
◆
-1.8%
-2.6%
1.3%
-4.2%
0.1%
n/a
0.2%
◆
-19.8%
1.6%
0.6%
-13.6%
0.1%
-6.3%
0.3%
-3.1%
4.4%
0.7%
1.3%
3.2%
5.5%
-7.1%
0.4%
◆
3.3%
9.4%
0.1%
1.6%
7.2%
◆
-2.9%
0.3%
3.8%
2.5%
0.1%
19.7%
0.3%
0.6%
4.1%
3.4%
7.9%
2.4% 46.4%
3.7%
7.8%
8.9%
7.2%
◆
-0.1%
18.2%
0.8%
◆
-7.1%
◆
0.2%
◆
-4.7%
-2.3%
0.1%
-0.1%
0.6%
4.3%
0.8%
3.2% 71.7%
1.5% 100.0%
-2.0% 22.6%
2.8% 77.4%
-3.7%
3.5%
*Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal, and other commercial solid fuels. Includes coal produced for coal-to-liquids
and coal-to-gas transformations.
than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Coal production data expressed in million tonnes is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
◆Less
38
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Coal: Consumption*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
544.6
30.3
11.3
586.2
1.2
13.6
4.1
3.2
–
1.0
–
0.1
2.5
25.8
3.9
4.4
21.4
7.0
12.8
86.7
8.8
3.1
16.3
8.4
0.7
55.9
2.9
10.1
20.0
2.7
0.2
29.5
38.4
39.5
372.9
†
0.7
31.1
93.9
–
39.8
1.0
0.8
167.3
1.6
–
8.0
†
†
–
0.1
0.1
0.1
9.9
0.8
0.8
3.2
83.7
3.6
92.0
52.7
0.6
1584.2
7.5
240.0
36.2
117.7
8.8
1.7
5.4
5.4
†
59.7
†
38.8
13.9
6.3
18.7
2197.6
3451.8
1169.8
2281.9
328.3
535.9
29.4
10.1
575.5
1.5
13.8
4.4
5.0
–
0.9
–
0.1
2.6
28.3
3.8
4.5
19.7
5.3
12.1
80.1
8.3
3.1
15.8
8.0
0.7
55.2
2.5
9.6
13.5
2.4
0.2
29.6
35.6
39.3
349.3
†
0.6
33.8
100.7
–
41.8
1.0
1.1
179.0
1.2
–
7.9
†
†
–
0.1
0.3
0.2
9.7
0.8
0.7
3.7
93.3
3.0
101.4
54.9
0.6
1609.3
6.9
259.3
31.5
120.3
9.8
2.1
6.0
6.4
†
66.1
0.1
37.0
15.0
11.9
20.5
2257.5
3500.6
1147.1
2353.5
303.6
471.4
23.5
10.3
505.2
0.8
11.1
4.0
4.0
–
0.8
–
0.2
2.1
23.1
2.9
3.1
17.7
5.4
10.8
71.7
8.4
2.6
12.4
7.5
0.6
51.8
2.9
7.6
9.4
1.9
0.1
30.9
29.8
36.9
314.3
†
0.6
30.9
92.2
–
35.9
1.0
0.9
161.5
1.4
–
7.7
–
†
–
†
0.3
0.2
9.6
0.5
0.6
2.7
93.8
3.3
101.0
53.1
0.8
1685.8
7.2
280.8
33.2
101.6
10.6
1.6
4.9
6.1
†
68.6
0.1
35.2
15.0
11.2
16.6
2332.3
3447.0
1026.3
2420.6
267.4
498.8
24.8
12.7
536.3
1.2
14.5
4.5
4.6
–
0.8
–
0.2
2.3
28.1
3.4
3.8
18.8
6.8
11.5
77.1
7.9
2.7
13.7
7.5
0.8
55.1
1.6
7.0
6.9
2.5
0.1
31.4
30.9
38.4
327.8
†
0.6
33.4
90.5
–
38.3
0.9
0.9
164.7
1.3
–
7.7
†
†
–
0.1
0.7
0.3
10.1
0.3
0.5
2.8
92.8
3.7
100.1
49.4
0.8
1748.9
6.2
290.4
39.5
115.7
14.8
1.4
4.6
7.0
†
75.9
0.1
37.6
15.4
14.6
16.2
2438.6
3605.6
1088.7
2516.9
280.2
470.6
21.8
14.7
507.1
1.3
15.4
5.8
3.7
–
0.8
–
0.2
2.8
30.0
3.5
3.5
18.4
5.5
9.8
78.3
7.9
2.7
15.4
7.4
0.8
55.0
2.2
8.2
12.8
2.5
0.1
33.9
31.4
40.9
340.2
†
0.8
36.3
94.0
–
41.5
1.1
1.0
174.7
1.4
–
7.9
†
†
–
0.1
0.4
0.4
10.3
0.3
0.4
3.0
90.5
4.2
98.4
48.1
0.7
1903.9
7.4
304.6
46.9
109.6
14.8
1.4
4.0
7.7
†
83.6
0.3
38.9
15.7
17.3
13.2
2618.3
3778.9
1069.4
2709.5
288.1
416.0
21.1
12.8
449.9
1.2
15.3
6.7
4.7
–
0.9
–
0.2
2.7
31.6
3.2
3.2
17.4
4.5
11.1
80.5
8.1
2.6
15.7
8.2
0.8
51.2
2.9
7.6
15.5
2.2
0.1
36.5
39.0
36.9
347.3
†
0.8
37.9
98.4
–
42.5
1.2
1.4
182.1
1.1
–
8.8
–
†
–
0.1
1.4
0.5
11.9
0.3
0.4
3.0
88.3
3.9
96.0
45.1
0.9
1927.8
7.3
330.0
53.0
115.8
15.9
1.7
4.0
8.1
†
81.0
0.5
38.0
16.5
16.1
13.9
2675.5
3794.5
1025.5
2769.0
294.3
431.8
20.8
12.7
465.4
1.3
16.5
7.5
5.0
–
0.9
–
0.2
2.9
34.3
3.3
3.3
17.2
5.0
11.6
82.8
7.0
2.3
13.5
8.2
0.8
53.4
2.6
5.8
11.4
2.2
0.1
31.6
37.0
37.3
336.4
†
0.9
37.5
90.5
–
41.6
1.1
1.4
173.0
1.4
–
7.4
0.3
0.1
–
0.1
1.8
0.5
11.5
0.2
0.4
3.0
88.4
5.3
97.2
43.0
1.0
1969.1
7.8
352.8
57.0
121.2
15.1
1.5
3.2
10.0
0.3
81.9
0.5
38.6
16.2
17.2
11.2
2747.5
3865.3
1035.9
2829.4
288.1
430.9
19.6
12.7
463.2
1.4
17.5
7.6
5.1
–
0.9
–
0.2
3.2
35.9
3.0
3.3
16.0
4.5
8.6
79.6
6.7
2.2
13.1
9.1
0.9
49.4
2.7
5.7
11.6
2.1
0.1
36.1
29.8
34.7
319.3
†
0.8
37.0
87.6
–
35.6
1.2
1.7
163.8
1.6
–
6.9
0.2
0.1
–
0.2
2.0
0.6
11.5
0.2
0.4
4.0
89.5
7.8
101.9
42.6
0.9
1954.5
8.1
387.5
45.1
119.1
15.4
1.5
4.7
10.6
0.4
84.6
0.9
39.0
17.9
20.8
12.7
2766.5
3862.2
1017.9
2844.2
268.2
372.2
19.9
12.7
404.8
1.4
17.6
7.3
5.4
–
0.8
–
0.1
3.6
36.2
3.2
3.2
16.6
3.8
8.4
78.7
5.6
2.4
12.3
11.0
0.8
48.7
3.3
5.9
13.7
2.1
0.1
34.7
23.2
35.4
313.1
†
0.6
34.2
92.1
–
27.3
1.1
1.8
157.3
1.5
–
6.8
0.2
0.1
–
0.1
1.7
0.4
10.7
0.1
0.4
4.4
83.0
6.7
94.6
43.9
2.3
1914.0
6.7
395.3
51.2
119.0
17.4
1.4
4.7
11.6
0.4
85.5
1.2
37.8
17.5
26.2
12.2
2748.3
3765.0
952.9
2812.1
261.7
340.6
18.9
12.4
371.9
1.0
15.9
7.4
5.5
–
1.0
–
0.3
3.8
34.9
3.0
3.0
16.6
4.4
8.2
75.8
4.4
2.3
11.0
10.2
0.8
49.5
3.2
5.3
10.5
2.1
0.1
38.5
11.2
35.3
295.1
†
0.7
33.9
89.2
–
29.7
1.0
1.6
156.2
0.9
–
5.7
0.2
0.1
–
0.1
1.5
0.4
9.1
†
0.2
4.3
84.7
5.7
94.9
43.6
2.2
1889.1
6.7
405.6
53.4
118.8
19.6
1.2
5.6
11.7
0.4
81.9
1.3
38.6
17.7
28.3
18.3
2744.0
3706.0
897.6
2808.4
239.5
332.1
18.6
13.1
363.8
1.1
16.5
6.7
4.0
–
1.0
–
0.3
3.2
32.7
3.2
2.9
16.0
4.1
9.1
71.3
4.9
2.3
9.8
9.1
0.8
48.7
3.5
5.7
13.4
1.9
0.1
44.6
9.0
36.1
296.4
†
0.9
36.2
92.3
–
24.6
1.2
1.9
157.0
0.9
–
5.2
0.2
0.1
–
0.1
1.6
0.4
8.5
†
0.2
4.5
82.2
6.2
93.1
42.3
2.3
1892.6
6.3
424.0
57.2
120.5
20.0
1.2
7.1
13.1
0.4
86.3
1.4
39.4
18.3
28.2
19.4
2780.0
3731.5
893.4
2838.0
234.3
-2.2%
-1.4%
5.6%
-1.9%
1.7%
4.1%
-9.1%
-27.6%
–
–
–
-10.8%
-14.0%
-5.9%
5.0%
-1.5%
-3.0%
-5.6%
11.4%
-5.8%
11.7%
1.8%
-10.5%
-10.4%
2.3%
-1.4%
10.6%
6.8%
28.5%
-6.2%
–
16.3%
-19.4%
2.6%
0.7%
–
16.2%
7.0%
3.8%
–
-17.1%
20.8%
16.0%
0.8%
3.0%
–
-8.4%
-29.1%
–
–
–
1.7%
-9.8%
-5.9%
–
4.2%
4.2%
-2.7%
8.9%
-1.7%
-2.8%
7.3%
0.5%
-6.1%
4.8%
7.4%
1.7%
2.5%
5.2%
26.2%
12.0%
-6.7%
5.7%
5.4%
2.5%
3.7%
-3.6%
6.2%
1.6%
1.0%
-0.2%
1.3%
-1.9%
2006-16
Share
2017
-4.5%
8.9%
-4.2%
0.5%
0.1%
0.4%
-4.3%
9.7%
◆
2.1%
2.2%
0.4%
8.0%
0.2%
3.9%
0.1%
–
–
◆
2.2%
–
–
◆
1.7%
4.6%
0.1%
3.7%
0.9%
-2.9%
0.1%
-5.0%
0.1%
-2.4%
0.4%
-5.1%
0.1%
-4.1%
0.2%
-1.1%
1.9%
-6.4%
0.1%
-3.0%
0.1%
-4.1%
0.3%
2.8%
0.2%
◆
2.0%
-1.5%
1.3%
-0.4%
0.1%
-5.6%
0.2%
-5.2%
0.4%
-2.7%
0.1%
◆
-3.0%
3.9%
1.2%
-12.2%
0.2%
-1.2%
1.0%
-2.2%
7.9%
◆
-15.0%
◆
1.9%
1.8%
1.0%
-0.8%
2.5%
–
–
-2.9%
0.7%
◆
2.1%
8.8%
0.1%
-0.7%
4.2%
◆
-5.0%
–
–
-3.1%
0.1%
◆
57.7%
◆
62.2%
–
–
◆
17.4%
◆
18.6%
◆
12.7%
-0.8%
0.2%
◆
-25.1%
◆
-15.5%
1.0%
0.1%
0.4%
2.2%
5.1%
0.2%
0.5%
2.5%
-1.9%
1.1%
16.6%
0.1%
2.6% 50.7%
-0.2%
0.2%
6.3% 11.4%
6.3%
1.5%
0.6%
3.2%
10.4%
0.5%
◆
-6.1%
3.6%
0.2%
8.8%
0.4%
◆
56.0%
4.1%
2.3%
◆
40.5%
0.4%
1.1%
3.7%
0.5%
17.3%
0.8%
-1.7%
0.5%
3.1% 74.5%
1.3% 100.0%
-2.4% 23.9%
2.9% 76.1%
-3.1%
6.3%
*Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal, and other commercial solid fuels. Excludes coal converted to liquid or gaseous
fuels, but includes coal consumed in transformation processes.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: Differences between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement
or conversion of coal supply and demand data.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
39
Coal: Production by region
Coal: Consumption by region
Million tonnes oil equivalent
Million tonnes oil equivalent
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
CIS
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
92
97
02
07
12
17
4500
4500
4000
4000
3500
3500
3000
3000
2500
2500
2000
2000
1500
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
92
97
02
07
12
17
0
World coal production increased by 105 million tonnes of oil equivalent or 3.2%, the fastest rate of growth since 2011. Production rose by 56 mtoe in China and 23 mtoe
in the US. Global coal consumption grew by 25 mtoe, or 1%, the first growth since 2013. Growth was driven largely by India (18 mtoe), with China consumption also up
slightly (4 mtoe) following three successive annual declines during 2014-2016. OECD demand fell for the fourth year in a row (-4 mtoe).
