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 Robert Strong P.E.
Critical Facilities Technology
Li-ion Battery Technology vs. VRLA
10X
4X
60%
Expected Life
# of Cycles
Only
2X
Less Footprint
AND
Initial CAPEX
70%
Less Weight
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 2
50%
TCO Savings
over 12 years
What can be improved from the
current VRLA battery solution?
Large data centers -and
other critical sites- are
striving to improve their
competitiveness
…improvements in
backup storage
technology are a key
enabler
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 3
Food and Beverage
Reduce footprint
Improve battery lifetime/reduce
maintenance
Improve backup storage
predictability and manageability
Reduce cooling constraints
Reduce weight
Reduce TCO
Collaboration History between Samsung and Schneider
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 4
Customer needs/pain points of lead-acid batteries (esp. large
data centers & semiconductor fabs)
Example: « need 2min » 600KW
VRLA
(EMEA)
(5 min)
Li-ion
(7 min)
• Footprint (m2)
4.3
• Life time (year)
Flywheel
(20s) (2min)
Ultracaps
(20s) (2min)
1.6
2.3
8.1
1.8
9.0
5
12
15
15
15
15
• Operating temp. (°C)
20-25 °C
0-35 °C
-20-40 °C
-20-40 °C
-40-40 °C
-40-40 °C
• Reliability/predictability
Medium
High
High
High
High
High
• Maintenance
Medium
Low
Medium
Medium
Low
Low
10,500
1,920
3,400
11,900
3,000
15,000
• High # of cycles (>3,000)
500
>5,000
>30,000
>30,000
>100,000
>100,000
• Fast recharge time
Low
Medium
High
High
High
High
• Extremely high # of cycles (>50,000)
500
>5,000
>30,000
>30,000
>100,000
>100,000
1X
1.9X
8.5X
29.6X
6.7X
33.4X
1X
0.75X
3.1X
10.0X
2.2X
11.0X
Customer Needs:
Frequent
& Important
• Weight (kg)
Rare
Possible
● CAPEX ($)
● TCO (10-year) ($) (**)
Key Difference between Li-ion Battery Technologies
Cell phone
Industrial (ours)
LCO
LMO/NMC
Pouch cell
Prismatic cells (sealed aluminum can)
1
Over 100 (104 or 136) per cabinet
BMS system
Very simple
Three layers of sophisticated BMS system
(module, rack, system level)
R&D Period
3-6 months
2-3 years
High energy density
Safety (considering car accidents)
Industry average
Long time leader
Chemistry
Form factor
Number of battery
Design Priority
Experience
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 6
Safety – Cell Design
Guaranteed cell-level safety : Physical protection mechanism
Fuse
Internal fuse to prevent
external short circuit / overcharge
(Non-arching at high potential)
Vent
Vent at internal pressure
of 0.85±0.1Pa
OSD (Overcharge Safety Device)
Cut-off current and prevent
arc at overpotential
Anode Design
Safety Functional Layer
to prevent Electrical Short
Separator Design
Retainer
Multi-layered Separator
Prevent Internal Short on Crush
※ Cathode Material : LMO/NCM based
- Thermally Stable Materials
Same Battery as BMW i8 & i3
Solution Overview
Schneider Electric UPS & LIB
BatterySDI
Racks
Samsung
LIB
Galaxy VX
Galaxy 7000 and Symmetra MW
Galaxy VM
Lithium-ion battery racks
H1
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 9
H2
2016
Ambient Temperature vs. Calendar Life
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 10
Major UPS Projects with Samsung
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 11
System Component Specs.
Cell
Module
Rack
System
Component
Type G
Type S
Configuration
1S1P
8S1P
136S1P
104S1P
Dimension (mm)
125.7x173.9x45.6
414x216x163
650Wx600Dx2055H
650Wx600Dx2055H
Weight (kg)
1.88 kg
17 kg
550 kg
480 kg
Nominal Voltage (V)
3.8V
30.4V
517V
395V
408V – 571V
312V – 437V
Nominal Current (A)
Operating Range (V)
460 A
2.7V – 4.2V
24.0V – 33.6V
Capacity (Ah)
67 Ah
Capacity (kWh)
0.254 kWh
2.04 kWh
34.6 kWh
26.5kWh
Nominal Power (kW)
1.7 kW
13.6 kW
231 kW
177 kW
Schneider Electric’s LIB Solution
A modular solution accomodating a wider range of needs
LIB Requirements
for UPS application
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Top safety technology
High energy and power density:
35kWh and up to 230kW per rack
Backup time from 5/6min to
30+min
15-years design life
Competitive CapEx (~2X VRLA)
Breakthrough TCO (-10-40%)
Partnership with leading li-ion
manufacturer
Switch Gear &
Rack BMS
SMPS &
System BMS
From 1-32 racks
depending on power
and backup time
13 or 17
per rack
Cell
1 Gateway (System BMS)
per system
(1U, fit in one of the LIB racks)
Module
(8 cells)
LIB Rack
(W600xD650xH2100mm)
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 13
Actual 750kW Application in Colorado
• VRLA Batteries:
• H:=77.00in. W:=160.00in. D:=34.00in.
Weight:=20,800.00Lbs.
• TPPL Batteries:
• H:=82.00in. W:=135.00in. D:=30.00in.
Weight:=16,080.00Lbs.
• Lithium Ion Batteries:
• H:=80.90in. W:=76.80in. D:=23.60in.
Weight:=3638.00Lbs.
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 14
BMS (Battery Management System)
Main Function : Measure, Calculation, Control, Communication
Function
System BMS
Rack BMS
Module BMS
Rack Voltage / Current
-
○
-
Cell Voltage / Temp
-
-
○
SOC Estimation
-
○
-
SOH Estimation
-
○
-
Switching Control
-
○
-
Cell Balancing
-
○
○
UART
-
○
○
CAN
-
○
-
RS-485 or MODbus-TCP/IP
○
-
-
Dry Contact
○
-
-
Measurement
Calculation
Control
Communication
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 15
BMS Software
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 16
BMS Software Cont.
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 17
Multi-Layer Protection for Li-Ion
#
Protection
Level
Description
1 System Level
System BMS (SOC, SOH)
2 Rack Level
MCCB with UVR
3 Module Level
4 Cell Level
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 18
Li-Ion
VRLA
X
Fuse
X
Rack Level BMS (Vol/Current/temp)
X
(134 Voltage/51 Temp Points
/Rack Current Monitoring)
X
Module BMS (Voltage/Temp)
X
(8 Voltage/3 Temp Points
Monitoring)
X
Fuse, OSD, Multilayer Separator,
Vent, Safety Functional Layer
X
Safety – Rack Design
Guaranteed rack-level safety : MCCB & Fuses
Main Fuse
MCCB
Module Fuse
Switch Gear
Rack
Safety – Mechanism
Maximized Safety
Potential safety risks in UPS batteries : Over-potential / Short-circuit
Risk of Over-Potential
Risk of Short-Circuit
- Main cause : Abnormal battery charger operation
- Main cause : Decrepit equipment/cable, human fault
- Protection : Disconnect battery → Cell protection
- Protection : Disconnect battery → Fuse → Cell protection
1st level protection
- Current path
disconnection by BMS
Lithium-Ion
Battery System
VRLA
Battery System
2nd level protection
-Passive protection
3rd level protection
-Cell protection
MCCB
Fuse
(Main → module fuse)
Overpotential : OSD
Overcurrent : Cell-fuse
(And safety devices)
MCCB
N/A
N/A
Basics of Batteries – Charge and Discharge Mechanism
Confidential Property of Schneider Electric | Page 21
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