Coal prices
US dollars per tonne
200
Northwest Europe marker price
US Central Appalachian coal spot price index
Japan steam spot CIF price
China Qinhuangdao spot price
150
100
50
02
40
03
04
05
06
07
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
Nuclear energy
Consumption*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
Share
2017
192.1
21.0
2.4
215.4
1.6
2.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
10.9
5.9
5.4
99.5
31.8
–
3.3
–
1.0
–
–
–
1.7
12.5
15.2
6.3
–
14.3
10.3
218.0
–
–
–
36.2
–
20.9
–
0.6
57.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.6
–
2.6
–
–
14.1
–
4.0
–
63.1
–
–
0.6
–
–
32.3
–
9.2
–
–
–
123.3
621.5
521.6
99.8
211.7
192.0
21.6
2.2
215.8
1.7
3.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
10.3
6.0
5.3
99.4
33.7
–
3.4
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.5
13.3
14.5
6.2
–
11.9
11.0
218.4
–
–
–
36.9
–
20.3
–
0.6
57.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.9
–
2.9
–
–
15.5
–
3.4
–
57.0
–
–
0.4
–
–
34.2
–
9.2
–
–
–
119.7
619.5
517.0
102.5
212.2
190.3
20.2
2.4
212.9
1.9
2.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
10.7
6.2
5.4
92.7
30.5
–
3.5
–
1.0
–
–
–
2.7
11.9
11.8
6.2
–
15.6
10.4
208.6
–
–
–
37.0
–
18.8
–
0.6
56.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.9
–
2.9
–
–
15.9
–
3.8
–
62.1
–
–
0.6
–
–
33.4
–
9.4
–
–
–
125.3
610.8
508.5
102.3
202.4
192.2
20.4
1.3
213.9
1.6
3.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.9
–
10.8
6.3
5.2
97.0
31.8
–
3.6
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.6
13.9
13.1
6.0
–
14.1
8.0
213.4
–
–
–
38.6
–
20.2
–
0.6
59.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.1
–
3.1
–
–
16.7
–
5.2
–
66.2
–
–
0.5
–
–
33.6
–
9.4
–
–
–
131.7
626.2
521.0
105.3
207.4
188.2
21.0
2.3
211.5
1.4
3.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.0
–
10.9
6.4
5.3
100.1
24.4
–
3.5
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.7
13.1
13.7
6.1
–
15.6
8.6
211.3
–
–
–
39.1
–
20.4
–
0.6
60.1
†
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
†
–
–
–
2.9
–
2.9
–
–
19.5
–
7.3
–
36.9
–
–
0.9
–
–
35.0
–
9.5
–
–
–
109.1
600.0
488.4
111.7
205.2
183.2
21.3
2.0
206.5
1.4
3.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.1
–
9.1
6.9
5.3
96.3
22.5
–
3.6
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.6
13.9
14.5
5.8
–
15.9
8.3
205.5
–
–
–
40.2
–
20.4
–
0.5
61.1
0.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
–
–
–
2.9
–
2.9
–
–
22.0
–
7.5
–
4.1
–
–
1.2
–
–
34.0
–
9.1
–
–
–
78.0
559.5
444.0
115.5
199.7
187.9
23.2
2.7
213.8
1.4
3.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.9
–
9.6
7.0
5.4
95.9
22.0
–
3.5
–
0.7
–
–
–
2.6
12.8
15.0
5.9
–
16.0
8.0
204.4
–
–
–
39.0
–
18.8
–
0.5
58.4
1.0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.0
–
–
–
3.2
–
3.2
–
–
25.3
–
7.5
–
3.3
–
–
1.2
–
–
31.4
–
9.4
–
–
–
78.1
563.8
447.1
116.7
198.5
189.9
24.1
2.2
216.2
1.3
3.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
7.6
6.9
5.4
98.8
22.0
–
3.5
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.6
13.0
14.7
6.3
–
14.4
8.5
204.6
–
–
–
40.9
–
20.0
–
0.6
61.5
0.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.9
–
–
–
3.1
–
3.1
–
–
30.0
–
7.8
–
–
–
–
1.1
–
–
35.4
–
9.6
–
–
–
83.9
575.0
450.0
125.0
198.3
189.9
22.9
2.6
215.4
1.6
3.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.0
–
5.9
6.1
5.3
99.0
20.8
–
3.6
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.6
13.0
12.8
5.3
–
15.9
8.2
199.3
–
–
–
44.2
–
19.8
–
0.6
64.7
0.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.8
–
–
–
2.8
–
2.8
–
–
38.6
–
8.7
–
1.0
–
–
1.1
–
–
37.3
–
8.3
–
–
–
95.0
582.8
446.8
136.0
194.0
191.9
21.8
2.4
216.1
1.9
3.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.5
–
9.8
5.5
5.3
91.2
19.2
–
3.6
–
0.9
–
–
–
2.6
13.3
14.3
5.2
–
16.2
8.2
195.2
–
–
–
44.5
–
18.3
–
0.5
63.3
1.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.5
–
–
–
3.6
–
3.6
–
–
48.3
–
8.6
–
4.0
–
–
1.3
–
–
36.7
–
7.2
–
–
–
106.0
591.2
445.9
145.4
190.1
191.7
21.9
2.5
216.1
1.4
3.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.0
–
9.5
6.4
5.1
90.1
17.2
–
3.6
–
1.2
–
–
–
2.6
13.1
14.9
4.6
–
15.9
8.1
192.5
–
–
–
46.0
–
19.4
–
0.6
65.9
1.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.6
–
–
–
3.6
–
3.6
–
–
56.2
–
8.5
–
6.6
–
–
1.8
–
–
33.6
–
5.1
–
–
–
111.7
596.4
442.6
153.8
187.9
0.2%
0.6%
3.3%
0.3%
-25.3%
-0.3%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–9.0%
–
-2.8%
17.9%
-2.9%
-0.9%
-10.1%
–
0.5%
–
35.2%
–
–
–
2.3%
-0.6%
4.4%
-11.2%
–
-1.7%
-0.7%
-1.1%
–
–
–
3.6%
–
6.0%
–
10.3%
4.4%
7.8%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
7.8%
–
–
–
-0.7%
–
–0.7%
–
–
16.7%
–
-1.0%
–
64.9%
–
–
39.5%
–
–
-8.1%
–
-28.9%
–
–
–
5.7%
1.1%
-0.5%
6.1%
-0.9%
0.2%
-0.1%
-0.3%
0.2%
0.9%
1.4%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.2%
–
-0.7%
-0.8%
0.1%
-1.1%
-6.6%
–
1.8%
–
1.3%
–
–
–
7.2%
-0.3%
-0.6%
-1.9%
–
-0.5%
-3.5%
-1.6%
–
–
–
2.3%
–
-1.1%
–
-1.0%
1.2%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.7%
–
4.7%
–
–
14.5%
–
8.0%
–
-24.8%
–
–
7.8%
–
–
0.9%
–
-2.3%
–
–
–
-1.9%
-0.7%
-1.8%
4.1%
-1.6%
32.1%
3.7%
0.4%
36.2%
0.2%
0.6%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.8%
–
1.6%
1.1%
0.9%
15.1%
2.9%
–
0.6%
–
0.2%
–
–
–
0.4%
2.2%
2.5%
0.8%
–
2.7%
1.4%
32.3%
–
–
–
7.7%
–
3.2%
–
0.1%
11.1%
0.3%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.3%
–
–
–
0.6%
–
0.6%
–
–
9.4%
–
1.4%
–
1.1%
–
–
0.3%
–
–
5.6%
–
0.9%
–
–
–
18.7%
100.0%
74.2%
25.8%
31.5%
*Based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal
power station.
†Less than 0.05.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Nuclear energy data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
41
Hydroelectricity
Consumption*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
55.0
83.2
6.2
144.4
8.5
84.6
5.1
10.0
2.0
4.4
–
18.8
19.5
153.0
8.4
0.1
0.5
3.2
13.0
4.8
0.6
†
7.4
†
30.2
0.5
2.3
3.6
6.2
15.0
8.0
8.1
1.1
12.2
125.3
0.5
†
1.8
40.1
†
2.3
1.4
7.5
53.7
4.1
1.0
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.9
6.0
0.1
3.2
0.2
0.6
17.5
21.6
3.0
0.2
109.8
–
27.7
2.6
16.9
1.3
5.4
7.2
1.9
–
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.8
5.1
7.3
192.9
696.9
289.3
407.5
71.1
56.8
85.4
8.9
151.1
8.4
83.6
5.5
10.4
2.6
4.3
–
19.6
19.5
154.0
8.7
0.1
0.5
3.9
14.4
4.6
0.7
†
9.4
†
31.5
0.5
1.5
3.9
5.3
15.6
8.2
7.5
1.2
14.1
131.6
0.5
†
1.7
37.3
†
2.6
2.6
6.5
51.2
1.7
0.7
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.7
3.1
0.1
3.4
0.2
0.3
18.0
22.0
2.7
0.2
144.1
–
26.1
2.6
16.8
1.8
5.1
6.1
2.2
–
0.7
0.9
1.0
1.6
5.9
7.8
225.5
738.5
301.1
437.4
75.2
61.4
83.4
6.0
150.9
9.2
88.5
5.7
9.2
2.1
4.5
–
19.4
19.3
157.9
9.3
0.1
0.5
2.9
12.9
4.3
1.2
0.1
11.1
†
28.3
0.5
1.9
3.5
6.0
14.8
8.1
8.1
1.2
15.9
130.7
0.5
†
1.6
39.4
†
2.7
2.1
6.4
52.7
1.5
0.6
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.6
2.7
0.1
3.1
0.6
0.3
18.5
22.6
2.9
0.1
139.3
–
24.1
2.6
15.6
1.6
5.5
6.4
2.2
–
0.6
0.9
0.8
1.6
6.8
7.7
218.5
736.2
298.3
437.9
75.9
58.2
79.5
8.4
146.1
9.2
91.3
4.9
9.2
2.0
4.5
–
17.3
20.3
158.7
8.7
0.1
0.6
2.9
14.2
4.7
1.7
†
11.6
†
26.4
0.7
3.7
4.5
9.5
15.0
8.2
11.7
0.8
19.0
144.0
0.8
†
1.8
37.7
†
3.0
2.5
6.9
52.6
2.3
0.8
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.8
3.9
†
2.9
0.8
0.3
20.3
24.3
3.1
0.2
161.0
–
24.6
3.9
19.7
1.4
5.6
6.7
1.8
–
0.8
1.3
0.9
1.2
6.2
9.3
247.7
777.5
306.8
470.7
85.2
71.5
85.0
8.2
164.7
9.0
96.9
4.6
11.0
2.5
4.9
–
18.8
20.8
168.5
7.7
†
0.5
2.8
10.1
4.0
0.9
0.1
10.4
†
27.2
0.5
2.6
3.3
6.9
15.2
7.2
11.8
1.3
13.6
126.2
0.6
†
1.8
36.9
–
2.5
2.3
7.6
51.6
2.4
0.8
†
–
–
–
–
–
1.0
4.1
0.1
2.9
0.5
0.7
20.8
25.0
4.4
0.2
155.7
–
29.8
2.8
18.3
1.8
5.7
6.9
2.2
–
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.8
9.3
10.6
252.5
792.7
313.4
479.3
70.8
62.0
86.0
7.2
155.3
8.3
94.0
4.6
10.8
2.8
5.0
–
18.5
21.5
165.4
9.9
0.1
0.5
3.8
13.3
5.0
1.0
†
9.5
†
32.1
0.5
1.3
2.7
4.6
17.9
8.6
13.1
1.2
14.0
139.1
0.4
†
1.7
37.0
–
2.4
2.5
7.6
51.7
2.8
1.0
†
–
–
–
–
–
1.0
4.8
0.1
2.9
0.4
0.2
21.5
25.1
3.9
0.2
195.2
–
26.2
2.9
17.2
2.1
5.2
6.7
2.3
–
0.9
0.7
1.3
1.9
11.9
10.8
289.4
830.7
314.9
515.8
76.1
60.3
88.7
6.3
155.3
9.2
88.5
4.5
10.0
2.5
5.1
–
18.9
22.1
160.7
9.5
0.1
0.6
2.9
16.0
5.2
1.4
†
11.9
†
29.0
0.6
3.1
3.3
8.3
13.9
8.6
13.4
1.1
17.3
146.4
0.3
†
1.7
41.0
–
3.1
2.6
7.4
56.2
3.3
1.0
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.9
5.3
†
3.0
0.6
0.2
22.7
26.6
4.3
0.2
205.8
–
29.9
3.8
17.7
2.6
5.2
7.0
2.3
–
1.0
1.6
1.2
1.2
13.0
12.1
308.8
859.4
319.6
539.8
84.0
57.9
86.6
8.8
153.2
9.2
84.5
5.2
10.1
2.6
5.0
–
17.8
20.8
155.4
9.3
0.1
0.4
3.0
14.2
4.4
1.0
0.1
13.2
†
30.6
0.5
3.5
4.2
8.9
14.4
8.4
9.2
1.3
16.7
143.6
0.3
†
1.9
39.2
–
1.9
2.7
7.2
53.2
3.3
0.6
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.6
4.5
†
3.1
0.4
0.4
24.1
28.0
3.3
0.1
237.8
–
31.5
3.4
18.1
3.0
5.5
7.2
2.1
–
0.6
1.0
1.0
1.2
13.8
12.0
341.8
879.7
314.6
565.1
84.8
55.8
86.5
7.0
149.2
9.5
81.4
5.3
10.1
3.0
5.4
–
16.6
20.7
152.0
8.4
0.1
0.4
3.8
12.3
4.3
1.4
0.1
10.3
†
31.1
0.4
2.0
3.8
6.4
17.0
8.5
15.2
1.4
16.1
142.8
0.4
†
2.1
38.0
–
1.2
2.7
6.9
51.3
3.0
0.6
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.2
3.8
†
3.1
0.4
0.2
23.6
27.4
3.2
0.2
252.2
–
30.2
3.1
19.0
3.5
5.6
7.3
2.0
–
0.5
1.4
1.0
0.9
12.9
11.3
354.0
880.5
311.3
569.2
77.2
59.7
87.6
6.9
154.2
8.7
86.2
4.5
10.6
3.6
5.4
–
15.0
22.6
156.4
9.0
0.1
0.5
3.6
13.6
4.6
1.3
0.1
9.6
†
32.2
0.5
3.6
4.1
8.2
14.0
7.9
15.2
1.2
16.8
146.1
0.4
†
2.6
41.8
–
1.7
2.7
7.0
56.3
3.5
0.8
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
4.6
†
3.0
0.3
0.2
23.7
27.1
4.0
0.2
261.0
–
29.0
4.4
18.1
4.9
5.9
7.8
1.8
–
0.6
1.0
1.5
0.8
14.5
13.0
368.5
913.3
318.3
594.9
79.2
67.1
89.8
7.2
164.1
9.4
83.6
5.1
13.0
4.5
6.5
–
17.4
22.9
162.3
8.8
0.1
0.4
3.3
11.1
4.5
0.9
†
8.2
†
32.0
0.6
1.3
3.2
4.2
14.6
7.2
13.2
1.3
15.2
130.4
0.4
0.1
2.5
41.5
–
2.0
2.7
7.6
56.7
3.7
0.5
†
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
4.5
†
3.0
0.3
0.2
25.6
29.1
3.1
0.2
261.5
–
30.7
4.2
17.9
5.6
5.7
7.0
2.2
–
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.1
15.9
13.7
371.6
918.6
314.8
603.9
67.8
2017
2006-16
12.7%
-0.8%
7.3%
2.8%
0.9%
9.8%
3.5%
0.1%
0.8%
6.7%
0.2% 17.9%
8.9%
-1.3%
1.0%
-2.7%
0.9%
9.1%
13.8%
-3.5%
0.6%
22.9%
1.0%
1.4%
27.2%
8.3%
0.5%
20.9%
2.0%
0.7%
–
–
–
16.1%
-2.0%
1.9%
1.8%
2.0%
2.5%
4.1%
0.6% 17.7%
-1.6%
1.1%
1.0%
◆
-25.7%
0.3%
◆
-6.3%
-2.4%
-6.1%
3.3%
0.4%
-17.8%
0.6%
1.2%
-3.9%
0.3%
0.5%
-27.1%
-0.6%
0.1%
◆
-14.5%
3.4%
-14.3%
1.4%
0.9%
◆
-37.8%
-0.5%
-0.4%
1.8%
3.5%
20.5%
0.5%
0.1%
-63.3%
3.7%
0.1%
-20.4%
-0.2%
0.4%
-49.1%
3.5%
0.5%
4.7%
0.1%
1.6%
-8.5%
1.3%
0.8%
-12.8%
4.3%
1.4%
10.5%
1.6%
0.1%
-9.7%
1.9%
1.6%
-10.5%
1.6% 14.2%
◆
-10.6%
-2.5%
◆
57.7%
15.0%
-3.6%
4.1%
0.3%
-0.5%
0.6%
4.5%
– -100.0%
–
13.1%
-5.1%
0.2%
0.9%
2.7%
0.3%
9.0%
-0.6%
0.8%
0.9%
0.4%
6.2%
6.5%
-1.8%
0.4%
-35.3%
-3.8%
0.1%
◆
–
5.1%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
◆
5.0%
-11.8%
-0.6%
-3.3%
0.5%
◆
-21.6%
-10.5%
0.7%
0.4%
0.3%
◆
-5.4%
2.5%
◆
24.2%
-13.3%
8.3%
3.3%
2.8%
7.4%
2.7%
3.2%
-22.9%
1.8%
0.3%
◆
16.7%
1.7%
0.5%
10.2% 28.5%
–
–
–
6.0%
1.3%
3.3%
-5.0%
7.2%
0.5%
-0.6%
-0.9%
2.0%
14.2%
13.2%
0.6%
-2.7%
1.0%
0.6%
-9.8%
1.3%
0.8%
18.7%
-2.0%
0.2%
–
–
–
5.5%
-2.0%
0.1%
-4.9%
-0.9%
0.1%
-17.0%
4.8%
0.1%
32.7%
-7.8%
0.1%
10.1%
12.5%
1.7%
5.7%
7.0%
1.5%
1.1%
7.4% 40.4%
0.9%
2.9% 100.0%
-0.9%
0.7% 34.3%
1.8%
4.4% 65.7%
-14.1%
1.0%
7.4%
*Based on gross primary hydroelectric generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency
in a modern thermal power station.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Hydroelectricity data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
42
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Share
2017
Nuclear energy consumption by region
Hydroelectricity consumption by region
Million tonnes oil equivalent
Million tonnes oil equivalent
700
Rest of world
Asia Pacific
CIS
Europe
North America
1000
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
CIS
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
600
900
800
500
700
600
400
500
300
400
300
200
200
100
100
92
97
02
07
12
17
0
97
92
02
07
12
17
0
Global nuclear generation rose by 5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe), or 1.1%, above the 10-year average growth rate of -0.7%. Growth in China (8 mtoe) and Japan
(3 mtoe) was partially offset by declines in Europe (3 mtoe). World hydroelectric power generation rose by 5 mtoe, just 0.9%, compared with the 10-year average of 2.9%.
The US (7 mtoe) provided the largest increment. China’s growth was the slowest since 2011, while European output declined by 10.5% (-16 mtoe).
Other renewables consumption by region
Other renewables share of power generation by region
Million tonnes oil equivalent
Percentage
500
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
CIS
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
20
World
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
CIS
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
450
400
18
16
350
14
300
12
250
10
200
8
150
6
100
4
50
97
99
01
03
05
07
09
11
13
15
17
0
2
97
99
01
03
05
07
09
11
13
15
17
0
Renewable energy in power generation (not including hydro) grew by 17%, slightly higher than the 10-year average (16.2%) and the largest increment on record at
69 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe). Wind provided more than half of renewables growth, while solar contributed more than a third despite accounting for just 21%
of the total. In China, renewable power generation rose by 25 mtoe – a country record, and the second largest contribution to global primary energy growth from any single
fuel and country, behind natural gas in China. The share of renewables in total power generation increased from 7.4% to 8.4% globally, and from 16.5% to 18.3% in
Europe, a new high.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
43
Renewable energy
Other renewables consumption*
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
24.8
2.7
1.9
29.5
0.4
4.2
0.6
0.1
†
0.1
†
–
1.4
6.9
1.4
0.7
0.3
2.3
1.9
15.2
0.5
0.4
3.4
1.7
0.3
0.7
1.4
†
7.0
2.5
0.3
0.2
3.3
3.9
47.3
–
†
–
0.1
–
0.1
–
†
0.2
†
–
†
–
–
–
–
–
†
†
–
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.5
0.8
1.6
†
3.5
†
4.3
1.6
6.2
†
1.1
0.2
2.3
0.1
0.2
†
0.5
0.6
†
†
22.3
107.0
86.4
20.6
45.7
29.7
2.7
1.8
34.2
0.4
4.7
0.8
0.1
†
0.1
†
–
1.6
7.7
1.4
0.9
0.4
2.4
2.3
16.5
0.6
0.5
3.7
2.1
0.3
1.0
1.8
†
8.8
2.8
0.3
0.3
3.8
4.2
54.0
–
†
–
0.1
–
0.1
–
†
0.2
†
–
†
–
–
–
–
–
†
0.1
–
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.5
0.9
1.7
†
6.4
†
5.4
1.9
6.1
†
1.3
0.3
2.4
0.1
0.3
†
0.5
0.5
†
†
26.8
123.9
98.1
25.8
52.2
33.9
3.5
1.8
39.3
0.4
5.4
0.7
0.2
†
0.1
†
–
1.8
8.7
1.4
1.2
0.5
2.0
2.9
17.2
0.6
0.6
4.6
2.4
0.3
1.4
2.3
†
10.7
3.2
0.3
0.5
4.5
4.5
61.1
†
†
–
0.1
–
†
–
†
0.2
0.1
–
†
–
–
–
–
†
†
0.1
–
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.6
1.0
1.7
†
11.0
†
6.3
2.1
6.1
0.3
1.6
0.2
2.4
0.1
0.4
†
0.6
0.5
†
†
33.4
143.7
110.7
33.0
59.0
39.3
4.3
2.0
45.6
0.5
7.6
0.8
0.2
0.1
0.2
†
†
2.0
11.3
1.5
1.4
0.7
2.5
3.5
19.1
0.7
0.6
5.8
2.5
0.3
1.8
2.8
0.1
12.3
3.6
0.3
0.9
5.1
5.3
70.9
†
†
–
0.1
†
0.1
–
†
0.2
†
–
†
–
–
–
–
†
†
0.1
†
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.7
1.3
1.9
†
15.9
†
7.7
2.1
6.7
0.3
1.8
0.2
2.3
0.1
0.5
†
0.6
0.8
†
†
41.1
170.5
127.9
42.6
68.4
45.7
4.7
2.0
52.5
0.5
7.9
1.0
0.3
0.1
0.2
†
†
2.2
12.1
1.5
1.9
1.2
2.6
4.4
24.1
0.9
0.6
8.4
2.8
0.4
2.4
2.8
0.4
12.6
4.0
0.4
1.3
6.7
6.5
85.9
–
†
†
0.1
†
0.1
–
†
0.2
0.1
–
0.1
–
–
†
†
†
†
0.2
†
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.7
1.4
2.5
†
22.8
†
9.5
2.2
7.0
0.3
2.0
0.3
2.3
0.1
0.6
†
0.8
0.9
†
†
51.3
203.5
150.6
53.0
82.7
51.7
5.2
2.4
59.3
0.6
9.1
1.4
0.3
0.1
0.2
†
†
2.6
14.3
1.7
2.3
1.3
2.6
5.5
27.4
1.3
0.6
11.4
2.8
0.4
3.4
3.1
0.6
15.0
4.4
0.5
1.7
8.1
7.2
101.4
–
†
†
0.1
†
0.2
–
†
0.3
0.1
–
0.1
–
–
†
†
†
†
0.2
†
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.9
1.6
3.0
†
29.4
†
11.2
2.2
7.7
0.4
2.0
0.3
2.4
0.1
0.9
†
0.8
1.2
†
†
61.7
238.7
174.3
64.5
97.6
60.2
6.9
2.6
69.8
0.6
10.6
1.6
0.3
0.1
0.3
†
†
3.0
16.5
1.9
2.6
1.5
2.9
5.9
29.3
1.8
0.6
13.4
2.7
0.5
3.3
3.6
1.2
16.8
4.8
0.5
2.3
11.0
8.0
114.5
†
†
†
0.1
†
0.3
†
†
0.4
0.1
†
0.1
†
†
†
†
†
†
0.3
†
0.4
0.3
0.2
1.0
1.8
3.7
†
42.3
†
12.7
2.2
9.3
0.3
2.0
0.4
2.2
0.2
1.2
0.1
0.9
1.6
†
0.1
79.2
282.6
200.0
82.6
109.9
67.2
8.1
3.1
78.4
0.7
13.3
1.5
0.3
0.1
0.4
†
†
3.6
19.8
2.0
2.7
1.6
2.9
6.6
32.3
1.7
0.6
14.1
2.6
0.6
4.0
3.6
1.5
16.1
5.0
0.6
2.8
13.3
8.9
123.5
†
†
†
0.2
†
0.4
†
†
0.6
0.1
†
0.2
†
†
†
†
0.1
†
0.5
†
0.3
0.4
0.6
1.4
2.7
4.1
†
51.1
†
14.3
2.3
11.8
0.3
2.3
0.5
2.4
0.2
2.1
0.1
0.9
2.0
†
0.1
94.5
320.1
221.2
98.9
118.3
71.5
8.4
3.7
83.6
0.7
16.0
2.0
0.3
0.1
0.4
†
†
4.5
24.1
2.3
3.2
1.7
3.1
7.9
38.4
2.0
0.7
14.3
3.1
0.6
4.7
3.6
2.2
15.6
6.1
0.7
3.9
17.4
9.7
141.2
†
†
†
0.2
†
0.4
†
†
0.7
0.1
†
0.3
†
†
†
†
0.1
0.1
0.6
†
0.4
0.6
1.4
1.8
4.3
4.9
0.1
64.1
†
15.1
2.4
15.4
0.3
2.4
0.5
2.8
0.2
2.7
0.1
1.0
2.3
0.1
0.1
114.4
368.8
248.9
120.0
134.8
83.1
9.6
4.1
96.8
0.7
19.1
2.5
0.4
0.1
0.6
†
†
5.2
28.6
2.5
3.1
1.7
3.3
8.4
38.3
2.1
0.7
14.8
3.3
0.5
4.7
3.7
2.0
15.4
6.1
0.7
5.4
17.6
9.8
144.2
†
†
0.1
0.3
†
0.4
†
†
0.8
0.1
†
0.4
†
†
†
†
0.1
0.3
1.0
0.1
0.6
0.8
1.8
2.0
5.2
5.4
0.1
81.7
†
18.3
2.6
18.8
0.3
2.4
0.6
3.1
0.2
3.1
0.1
1.0
2.8
0.1
0.1
140.8
417.4
270.1
147.3
136.3
94.8
10.3
4.4
109.5
0.7
22.2
3.0
0.4
0.1
0.6
†
†
5.6
32.6
2.8
3.5
1.7
3.7
9.4
44.8
2.2
0.7
15.5
4.0
0.7
4.8
3.7
2.2
15.7
6.8
0.8
6.6
21.0
11.0
161.8
†
0.1
0.1
0.3
†
0.4
†
†
0.9
0.1
†
0.4
†
†
†
†
0.1
0.6
1.4
0.1
0.6
0.8
2.0
2.1
5.5
5.7
0.1
106.7
†
21.8
2.9
22.4
0.4
2.4
0.8
3.1
0.3
3.6
0.1
1.2
3.4
0.1
0.1
175.1
486.8
304.9
181.9
152.3
14.3%
8.2%
9.0%
13.5%
2.3%
16.1%
20.5%
7.9%
-6.8%
-2.4%
–
–
9.4%
14.3%
14.6%
12.0%
4.8%
13.1%
11.8%
17.4%
5.3%
10.1%
4.5%
19.9%
32.4%
2.7%
0.1%
9.5%
2.2%
10.4%
11.4%
24.0%
19.7%
13.2%
12.5%
-0.3%
36.9%
5.5%
8.7%
–
9.6%
49.3%
-1.7%
10.0%
23.9%
–
8.2%
81.1%
136.1%
0.6%
10.1%
65.0%
76.4%
37.6%
98.6%
3.4%
1.7%
10.3%
5.5%
7.4%
4.8%
18.2%
31.1%
0.4%
19.7%
15.9%
19.4%
9.5%
-0.3%
33.0%
-1.8%
6.2%
15.7%
18.6%
17.5%
19.6%
19.4%
25.2%
24.7%
17.0%
13.2%
23.8%
12.0%
2006-16
Share
2017
13.8% 19.5%
14.0%
2.1%
9.1%
0.9%
13.6% 22.5%
6.1%
0.1%
18.9%
4.6%
22.8%
0.6%
9.9%
0.1%
◆
15.5%
21.8%
0.1%
◆
-21.9%
◆
–
15.1%
1.2%
17.7%
6.7%
8.1%
0.6%
18.2%
0.7%
22.6%
0.4%
2.9%
0.8%
19.9%
1.9%
12.6%
9.2%
17.8%
0.5%
8.5%
0.2%
17.0%
3.2%
6.3%
0.8%
8.7%
0.1%
24.8%
1.0%
13.4%
0.8%
111.5%
0.5%
10.0%
3.2%
11.2%
1.4%
10.3%
0.2%
51.4%
1.4%
19.1%
4.3%
11.5%
2.3%
13.8% 33.2%
◆
–
◆
52.0%
◆
–
8.0%
0.1%
◆
–
46.4%
0.1%
◆
–
◆
27.6%
20.1%
0.2%
◆
14.4%
◆
–
66.5%
0.1%
◆
–
◆
–
◆
–
◆
–
◆
–
66.6%
0.1%
40.6%
0.3%
◆
–
15.8%
0.1%
33.9%
0.2%
33.7%
0.4%
10.3%
0.4%
17.8%
1.1%
14.5%
1.2%
◆
41.9%
41.9% 21.9%
◆
65.2%
18.4%
4.5%
5.4%
0.6%
12.5%
4.6%
–
0.1%
9.1%
0.5%
11.7%
0.2%
2.8%
0.6%
8.3%
0.1%
38.1%
0.7%
◆
48.7%
8.0%
0.2%
19.9%
0.7%
◆
18.1%
◆
18.4%
21.9% 36.0%
16.2% 100.0%
13.6% 62.6%
23.7% 37.4%
13.5% 31.3%
*Based on gross generation from renewable sources including wind, geothermal, solar, biomass and waste, and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal
equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Other renewables data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at bp.com/statisticalreview.
44
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Biofuels production
Growth rate per annum
Thousand tonnes oil equivalent
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Finland
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Total CIS
Total Middle East
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
South Korea
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
14709
502
5
15216
173
12427
155
606
13360
222
146
54
1153
3243
448
82
103
162
378
150
374
504
7019
2
–
6
75
982
100
217
78
148
227
1827
37429
22297
15133
6944
20934
543
5
21481
635
15486
158
806
17085
269
282
101
2064
2805
623
78
290
149
384
183
289
956
8473
7
–
11
111
1194
154
530
146
525
390
3051
50109
30020
20090
8332
23761
761
5
24527
1055
15277
320
634
17285
373
486
231
2408
2834
772
242
408
226
1001
254
220
1153
10609
36
–
18
174
1224
61
469
358
656
478
3419
55894
35413
20481
10460
28044
787
10
28841
1670
16866
455
232
19223
391
523
301
2353
3022
678
391
439
284
1312
339
304
1153
11490
34
5
8
222
1584
123
723
511
700
443
4306
63906
40832
23074
11387
31184
899
13
32095
2234
14403
572
313
17522
390
525
208
1935
2967
486
674
414
330
851
400
322
1259
10761
28
5
8
223
1970
192
1110
309
765
692
5262
65680
43107
22573
10569
29808
1004
9
30821
2295
14739
627
304
17965
390
536
263
2145
3031
298
1276
652
276
620
491
303
1413
11692
29
5
23
241
2103
168
1397
283
1054
1067
6313
66848
42773
24074
11581
31057
1059
7
32124
2014
17114
650
359
20136
374
526
330
2306
2770
454
1495
697
274
749
635
517
1449
12578
23
5
32
210
2346
198
1750
321
1330
1363
7518
72415
44936
27478
12492
32890
1188
7
34086
2644
18005
676
382
21707
329
666
367
2573
3460
575
1980
750
301
1030
789
403
1494
14717
25
5
40
163
2609
198
3110
337
1490
1522
9429
80009
49000
31009
14632
33849
1142
5
34996
2038
19332
693
385
22448
381
482
432
2559
3191
572
1816
940
321
1122
222
310
1679
14025
19
5
40
162
2653
438
1314
385
1603
1777
8333
79866
49235
30630
13906
35986
1197
14
37197
2828
18168
626
409
22030
419
477
109
2405
3228
600
1477
928
298
1200
211
554
1745
13652
19
5
40
183
1811
544
2238
386
1610
1767
8540
81483
51054
30429
13532
36936
1239
14
38190
3131
18465
617
456
22669
391
471
219
2224
3293
595
1658
920
315
1541
185
617
1738
14167
19
5
40
144
2147
435
2326
406
1846
1727
9031
84121
52552
31569
14044
2.9%
3.8%
–
3.0%
11.0%
1.9%
-1.1%
11.8%
3.2%
-6.5%
-1.0%
101.9%
-7.3%
2.3%
-0.5%
12.6%
-0.6%
5.9%
28.7%
-12.0%
11.8%
-0.1%
4.1%
–
–
–
-21.1%
18.8%
-19.9%
4.2%
5.3%
15.0%
-2.0%
6.0%
3.5%
3.2%
4.0%
4.1%
2006-16
Share
2017
12.9% 43.9%
21.4%
1.5%
◆
–
13.1% 45.4%
57.3%
3.7%
6.6% 22.0%
15.8%
0.7%
-2.3%
0.5%
7.9% 26.9%
14.4%
0.5%
35.8%
0.6%
24.2%
0.3%
13.4%
2.6%
2.2%
3.9%
0.1%
0.7%
51.4%
2.0%
19.7%
1.1%
15.5%
0.4%
16.0%
1.8%
8.7%
0.2%
9.3%
0.7%
15.7%
2.1%
10.0% 16.8%
◆
–
◆
–
◆
15.8%
13.4%
0.2%
6.9%
2.6%
22.0%
0.5%
48.1%
2.8%
25.1%
0.5%
33.9%
2.2%
28.5%
2.1%
20.1% 10.7%
11.4% 100.0%
12.2% 62.5%
10.1% 37.5%
10.0% 16.7%
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Source: Includes data from F.O. Lichts; Strategie grains;
Notes: Consumption of fuel ethanol and biodiesel is included in oil consumption tables. US Energy Information Administration (March 2018).
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
World biofuels production
Million tonnes oil equivalent
100
Rest of World
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
Ethanol 2007
Ethanol 2017
Biodiesel 2007
Biodiesel 2017
40
80
30
60
20
40
10
20
07
09
11
13
15
17
0
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Rest of World
0
World biofuels production increased by 3.5% in 2017, well below the 10-year average of 11.4%, but the fastest for three years. The US provided the largest increment
(950 thousand tonnes of oil equivalent, or ktoe). By fuel type, global ethanol production grew at a similar rate of 3.3%, and contributing over 60% to total biofuels growth.
Biodiesel production rose by 4%, driven mainly by growth in Argentina, Brazil and Spain.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
45
Electricity
Electricity generation*
Growth rate per annum
Terawatt-hours
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
4431.8 4390.1 4206.5 4394.3 4363.4 4310.6 4330.3
637.1
638.4
614.0
606.9
638.3
636.5
662.5
263.2
269.3
267.8
275.6
292.1
296.4
297.1
5332.2 5297.8 5088.3 5276.7 5293.8 5243.5 5289.9
113.5
121.9
122.3
126.0
129.5
136.0
139.4
445.1
462.9
466.2
515.8
531.8
552.5
570.8
58.3
59.7
59.7
61.3
65.2
69.7
73.0
60.5
61.3
63.2
64.7
66.2
67.7
69.8
17.3
18.6
18.3
19.5
20.5
22.8
23.3
29.9
32.5
32.9
35.9
38.8
41.0
43.3
7.7
7.7
7.8
8.5
8.8
9.1
9.5
113.7
119.3
124.8
116.7
122.9
127.9
130.0
188.5
188.1
188.0
192.3
198.2
205.3
209.3
1034.7 1072.1 1083.3 1140.7 1181.8 1232.1 1268.5
64.9
66.9
69.1
71.1
65.9
72.4
68.0
88.8
84.9
91.2
95.2
90.2
82.9
83.5
88.0
83.5
82.3
85.9
87.6
87.6
87.1
81.7
77.9
72.5
81.1
73.7
70.5
71.4
569.8
573.8
535.9
569.3
565.0
564.5
573.8
640.6
640.7
595.6
633.1
613.1
630.1
638.7
63.5
63.7
61.4
57.4
59.4
61.0
57.2
40.0
40.0
35.9
37.4
36.0
34.6
30.3
313.9
319.1
292.6
302.1
302.6
299.3
289.8
105.2
108.2
113.5
118.1
113.0
102.5
100.9
137.2
142.1
131.8
123.6
127.6
147.7
134.0
159.3
155.3
151.7
157.7
163.5
162.1
164.6
47.3
46.0
50.2
54.1
52.5
46.6
51.7
61.7
65.0
58.0
61.0
62.2
59.0
58.9
305.1
313.8
296.3
300.4
291.8
297.6
285.3
148.7
149.7
136.7
148.3
151.2
166.3
153.2
69.4
70.5
70.0
69.7
66.2
71.6
71.9
191.6
198.4
194.8
211.2
229.4
239.5
240.2
396.8
388.9
376.8
382.1
368.0
363.9
358.3
296.8
309.3
306.4
320.0
307.2
295.4
309.2
3870.1 3897.8 3722.8 3878.6 3826.0 3855.1 3827.8
21.8
21.6
18.9
18.7
20.3
23.0
23.4
31.8
35.1
30.4
34.9
32.2
30.8
31.5
76.6
80.3
78.7
82.6
86.6
90.6
92.6
1018.7 1040.0
993.1 1038.0 1054.9 1069.3 1059.1
14.9
15.0
16.0
16.7
17.2
17.8
18.9
196.3
192.6
173.6
188.8
194.9
198.9
194.4
49.0
49.4
50.0
51.7
52.4
52.5
54.2
44.1
39.7
39.1
41.1
44.6
46.0
43.3
1453.2 1473.8 1399.8 1472.6 1503.1 1528.9 1517.3
203.1
210.5
221.8
235.7
235.6
248.8
258.9
32.3
35.3
41.3
41.7
42.2
47.8
62.1
55.1
55.8
55.3
58.5
59.3
63.0
61.4
48.8
51.7
53.2
57.1
57.5
62.7
61.0
14.4
16.0
18.4
19.8
21.9
25.0
26.2
19.5
21.6
24.2
28.1
30.7
34.8
34.7
204.4
216.4
229.2
251.4
262.2
284.7
299.3
78.8
80.5
85.7
93.9
99.1
106.2
110.0
80.9
87.1
90.7
98.7
100.8
97.0
88.3
737.3
775.0
819.8
885.0
909.3
969.9 1001.8
37.3
40.2
43.1
45.7
53.1
57.4
59.9
119.9
128.8
134.3
144.4
149.6
162.8
165.1
20.3
21.0
21.7
23.7
25.4
27.7
28.1
263.5
258.3
249.6
259.6
262.5
257.9
256.1
169.5
174.1
179.9
196.9
197.4
213.6
232.1
610.5
622.4
628.5
670.4
688.0
719.4
741.3
243.2
245.4
249.9
251.0
256.3
250.7
249.6
31.0
34.2
37.2
40.8
44.2
48.7
54.4
3281.6 3495.8 3714.7 4207.2 4713.0 4987.6 5431.6
38.9
38.0
38.7
38.4
39.1
38.8
39.2
796.3
828.4
879.7
937.5 1034.0 1091.8 1146.1
142.4
149.4
156.8
169.8
183.4
200.3
216.2
1180.1 1183.7 1114.0 1156.0 1104.2 1106.9 1087.8
103.6
106.9
111.3
120.1
120.9
127.3
138.3
43.8
43.8
43.4
44.9
44.4
44.3
43.3
98.1
96.2
97.1
100.0
99.9
99.0
102.2
59.6
60.8
61.9
67.7
69.2
72.9
75.3
41.1
41.7
41.8
45.4
46.0
46.9
48.0
425.4
442.6
452.4
495.0
517.6
531.2
537.2
9.9
10.0
10.0
10.8
11.6
11.9
12.0
243.1
238.3
230.0
247.1
252.2
250.4
252.4
142.5
145.4
145.9
157.6
153.3
169.0
168.6
64.1
71.0
80.6
91.7
101.5
115.1
124.5
63.7
66.7
65.4
72.8
76.9
78.3
84.5
7008.6 7298.3 7530.9 8253.7 8867.7 9271.1 9811.0
20046.5 20437.2 20273.3 21577.7 22269.8 22820.0 23457.6
10993.6 11000.9 10563.7 10994.0 10944.1 10951.9 10947.8
9052.9 9436.3 9709.6 10583.7 11325.6 11868.1 12509.9
3384.3 3388.7 3224.4 3364.7 3299.2 3295.4 3269.6
4363.3
660.4
303.3
5327.1
138.6
590.5
71.6
72.7
24.3
45.5
9.9
128.3
206.6
1288.2
65.1
72.7
86.0
68.2
564.2
626.7
50.5
29.4
279.8
103.4
142.0
159.1
52.8
63.3
278.8
153.7
73.3
252.0
338.1
296.3
3755.1
24.7
34.7
94.6
1064.2
20.1
182.8
55.6
44.1
1520.9
275.6
71.2
61.3
65.1
29.1
38.7
333.7
116.5
84.7
1076.1
64.2
171.2
29.3
254.8
245.7
765.2
247.6
57.5
5649.6
39.9
1262.2
228.6
1062.7
143.6
43.6
107.3
77.3
49.3
540.4
12.9
260.0
173.8
141.3
89.0
10186.4
23918.8
10891.7
13027.1
3187.3
4348.7
663.7
310.3
5322.7
145.4
581.2
74.5
75.0
26.0
48.3
10.3
123.8
213.2
1297.7
64.9
69.8
83.9
68.8
570.3
646.9
51.9
30.3
283.0
110.1
144.5
164.9
52.4
66.3
281.0
162.1
69.4
261.8
338.9
297.3
3818.7
24.7
34.2
91.6
1067.5
21.5
163.7
57.6
43.3
1504.2
280.2
75.3
64.2
68.3
32.8
41.5
359.6
127.4
80.5
1129.9
68.8
181.8
30.3
250.1
252.4
783.6
254.3
61.8
5814.6
38.0
1319.0
234.0
1030.1
147.2
44.3
110.5
82.4
50.3
547.8
13.2
258.2
177.8
157.9
91.4
10432.8
24289.5
10930.3
13359.2
3235.4
4347.9
664.6
320.3
5332.9
147.2
578.9
77.7
74.4
27.3
51.7
10.0
111.8
224.4
1303.5
67.9
85.5
83.3
68.8
556.2
649.1
51.4
31.9
289.8
115.2
149.0
166.6
60.3
65.1
274.6
156.1
67.4
274.4
339.4
305.7
3857.8
25.0
33.6
94.6
1091.0
22.6
164.6
58.3
43.0
1532.6
286.1
86.3
67.2
70.1
34.2
42.3
370.4
129.6
78.8
1165.1
71.0
188.2
30.7
252.7
255.4
798.0
259.4
70.3
6133.2
38.3
1421.5
248.6
1002.3
159.3
43.9
118.6
90.8
51.6
561.0
14.4
264.1
179.7
174.6
108.9
10940.3
24930.2
10975.2
13954.9
3254.6
4281.8
693.4
315.0
5290.2
147.0
590.9
78.6
75.3
28.0
52.5
10.3
117.6
215.5
1315.8
70.1
86.4
87.0
67.9
554.1
654.2
55.1
32.9
295.4
116.6
148.7
170.3
60.0
63.6
275.4
163.9
63.2
295.5
335.9
305.0
3901.3
24.3
34.3
103.0
1091.2
22.8
157.1
60.1
46.6
1539.5
304.4
93.3
68.3
72.6
35.9
43.8
375.6
135.8
81.3
1210.9
75.2
193.2
31.6
255.1
275.6
830.7
259.4
74.7
6495.1
37.0
1497.0
260.4
1020.0
162.3
44.3
123.9
94.4
52.4
571.7
14.9
270.3
176.6
190.1
118.3
11462.9
25551.3
11013.2
14538.1
3286.6
-1.3%
4.6%
-1.4%
-0.5%
0.2%
2.4%
1.4%
1.4%
2.9%
1.9%
2.6%
5.6%
-3.7%
1.2%
3.6%
1.3%
4.8%
-1.0%
-0.1%
1.1%
7.4%
3.6%
2.2%
1.5%
0.1%
2.5%
-0.1%
-2.0%
0.6%
5.3%
-6.1%
8.0%
-0.8%
2007
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2008
2009
*Based on gross output.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
46
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
2010
2011
2012
◆
1.4%
-2.3%
2.6%
9.1%
0.3%
1.2%
-4.3%
3.3%
8.7%
0.7%
6.7%
8.3%
1.9%
3.8%
5.4%
3.9%
1.7%
5.1%
3.4%
4.2%
6.2%
2.9%
3.3%
1.2%
8.2%
4.4%
0.3%
6.6%
6.2%
-3.0%
5.6%
5.0%
2.0%
2.2%
1.1%
4.8%
4.2%
1.9%
2.2%
4.0%
2.6%
-1.5%
9.2%
8.9%
5.1%
2.8%
0.6%
4.5%
1.3%
2006-16
◆
0.8%
2.3%
0.3%
2.6%
3.3%
3.6%
2.3%
6.1%
6.6%
3.4%
0.1%
2.1%
2.8%
0.5%
◆
-0.1%
-1.8%
-0.3%
0.1%
-1.7%
-1.2%
-0.8%
1.5%
2.1%
0.3%
2.1%
0.4%
-0.9%
0.9%
0.3%
4.5%
-1.6%
◆
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
2.8%
1.0%
5.2%
-1.6%
1.4%
-0.1%
0.8%
4.0%
10.9%
2.6%
3.9%
9.7%
10.7%
6.6%
6.9%
0.4%
5.4%
7.3%
5.4%
4.2%
◆
4.4%
3.1%
0.9%
9.1%
7.9%
-0.1%
6.7%
6.4%
-1.5%
4.8%
0.1%
2.1%
4.8%
2.7%
3.4%
4.2%
1.2%
2.8%
11.7%
6.1%
5.4%
2.7%
0.2%
5.2%
-0.4%
Share
2017
16.8%
2.7%
1.2%
20.7%
0.6%
2.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
◆
0.5%
0.8%
5.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
2.2%
2.6%
0.2%
0.1%
1.2%
0.5%
0.6%
0.7%
0.2%
0.2%
1.1%
0.6%
0.2%
1.2%
1.3%
1.2%
15.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.4%
4.3%
0.1%
0.6%
0.2%
0.2%
6.0%
1.2%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
1.5%
0.5%
0.3%
4.7%
0.3%
0.8%
0.1%
1.0%
1.1%
3.3%
1.0%
0.3%
25.4%
0.1%
5.9%
1.0%
4.0%
0.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.4%
0.2%
2.2%
0.1%
1.1%
0.7%
0.7%
0.5%
44.9%
100.0%
43.1%
56.9%
12.9%
Regional electricity generation by fuel 2017
Percentage
Oil
Natural gas
Coal
Nuclear
Hydroelectricity
Renewables
Other (includes sources not specified elsewhere
e.g. pumped hydro, non-renewable waste and
statistical differences)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
0
Natural gas is the dominant fuel used for power generation in North America, CIS, the Middle East and Africa. South and Central America gets more than half of its power
from hydroelectricity, with a share far higher than any other region. In Europe, nuclear energy is the top source of electricity, but only just, as the shares of nuclear, coal,
natural gas and renewables are all in a narrow range of 18-22%.
Share of global electricity generation by fuel
Percentage
Hydroelectricity
Nuclear energy
Renewables
Oil
Coal
Natural gas
50
Other
40
30
20
10
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
01
03
05
07
09
11
13
15
0
17
Coal remains the world’s dominant source of power, with a share of 38.1% in 2017, almost as much as natural gas (23.2%) and hydroelectricity (15.9%) combined, which
sit in second and third positions. Renewables’ share of power generation was 8.4% in 2017, having risen 6.1% percentage points since 2007. Over the same period,
nuclear’s share declined by 3.4 percentage points while coal lost 3.1 percentage points.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
47
Electricity generation by fuel*
2016
Terawatt-hours
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Other S. & C. America
Total S. & C. America
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iran
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
EU
Oil
Natural
Gas
26.0
4.3
33.5
63.8
20.7
14.9
106.1
141.7
5.8
12.1
1.3
2.3
16.8
1.9
1.8
21.5
63.6
2.1
25.2
1.6
3.3
32.1
39.7
156.6
1.6
130.6
328.5
34.8
†
51.0
85.9
6.0
10.4
10.0
23.3
82.0
1.5
17.7
10.9
0.5
0.7
79.8
242.8
958.4
226.6
731.8
59.3
1482.1
68.4
192.0
1742.5
74.4
56.5
108.3
239.2
81.3
126.1
52.6
7.8
52.8
89.2
143.4
150.4
703.7
20.0
529.4
9.8
127.5
686.7
223.5
213.7
127.7
215.8
780.7
137.5
1.7
160.8
300.0
48.9
188.3
74.0
59.3
397.2
63.7
123.1
85.6
126.1
45.0
185.8
1397.0
5849.7
3056.4
2793.3
607.2
2017
Coal
Nuclear
energy
Hydro
electric
Renewables
Other‡
Total
1346.2
65.8
34.4
1446.4
1.9
26.1
51.9
80.0
261.7
38.4
36.7
132.9
37.4
92.3
30.7
230.8
861.0
60.6
149.3
61.2
3.8
274.8
0.5
–
–
24.4
24.9
–
223.2
26.5
249.7
162.3
4163.6
1090.4
135.4
330.9
70.9
235.6
120.0
37.1
64.5
103.5
6514.2
9451.0
3007.2
6443.8
719.4
848.1
96.4
10.6
955.0
8.4
15.9
–
24.3
84.6
–
4.0
–
58.6
–
71.7
643.8
862.7
–
196.6
81.0
2.4
279.9
6.6
–
–
–
6.6
–
15.9
–
15.9
–
213.3
37.9
–
17.7
–
162.0
31.7
–
–
5.8
468.3
2612.8
1970.4
642.4
839.9
263.8
387.1
30.7
681.6
38.3
380.9
272.1
691.3
20.5
42.4
0.1
2.1
36.4
67.2
5.4
471.5
645.7
11.6
184.8
7.7
44.8
248.9
15.4
–
–
4.7
20.2
13.3
0.7
105.9
119.9
17.8
1153.3
128.4
19.4
80.0
21.8
2.8
6.6
3.5
63.9
131.0
1628.5
4036.1
1406.8
2629.2
350.0
367.4
42.3
18.0
427.7
3.0
84.6
38.9
126.4
169.1
65.6
14.6
20.7
68.2
23.8
77.8
197.6
637.4
0.4
1.1
1.6
0.4
3.4
0.5
0.1
0.3
3.4
4.3
2.6
7.9
12.3
22.9
24.1
360.9
80.7
11.3
83.1
1.4
13.9
4.4
12.5
0.3
29.8
622.4
1844.6
1193.7
651.0
602.5
14.4
0.4
1.1
15.8
0.4
–
0.1
0.6
26.0
5.0
5.9
0.8
4.4
–
8.5
33.0
83.7
–
4.7
1.7
0.3
6.6
–
–
–
†
†
–
3.3
0.5
3.8
0.2
43.5
0.1
†
11.5
–
5.8
4.9
–
–
0.9
66.9
177.5
114.2
63.3
76.2
4347.9
664.6
320.3
5332.9
147.2
578.9
577.4
1303.5
649.1
289.8
115.2
166.6
274.6
274.4
339.4
1748.6
3857.8
94.6
1091.0
164.6
182.4
1532.6
286.1
370.4
129.6
379.0
1165.1
188.2
252.7
357.1
798.0
259.4
6133.2
1421.5
248.6
1002.3
159.3
561.0
264.1
179.7
174.6
536.7
10940.3
24930.2
10975.2
13954.9
3254.6
*Based on gross output.
†Less than 0.05.
‡Includes sources not specified elsewhere e.g. pumped hydro, non-renewable waste and statistical discrepancies.
48
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Oil
Natural
Gas
22.7
4.3
40.8
67.7
11.1
17.2
90.8
119.2
5.7
9.0
1.1
1.9
17.7
2.0
2.2
22.1
61.6
2.0
15.8
1.3
3.8
22.9
34.3
154.3
1.6
126.1
316.3
27.2
†
54.2
81.5
6.3
14.9
10.3
23.5
54.8
1.6
12.4
12.1
0.3
0.8
76.9
213.9
883.0
196.1
686.9
57.2
1368.7
73.4
181.1
1623.2
82.8
65.4
94.7
242.8
86.0
144.6
56.4
9.8
63.1
108.2
133.3
173.2
774.6
25.1
529.9
7.3
129.8
692.0
245.5
221.1
133.7
238.5
838.8
149.9
1.9
173.3
325.1
54.9
196.2
75.5
53.2
401.5
61.9
120.8
93.8
121.0
44.4
195.6
1418.7
5915.3
3016.2
2899.1
658.5
Coal
Nuclear
energy
Hydro
electric
Renewables
Other‡
Total
1314.0
76.1
31.0
1421.1
1.7
25.2
42.4
69.4
242.2
32.8
31.4
134.1
45.1
97.6
22.6
235.6
841.3
64.3
153.3
50.6
3.8
272.1
0.5
–
–
22.3
22.7
–
223.8
27.1
250.9
159.1
4360.9
1141.4
152.3
342.5
72.5
264.4
126.4
35.7
74.3
116.6
6846.0
9723.4
2992.0
6731.5
693.8
847.3
96.7
10.9
954.9
6.3
15.8
–
22.0
75.9
–
5.3
–
58.1
–
70.3
641.0
850.7
–
203.1
85.6
2.6
291.3
7.1
–
–
–
7.1
–
15.8
–
15.8
–
248.3
37.4
–
29.1
–
148.4
22.4
–
–
8.1
493.7
2635.6
1956.1
679.5
830.5
296.5
396.9
31.7
725.1
41.6
369.5
306.4
717.4
19.7
36.3
0.1
2.6
18.5
58.4
5.9
434.7
576.2
11.2
183.3
8.7
47.5
250.6
16.4
–
–
3.6
20.0
13.4
0.9
114.2
128.5
13.7
1155.8
135.6
18.4
79.2
24.8
3.0
5.4
4.7
70.2
131.4
1642.2
4059.9
1391.1
2668.8
299.7
418.9
45.6
19.6
484.1
3.0
97.9
43.2
144.1
198.1
68.4
17.5
21.2
69.5
29.4
92.9
218.2
715.1
0.4
1.2
1.7
0.5
3.8
0.6
0.1
0.5
4.7
6.0
2.7
8.7
13.1
24.5
25.2
471.7
96.4
13.0
98.9
1.6
16.0
5.2
14.8
0.4
30.7
773.9
2151.5
1347.7
803.9
673.3
13.6
0.5
–
14.1
0.5
–
0.4
0.9
26.6
4.5
4.8
0.8
3.5
–
8.6
33.2
81.9
–
4.7
1.9
0.3
6.8
–
–
–
†
†
–
4.1
0.4
4.5
0.2
47.4
0.3
†
14.1
–
6.7
4.9
–
–
0.7
74.4
182.6
114.2
68.4
73.6
4281.8
693.4
315.0
5290.2
147.0
590.9
577.9
1315.8
654.2
295.4
116.6
170.3
275.4
295.5
335.9
1758.0
3901.3
103.0
1091.2
157.1
188.2
1539.5
304.4
375.6
135.8
395.2
1210.9
193.2
255.1
382.4
830.7
259.4
6495.1
1497.0
260.4
1020.0
162.3
571.7
270.3
176.6
190.1
559.9
11462.9
25551.3
11013.2
14538.1
3286.6
CO2
Carbon
Carbon dioxide emissions
Growth rate per annum
Million tonnes of carbon dioxide
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe
Total Europe
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Other CIS
Total CIS
Iraq
Iran
Israel
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Morocco
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: OECD
Non-OECD
European Union
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
5881.4
551.6
428.9
6861.9
156.7
351.4
76.5
59.6
26.8
30.7
26.0
164.0
214.1
1105.8
68.0
139.6
127.4
67.6
371.2
807.2
109.2
55.6
460.9
234.1
37.4
317.0
59.2
96.6
378.6
59.1
40.3
273.0
568.4
418.2
4688.8
29.9
57.1
175.5
1528.1
60.8
315.4
113.9
22.6
2303.3
79.0
490.5
70.4
73.1
35.4
53.8
392.5
185.7
149.2
1529.5
85.4
160.2
43.8
411.8
265.0
966.1
396.8
39.7
7214.8
85.7
1365.5
386.5
1266.0
190.5
36.0
142.0
71.8
151.4
545.4
13.8
276.3
236.9
79.2
125.1
12623.2
30078.7
13629.7
16449.0
4222.6
5704.0
545.9
431.6
6681.6
160.2
374.9
77.4
69.5
27.3
34.3
26.3
172.2
208.8
1150.9
68.5
141.6
120.0
60.2
371.1
806.5
104.1
54.5
448.1
231.2
36.3
319.2
57.5
93.9
352.4
57.4
43.0
276.9
560.2
414.0
4616.6
29.6
59.8
189.4
1554.3
61.5
317.3
115.9
24.4
2352.3
82.4
514.0
71.6
79.6
42.3
47.6
424.4
211.5
154.8
1628.3
90.8
170.5
48.6
447.5
277.9
1035.4
407.1
43.0
7351.8
79.2
1466.9
376.0
1273.1
197.8
37.2
146.4
74.0
163.4
556.8
12.6
258.9
238.1
104.3
130.3
12916.9
30381.8
13413.6
16968.3
4144.0
5295.8
502.1
433.0
6230.9
152.7
352.1
74.3
64.7
27.7
34.1
25.1
169.9
203.6
1104.2
62.6
129.0
111.3
57.7
356.2
751.0
100.5
48.2
405.1
222.8
36.8
305.0
56.9
79.9
314.6
53.9
43.6
276.1
513.0
386.5
4310.5
25.9
57.6
170.6
1448.5
57.3
271.8
97.7
23.9
2153.4
93.2
527.7
68.4
81.2
42.1
47.8
443.2
205.4
155.3
1664.4
95.8
177.2
45.2
446.7
279.8
1044.6
402.1
47.7
7680.7
86.5
1594.4
387.8
1110.7
190.4
34.2
146.0
74.6
176.7
559.0
13.2
248.1
237.1
102.4
114.7
13206.3
29714.2
12506.8
17207.4
3838.6
5508.3
525.7
442.4
6476.4
166.2
400.3
76.1
71.8
31.9
38.3
26.8
168.3
207.7
1187.3
67.8
137.1
115.7
65.7
361.5
779.9
93.6
49.0
410.9
232.5
37.5
323.1
51.5
77.4
299.0
57.0
41.3
278.6
529.0
398.8
4406.9
24.8
60.5
183.9
1489.8
65.2
286.9
97.5
23.1
2231.7
99.1
530.0
71.6
87.0
48.9
58.5
485.1
214.9
150.8
1745.8
94.2
188.8
49.1
449.3
297.1
1078.5
397.6
50.8
8104.9
88.4
1661.8
427.0
1182.4
216.5
34.3
145.7
80.1
185.3
609.8
13.1
261.3
249.3
121.9
117.2
13947.5
31074.2
12970.7
18103.5
3933.7
5374.7
532.1
465.4
6372.2
169.2
426.4
87.0
70.6
32.7
42.1
26.7
169.3
213.6
1237.6
65.2
123.2
111.2
56.8
335.9
761.0
93.0
48.6
401.0
224.6
36.7
322.9
51.3
83.2
308.3
53.5
39.4
301.5
494.2
399.5
4311.0
28.5
57.6
202.5
1555.8
67.8
303.0
100.2
24.1
2339.4
104.0
542.3
73.1
85.9
52.3
65.5
501.5
222.0
143.9
1790.5
100.6
189.5
52.9
440.7
288.2
1072.0
403.5
55.0
8792.3
92.1
1737.2
478.7
1192.1
213.8
33.7
144.1
80.8
192.7
645.6
14.8
271.4
254.2
135.0
110.8
14847.8
31970.5
12815.3
19155.1
3808.6
5168.6
513.6
473.7
6156.0
175.6
449.7
89.4
79.9
34.0
43.2
26.1
180.1
210.9
1288.8
62.6
118.8
106.7
50.3
337.7
770.7
88.1
44.6
381.5
216.3
36.5
307.5
50.6
80.3
306.5
50.8
40.7
316.9
510.9
374.9
4252.7
29.6
58.8
209.7
1571.0
74.4
296.7
98.4
28.5
2367.1
111.1
545.6
78.9
96.0
57.6
77.0
525.5
233.1
134.2
1859.0
108.9
200.4
53.9
435.2
309.3
1107.8
396.2
60.3
8966.3
88.8
1850.5
510.8
1284.5
226.6
35.2
145.5
83.4
192.0
644.1
16.1
266.1
271.7
132.7
115.7
15286.6
32317.8
12652.8
19665.0
3742.0
5309.1
529.1
474.0
6312.2
182.5
489.0
91.1
83.3
36.2
44.7
27.4
177.1
207.9
1339.2
62.8
119.5
104.9
50.8
337.7
795.1
79.8
42.0
350.9
210.9
36.5
310.1
49.0
68.7
275.3
49.0
42.8
305.5
497.4
370.4
4159.1
30.2
59.3
211.0
1524.4
67.6
281.2
97.4
26.8
2297.9
119.5
575.4
72.1
100.5
65.6
82.6
534.3
247.9
130.5
1928.4
115.4
198.1
54.0
437.0
328.4
1132.9
392.3
61.5
9204.2
91.6
1930.9
524.2
1274.6
232.8
34.8
145.5
92.2
192.8
646.5
13.9
266.2
275.1
140.8
112.4
15632.3
32802.0
12717.9
20084.1
3657.5
5360.1
538.0
461.7
6359.8
183.8
511.9
88.4
88.0
38.1
45.8
26.8
168.0
211.2
1362.1
58.8
111.9
99.2
45.8
304.2
749.4
76.2
40.8
325.9
199.7
35.9
293.2
48.9
69.4
272.9
48.0
38.1
337.9
455.7
353.9
3965.9
31.0
56.5
212.5
1533.3
74.1
241.5
101.2
27.3
2277.5
115.6
602.0
68.0
89.7
65.2
91.6
570.4
244.8
132.3
1979.5
123.6
201.6
55.9
440.5
348.6
1170.2
399.4
65.3
9206.5
89.8
2084.6
476.5
1231.8
241.0
35.0
152.3
97.6
192.6
644.4
16.9
271.8
282.2
157.5
126.4
15771.7
32886.8
12533.6
20353.2
3445.5
5214.4
529.9
457.4
6201.7
187.0
497.2
88.9
90.9
37.3
48.3
26.3
162.4
220.5
1358.9
61.2
118.7
102.9
44.3
309.2
753.5
73.7
43.8
339.1
207.4
36.0
293.0
53.5
70.2
288.9
46.7
38.9
346.8
435.7
364.1
4027.5
33.8
52.2
205.8
1495.5
82.4
188.9
107.3
29.2
2195.1
116.2
595.5
71.0
97.8
69.0
103.8
587.1
265.2
125.1
2030.6
128.6
204.5
56.7
420.4
357.4
1167.7
407.1
77.7
9163.2
90.6
2146.3
485.2
1196.9
245.7
35.3
160.6
106.6
204.4
655.5
19.2
267.7
290.1
183.5
134.9
15870.4
32851.9
12411.1
20440.8
3488.0
5129.5
543.0
488.7
6161.3
187.3
462.1
94.2
91.5
35.1
52.1
24.0
154.0
227.0
1327.3
61.5
119.6
104.5
46.9
314.8
765.4
71.0
45.0
339.7
210.9
35.2
304.3
54.8
69.3
283.2
48.5
37.4
365.6
410.4
372.9
4060.6
33.3
52.8
207.7
1510.5
83.6
200.2
94.5
29.7
2212.3
131.7
598.6
69.9
99.1
70.4
104.7
590.8
272.4
120.2
2057.9
128.2
212.1
57.0
425.1
362.9
1185.2
407.1
79.6
9113.6
92.8
2251.0
486.0
1180.5
252.1
35.2
176.7
111.7
218.6
665.2
20.2
274.6
294.0
194.9
159.2
16013.0
33017.6
12398.4
20619.3
3499.3
5087.7
560.0
473.4
6121.1
183.7
466.8
92.3
84.7
34.0
50.9
23.8
147.0
226.6
1309.8
64.2
122.1
103.9
45.0
320.3
763.8
74.9
47.7
344.0
209.1
35.3
308.6
59.8
74.1
301.9
48.0
38.4
410.9
398.2
382.0
4152.2
32.2
53.8
218.5
1525.3
79.1
179.4
95.3
29.8
2213.3
140.8
633.7
71.4
99.4
70.5
114.8
594.7
267.3
119.7
2112.3
128.1
217.3
58.5
415.6
385.3
1204.9
406.0
82.8
9232.6
99.0
2344.2
511.5
1176.6
255.8
37.0
189.2
119.9
226.7
679.7
21.4
284.5
298.8
196.0
168.7
16330.4
33444.0
12448.4
20995.5
3541.7
-0.5%
3.4%
-2.9%
-0.4%
-1.7%
1.3%
-1.7%
-7.1%
-2.9%
-2.1%
-0.7%
-4.3%
0.1%
-1.0%
4.8%
2.4%
-0.3%
-3.8%
2.0%
0.1%
5.8%
6.4%
1.5%
-0.6%
0.5%
1.7%
9.3%
7.3%
6.9%
-0.8%
2.9%
12.7%
-2.7%
2.7%
2.5%
-3.1%
2.1%
5.4%
1.3%
-5.1%
-10.1%
1.1%
0.7%
0.3%
7.2%
6.1%
2.3%
0.6%
0.5%
9.9%
0.9%
-1.6%
-0.2%
2.9%
0.2%
2.7%
3.0%
-2.0%
6.5%
1.9%
-1.2%
0.3%
1.4%
-0.9%
2.7%
3.2%
3.7%
4.2%
2.9%
6.7%
0.3%
-0.7%
0.8%
2.3%
-1.5%
-1.6%
-1.9%
-3.9%
-1.9%
-0.9%
-3.9%
-2.4%
-3.2%
-1.1%
-0.6%
-0.5%
-1.1%
-3.4%
-2.5%
-2.3%
-1.7%
3.9%
-3.4%
-1.1%
-1.5%
◆
4.2%
1.6%
7.0%
4.4%
5.5%
-0.1%
1.7%
5.4%
7.4%
7.7%
4.0%
2.5%
6.1%
3.9%
1.9%
0.9%
6.2%
2.3%
1.6%
0.7%
2.1%
1.5%
◆
-1.0%
2.6%
-0.2%
4.5%
-4.6%
-1.1%
4.0%
-0.3%
5.7%
2.7%
0.4%
2.8%
7.0%
9.4%
4.7%
4.9%
-1.7%
3.6%
4.7%
3.4%
2.5%
0.6%
3.8%
2.5%
0.4%
7.7%
3.2%
1.5%
6.0%
3.1%
-0.6%
2.9%
-0.5%
3.1%
5.2%
4.5%
2.5%
4.5%
◆
2.7%
10.4%
1.9%
3.1%
1.3%
-0.8%
2.9%
-2.0%
Share
2017
15.2%
1.7%
1.4%
18.3%
0.5%
1.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.4%
0.7%
3.9%
0.2%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
1.0%
2.3%
0.2%
0.1%
1.0%
0.6%
0.1%
0.9%
0.2%
0.2%
0.9%
0.1%
0.1%
1.2%
1.2%
1.1%
12.4%
0.1%
0.2%
0.7%
4.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.3%
0.1%
6.6%
0.4%
1.9%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
1.8%
0.8%
0.4%
6.3%
0.4%
0.6%
0.2%
1.2%
1.2%
3.6%
1.2%
0.2%
27.6%
0.3%
7.0%
1.5%
3.5%
0.8%
0.1%
0.6%
0.4%
0.7%
2.0%
0.1%
0.9%
0.9%
0.6%
0.5%
48.8%
100.0%
37.2%
62.8%
10.6%
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: The carbon emissions above reflect only those through consumption of oil, gas and coal for combustion related activities, and are based on ‘Default CO2 Emissions Factors for
Combustion’ listed by the IPCC in its Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006). This does not allow for any carbon that is sequestered, for other sources of carbon emissions,
or for emissions of other greenhouse gases. Our data is therefore not comparable to official national emissions data.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
49
Key materials for the changing energy system
Cobalt production
Mine production
Growth rate per annum
Thousand tonnes
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
Australia
Canada
DR Congo
Cuba
Madagascar
Morocco
New Caledonia
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Russian Federation
South Africa
Zambia
Rest of World
World
4.7
8.7
25.4
4.5
–
1.8
2.3
–
1.0
6.3
0.6
4.7
7.3
67.3
4.8
9.0
42.5
4.0
–
1.7
2.1
–
1.2
6.2
0.6
4.6
7.0
83.6
4.7
3.9
56.1
4.6
–
2.6
2.0
–
1.4
6.1
0.6
5.9
6.2
94.1
3.9
4.6
84.0
4.8
0.2
3.1
2.9
–
2.1
6.2
1.8
8.6
7.3
129.6
3.9
6.8
99.5
5.1
0.5
2.2
3.1
–
2.0
6.1
1.6
7.7
8.2
146.7
5.9
6.7
86.4
4.9
0.6
2.0
2.7
0.5
2.7
6.3
2.5
5.4
7.7
134.3
6.4
7.2
76.6
4.2
2.2
2.0
3.2
1.0
2.8
6.3
3.0
5.9
8.2
129.0
6.2
6.9
76.5
3.7
3.1
2.2
4.0
2.1
4.6
6.3
3.0
4.6
8.3
131.5
5.7
7.5
84.4
4.3
3.7
2.6
3.7
2.5
4.3
6.2
3.0
3.0
7.7
138.6
5.1
7.0
69.0
4.3
3.5
2.7
3.4
2.2
4.0
5.5
2.3
5.0
5.5
119.5
4.7
6.4
90.3
4.1
3.1
2.5
2.8
3.2
4.2
5.6
2.5
2.7
5.4
137.5
-8.8%
-8.1%
31.2%
-2.3%
-10.1%
-7.3%
-17.2%
46.5%
4.8%
2.1%
9.0%
-46.5%
-2.1%
15.4%
◆
◆Less
than 0.05%.
-0.2%
9.8%
-2.7%
–
0.5%
7.6%
–
16.2%
-1.3%
14.4%
0.7%
-0.4%
6%
Share
2017
3.4%
4.6%
65.7%
3.0%
2.3%
1.8%
2.0%
2.3%
3.1%
4.1%
1.8%
1.9%
3.9%
100%
Sources: includes data from US Geological Survey, British Geological Survey © UKRI and World Mining Data.
Lithium production
Mine production
Growth rate per annum
Thousand tonnes
of Lithium content
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Argentina
Australia
Brazil
Chile
China
Portugal
US
Zimbabwe
Rest of World
World
3.0
6.8
0.2
11.5
3.0
0.6
1.5
0.3
0.7
27.6
3.2
6.7
0.2
11.0
3.3
0.7
1.5
0.5
0.7
27.7
2.2
5.5
0.2
6.0
3.8
–
1.5
0.4
0.3
19.8
3.0
8.5
0.2
10.4
4.0
0.8
1.0
0.5
–
28.2
3.0
11.7
0.3
13.6
4.1
0.8
1.0
0.5
–
35.0
2.7
12.6
0.2
13.9
4.5
0.6
1.0
1.1
–
36.5
2.5
10.1
0.4
11.7
4.7
0.6
0.9
1.0
–
31.9
3.2
12.4
0.2
12.0
2.3
0.3
0.9
0.9
–
32.2
3.6
11.9
0.2
10.9
2.0
0.2
0.9
0.9
–
30.7
5.8
14.9
0.2
15.2
2.3
0.4
0.9
1.0
–
40.7
5.5
18.7
0.2
15.0
3.0
0.4
0.9
1.0
–
44.7
*Zero (not leap year adjusted). 2006-16
Share
2017
-4.9%
7.2%
26.2%
9.1%
–*
-1.9%
-1.0%
4.3%
30.8%
-2.0%
–*
2.3%
–*
-5.0%
–*
5.2%
– -100.0%
10.2%
5%
12.3%
41.8%
0.4%
33.6%
6.7%
0.9%
2.0%
2.2%
–
100%
2017
Sources: includes data from US Geological Survey, British Geological Survey © UKRI and World Mining Data.
Natural graphite production
Mine production
Growth rate per annum
Thousand tonnes
Brazil1
Canada
China
India2
Madagascar
Mexico
Mozambique
Russian Federation
Sri Lanka
Ukraine
Zimbabwe
Rest of World
Total World
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
Share
2017
77.2
28.0
800.0
170.8
5.4
9.9
–
14.0
9.6
10.6
5.4
36.9
1167.8
80.5
27.0
650.0
117.8
4.9
7.2
–
14.0
6.6
11.3
5.1
40.7
965.2
59.4
15.0
450.0
124.6
3.4
5.1
–
14.0
3.2
4.3
2.5
58.5
740.0
92.4
20.0
700.0
115.7
3.8
6.6
–
14.0
3.4
2.8
4.0
24.7
987.4
105.2
25.0
800.0
153.3
3.6
7.3
–
14.0
3.4
0.6
7.0
25.3
1144.7
88.1
24.0
820.0
134.7
2.9
7.5
–
14.0
4.2
4.6
6.0
49.8
1155.8
91.9
20.0
750.0
146.4
4.3
7.0
–
14.0
3.1
6.9
4.0
51.6
1099.3
87.0
30.0
780.0
116.7
5.3
9.2
–
14.0
3.1
13.8
7.0
37.1
1103.2
75.1
30.0
780.0
135.5
8.1
6.5
–
15.9
2.8
14.5
7.0
22.8
1098.2
72.0
30.0
780.0
151.8
9.2
3.8
–
19.4
3.1
14.6
6.0
21.6
1111.6
72.0
30.0
780.0
46.4
8.2
3.8
23.0
25.0
3.1
14.6
6.0
21.6
1033.8
–3
–3
–3
-69.4%
-10.6%
–3
–
29.2%
–3
–3
–3
–3
-6.7%
-0.6%
0.7%
0.8%
-0.7%
6.6%
-10.6%
–
3.3%
-6.0%
3.2%
-0.9%
-7.1%
0%
7.0%
2.9%
75.5%
4.5%
0.8%
0.4%
2.2%
2.4%
0.3%
1.4%
0.6%
2.1%
100%
Including
.
beneficiated and directly shipped material.
Run of the mine.
Zero (not leap year adjusted).
Sources: includes data from US Geological Survey, British Geological Survey © UKRI and World Mining Data.
1
2
3
Rare earth metals production
Mine production
Growth rate per annum
Thousand tonnes1
Australia
Brazil
China
India
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Thailand
US
Rest of World
World
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2006-16
Share
2017
–
0.6
120.0
†
0.4
2.7
–
–
–
123.8
–
0.5
125.0
†
0.1
2.5
–
–
–
128.1
–
0.2
129.0
†
†
1.9
4.0
–
–
135.1
–
0.1
89.2
–
0.4
1.5
5.6
–
0.2
97.0
2.2
0.1
93.8
–
0.4
1.4
3.1
–
0.2
101.3
3.2
1.6
93.8
–
0.1
2.1
0.1
3.0
0.2
104.2
1.3
0.3
93.8
0.3
0.2
1.4
0.1
5.5
0.1
103.0
6.2
–
105.0
1.7
0.2
2.1
1.9
5.4
–
122.6
11.9
0.9
105.0
1.0
0.3
2.3
0.8
5.9
0.3
128.3
13.9
2.2
105.0
1.0
0.3
3.1
1.6
–
0.2
127.2
17.3
2.0
105.0
1.0
0.3
3.3
1.6
–
0.1
130.5
24.8%
-8.8%
–2
–2
–2
7.4%
–2
–
-54.4%
2.9%
–
15.4%
–2.3%
35.7%
–3.5%
0.4%
–
–
–
–1%
13.2%
1.5%
80.5%
0.7%
0.2%
2.5%
1.2%
–
0.1%
100%
†Less than 0.05.
.
Thousand
tonnes of rare earth oxide equivalent.
Zero (not leap year adjusted).
1
2
50
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
Sources: includes data from US Geological Survey, British Geological Survey © UKRI and World Mining Data.
Reserves of key materials
Cobalt reserves
Natural graphite reserves
Thousand tonnes
At end of
2017
Share
R/P ratio
1200
250
3500
500
150
17
64
51
280
250
29
270
539
7100
16.9%
3.5%
49.3%
7.0%
2.1%
0.2%
0.9%
0.7%
3.9%
3.5%
0.4%
3.8%
7.6%
100.0%
257
39
39
121
48
7
23
16
66
45
12
102
101
52
Australia
Canada
Democratic Republic of Congo
Cuba
Madagascar
Morocco
New Caledonia
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Russian Federation
South Africa
Zambia
Rest of World
World
Lithium reserves
Thousand tonnes
At end of
2017
Share
R/P ratio
Brazil
Canada
China
India
Madagascar
Mexico
Mozambique
Russian Federation
Sri Lanka
Ukraine
Zimbabwe
Rest of World
World
70000
*
55000
8000
1600
3100
17000
14800
*
*
*
*
270000
25.9%
n/a
20.4%
3.0%
0.6%
1.1%
6.3%
5.5%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
100.0%
972
n/a
71
173
194
808
739
592
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
261
Share
R/P ratio
2.8%
18.3%
36.7%
5.8%
197
11000
419
7218
100
5485
n/a
–
n/a
920
Rare earth metals reserves
Thousand tonnes
Argentina
Australia
Brazil
Chile
China
Portugal
US
Zimbabwe
Rest of World
World
At end of
2017
Share
R/P ratio
2000
2700
48
7500
3200
60
35
23
434
16000
12.5%
16.9%
0.3%
46.9%
20.0%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
2.7%
100.0%
364
144
240
500
1067
150
39
23
–
358
*Reserves included in world total.
◆Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Thousand tonnes
At end of
2017
Australia
Brazil
China
India
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Thailand
US
Rest of World
World
3400
22000
44000
6900
30
18000
*
1400
*
120000
Cobalt prices
◆
15.0%
n/a
1.2%
n/a
100.0%
Source (for all tables): includes data from US Geological Survey.
Lithium carbonate prices
Thousands of US dollars per tonne*
Thousands of US dollars per tonne†
90
14
80
12
70
10
60
50
8
40
6
30
4
20
2
10
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0
*2000-2012 spot grade for cathodes, source US Geological Survey.
2013-2017 minimum purity 99.8%, source London Metal Exchange.
†2000-2008 unit value, data series 140, source US Geological Survey.
2009-2017 FOB South America, source Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
51
Appendices
Approximate conversion factors
Crude oil*
Units
From
To
Tonnes (metric)
Kilolitres
Barrels
US gallons
Barrels per day
tonnes
(metric)
US
gallons
tonnes
per year
kilolitres
barrels
Multiply by
1
0.8581
0.1364
0.00325
–
1.165
1
0.159
0.0038
–
7.33
6.2898
1
0.0238
–
307.86
264.17
42
1
–
–
–
–
–
49.8
tonnes
kilolitres
to barrels
to tonnes
Multiply by
tonnes
to kilolitres
*Based on worldwide average gravity.
Products
To convert
barrels
to tonnes
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Gasoline
Kerosene
Gas oil/diesel
Residual fuel oil
Product basket
0.086
0.120
0.127
0.134
0.157
0.125
11.60
8.35
7.88
7.46
6.35
7.98
0.542
0.753
0.798
0.843
0.991
0.788
1.844
1.328
1.253
1.186
1.010
1.269
Natural gas (NG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG)
From
To
billion cubic
metres NG
1 billion cubic metres NG
1 billion cubic feet NG
1 million tonnes oil equivalent
1 million tonnes LNG
1 trillion British thermal units
1 million barrels oil equivalent
billion cubic million tonnes million tonnes
feet NG oil equivalent
LNG
Multiply by
1.000
0.028
1.163
1.360
0.029
0.170
35.315
1.000
41.071
48.028
1.035
6.003
0.860
0.024
1.000
1.169
0.025
0.146
0.735
0.021
0.855
1.000
0.022
0.125
trillion British million barrels
thermal units oil equivalent
34.121
0.966
39.683
46.405
1.000
5.800
5.883
0.167
6.842
8.001
0.172
1.000
Definitions
Statistics published in this review are taken from
government sources and published data. No use
is made of confidential information obtained by
BP in the course of its business.
Country, regions and geographic
groupings
Country and geographic groupings are
made purely for statistical purposes and are not
intended to imply any judgement about political
or economic standings.
North America
US (excluding US territories), Canada, Mexico.
South & Central America
Caribbean (including Puerto Rico and US Virgin
Islands), Bermuda, Central and South America.
Europe
European members of the OECD plus Albania,
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Georgia, Gibraltar, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta,
Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.
Middle East
Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan,
Lebanon, Syria.
North Africa
Territories on the north coast of Africa from Egypt
to Western Sahara.
52
West Africa
Territories on the west coast of Africa from Mauritania
to Angola, including Cape Verde, Chad.
East and Southern Africa
Territories on the east coast of Africa from Sudan to
Republic of South Africa. Also Botswana, Madagascar,
Malawi, Namibia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Asia Pacific
Brunei, Cambodia, China†, China Hong Kong SAR*,
China Macau SAR*, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia,
Mongolia, North Korea, Philippines, Singapore, South
Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar,
Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), South Korea, Taiwan,
Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, Papua
New Guinea, Oceania.
†Mainland China.
*Special Administrative Region.
Australasia
Australia, New Zealand.
OECD members
Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK.
Other member countries: Australia, Canada, Chile,
Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, South Korea, US.
OPEC members
Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
United Arab Emirates.
North Africa: Algeria, Libya.
West Africa: Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria.
South America: Ecuador, Venezuela.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
1 metric tonne = 2204.62lb
= 1.1023 short tons
1 kilolitre = 6.2898 barrels
= 1 cubic metre
1 kilocalorie (kcal)= 4.1868kJ
= 3.968Btu
1 kilojoule (kJ) = 0.239kcal
= 0.948Btu
1 British thermal
= 0.252kcal
unit (Btu) = 1.055kJ
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 860kcal
= 3600kJ
= 3412Btu
Calorific equivalents
One tonne of oil equivalent equals approximately:
Heat units10 million kilocalories
42 gigajoules
40 million British
thermal units
Solid fuels
1.5 tonnes of hard coal
3 tonnes of lignite and
sub-bituminous coal
Gaseous fuelsSee Natural gas and
liquefied natural gas table
Electricity
12 megawatt-hours
One million tonnes of oil or oil equivalent produces
about 4400 gigawatt-hours (= 4.4 terawatt-hours)
of electricity in a modern power station.
1 barrel of ethanol = 0.58 barrels of oil equivalent 1 barrel of biodiesel = 0.86 barrels of oil equivalent
1 tonne of ethanol = 0.68 tonnes of oil equivalent
1 tonne of biodiesel = 0.88 tonnes of oil equivalent
European Union members
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, UK.
Non-OECD
All countries that are not members of the OECD.
Methodology
Primary energy consumption is reported in net terms.
The gross calorific value to net calorific value
adjustment is fuel-specific.
The primary energy values of nuclear and
hydroelectric power generation, as well as electricity
from renewable sources, have been derived by
calculating the equivalent amount of fossil fuel
required to generate the same volume of electricity
in a thermal power station, assuming a conversion
efficiency of 38% (the average for OECD thermal
power generation).
Fuels used as inputs for conversion technologies
(gas‑to-liquids, coal-to-liquids and coal-to-gas) are
counted as production for the source fuel and the
outputs are counted as consumption for the
converted fuel.
Percentages
Calculated before rounding of actuals.
Rounding differences
Because of rounding, some totals may not agree
exactly with the sum of their component parts.
Tonnes
Metric equivalent of tons.
More information
Quoting from the review
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attribute the source to BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018.
However, where extensive reproduction of tables and/or charts is planned,
permission must first be obtained from:
The Editor
BP Statistical Review of World Energy
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1 St James’s Square
London SW1Y 4PD
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[email protected]
The redistribution or reproduction of data whose source is S&P Global Platts
is strictly prohibited without prior authorization from S&P Global Platts.
BP disclaims any obligation to update this Review: Neither BP p.l.c. nor
any of its subsidiaries (nor their respective officers, employees and agents)
accept liability for any inaccuracies or omissions or for any direct, indirect,
special, consequential or other losses or damages of whatsoever kind in
connection to this Review or any information contained in it.
Acknowledgements
Data compilation: Centre for
Energy Economics Research and
Policy, Heriot-Watt University,
ceerp.hw.ac.uk
Design and typesetting:
Whitehouse Associates, London
SALTERBAXTER MSLGROUP
Printing: Pureprint Group Limited,
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BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018
53
Energy Outlook
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